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WiNSLOW  PflPERS 


A,  D,  1776-1826, 


PRINTED  UNDER  THE  AUSPICES 
OF  THE 

NEW    BRUNSWICK 

HISTORICAL  SOCIETY. 

EDITED    BY 

REV.  W.  O.  RAYMOND,  M.  A. 


ST.  JOHN,  N.  B. : 

THE  SUN  PRINTING  COMPANY    LTD. 

1901. 


—  OF  THE  — 

New  Brunswick 
historical    Society. 

(ELECTED  NOVEMBER  25,  1900.) 


PRESIDENT: 

P.  R.  INCHES,  M.  D. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS  : 

REV.  W.  C.  GAYNOR.  JONAS  HOWE, 


SECRETARY: 

CLARENCE  WARD. 


CORRESPONDING    SECRETARY: 

D.  R.  JACK. 


TREASURER : 
H.    H.    PlCKETT. 


LIBRARIAN. 

GEORGE  HENDERSON. 


MEMBERS  OF  COUNCIL  : 

S.  D    SCOTT,  W,  P.  DOLE, 

REV.  W.  O.  RAYMOND,         LT  -CoL  WM    CUNARD, 
GEORGE  U.  HAY. 


PREFACE. 


This  book  will  be  found  to  contain  the  largest  and  most  important 
collection  of  public  and  private  papers  relative  to  the  early  history  of  the 
maritime  provinces  that  has  hitherto  been  published.  No  private  col- 
lection of  papers  in  Canada,  with  perhaps  the  single  exception  of  the 
Chipman  papers,  can  compare  with  the  Winslow  collection  as  regards  the 
length  of  the  period  that  it  covers,  the  number  of  writers  represented,  and 
the  variety  of  subjects  with  which  it  deals. 

Some  years  ago  the  editor  learned  of  the  existence  of  the  collection 
and  was  invited  by  Mr.  Francis  E.  Winslow  of  Chatham,  in  whose  keeping 
the  greater  part  of  the  papers  were,  to  examine  them  with  a  view  to  their 
preservation  in  some  permanent  form.  The  importance  of  such  a  step 
became  apparent  upon  the  most  cursory  inspection.  The  editor  indeed 
found  himself  well  nigh  overwhelmed  with  the  extent  and  variety  of  the 
materials  available  for  historical  purposes  and  the  greater  part  of  his 
leisure  time  during  the  last  two  years  has  been  devoted  to  the  task  of 
digesting  and  arranging  them  for  publication.  Large  as  the  volume  is,  as 
now  printed,  it  does  not  begin  to  represent  the  mass  of  materials  of  varying 
degrees  of  interest  and  importance  to  be  found  in  the  original  collection. 

In  addition  to  the  papers  in  possession  of  Mr.  Francis  E.  Winslow 
there  have  been  added  a  considerable  number  of  letters  and  documents 
kindly  loaned  by  other  members  of  the  Winslow  family,  and  the  editor's 
obligations  are  especially  due  to  Mr.  Edward  Pelham  Winslow  of  Stratford, 
Ont.,  and  Miss  Mary  Winslow,  of  Woodstock,  N.  B.  Several  letters  written 
by  Edward  Winslow  and  a  few  other  documents  of  interest  have  been 
added,  of  which  the  originals  are  to  be  found  among  the  Chipman  papers. 

In  the  arrangement  of  the  papers  as  now  printed  the  chronological 
order  has  been  adhered  to  as  far  as  possible.  A  copious  index  has  been 
prepared  which  will  be  found  to  add  very  greatly  to  the  value  of  the  book 
for  purposes  of  reference. 

Some  idea  of  the  variety  of  topics  with  which  the  volume  deals  may 
be  gathered  from  the  fact  that  it  contains  about  six  hundred  and  fifty 
letters  and  documents  written  by  about  one  hundred  and  seventy  different 
persons  and  covering  a  period  of  nearly  fifty  years.  The  editor's  task  has 
been  chiefly  one  of  selection  and  arrangement  with  the  addition  of  such 
foot  notes  as  will  enable  anyone  to  read  the  pages  of  the  book  intelligently 
even  though  not  conversant  with  the  subject  in  hand. 


PREFACE. 

More  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  of  Edward  Winslow's  letters  are 
printed,  the  originals  of  which  are,  in  most  instances,  rough  drafts,  doubt- 
less often  improved  in  the  final  letter.  The  versatility  of  Winslow's  pen  is 
really  extraordinary,  and  posterity  will  confirm  the  judgment  of  his  con- 
temporaries that,  as  a  letter  writer,  among  his  many  correspondents  he 
knew  no  peer. 

The  character  of  Edward  Winslow  as  depicted  in  the  pages  of  this  book 
is  worthy  of  admiration.  He  was  a  splendid  specimen  of  the  Tory  of  olden 
time,  loyal  to  his  king  and  country,  strong  in  his  adherence  to  the  prin- 
ciples in  which  he  believed,  true  in  his  friendships  and  his  resentments 
not  lasting,  a  good  son  and  tenderly  devoted  to  the  happiness  of  his 
family.  His  energy  and  activity  in  public  affairs  was  limited  only  by  the 
opportunities  of  service  afforded  him  and  by  the  condition  of  his  health. 
A  generous  and  sympathetic  nature  rendered  him  always  alive  to  the 
necessities  of  the  unfortunate.  To  this  characteristic  of  his  nature  the 
words  of  his  life  long  friend  Sir  John  Wentworth  attest  when  he  observes 
in  a  letter  to  Judge  Chipman,  shortly  after  Judge  Winslow's  decease,  that 
his  late  friend's  usefulness  to  others  had  occupied  those  exertions  which 
his  family  had  reason  to  lament  had  not  been  more  directly  applied  to  his 
own  advantage. 

Edward  Winslow  will  be  found  to  be  his  own  best  biographer.  His 
virtues  and  his  failings  are  alike  truthfully  portrayed  in  his  writings;  to 
the  reader  of  this  book  is  entrusted  the  formation  of  a  just  opinion  of  his 
character.  He  enjoyed  the  friendship  and  esteem  of  some  of  the  foro- 
most  men  of  his  generation,  many  of  whose  letters  will  be  found  in  the 
pages  that  follow. 

The  publication  of  the  Winslow  papers  is  rendered  practicable  by  the 
generous  aid  of  Mr.  Francis  E.  Winslow.  The  volume  appears,  as  is  very 
proper,  with  the  imprimatur  of  the  New  Brunswick  Historical  Society, 
which  has  also  contributed  towards  its  publication.  The  editor's  task 
has  been  a  labor  of  love  in  which  he  has  been  greatly  cheered  by  the 
interest  manifested  in  the  book  in  advance  by  many  whose  opinion  he 
greatly  values. 

The  "Winslow"  Papers"  will  be  found  to  shed  much  li^ht  upon  the 
attitude  of  the  Loyalists  in  the  American  Revolution  and  the  circumstances 
that  attended  their  settlement  in  the  maritime  provinces  at  the  close  of 
the  war.  The  book  will  also  be  found  to  be  a  veritable  mine  of  informa- 
tion with  regard  to  the  circumstances  under  which  the  Province  of  New 
Brunswick  sprang  into  existence.  The  leading  incidents  of  our  early  pro- 
vincial history,  social  and  political,  are  clearly  portrayed,  and  much  light 
thrown  upon  the  somewhat  obscure  period  dating  from  the  beginning  of 
the  past  century  down  to  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812. 


PREFACE. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  book  is  intended  as  a  memorial  of  the  life 
and  work  of  Judge  Edward  Winslow,  as  well  as  a  repository  of  historic 
facts,  no  apology  is  needed  for  the  insertion  of  much  that  is  of  a  personal 
character.  The  letters  to  his  own  family  and  the  pathetic  story  of  his 
death  will  not  to  the  general  reader  be  the  least  interesting  portion  of  the 
volume.  The  responsibility  for  all  that  has  been  published  rests  solely 
with  the  editor  who  has  done  his  work  to  the  best  of  his  ability  amidst 
the  many  interruptions  and  distractions  incident  to  a  busy  life. 

The  editor  has  to  express  his  obligation  to  various  members  of  the 
Winslow  family  for  their  confidence  in  entrusting  to  his  judgment  the 
selection  of  all  that  is  printed  in  this  volume.  Cordial  thanks  are  also 
tendered  to  Sir  John  Bourinot,  Dr.  W.  F.  Ganong,  and  Mr.  S.  D.  Scott,  for 
timely  suggestions;  to  Jonas  Howe,  Ward  Chipman  Hazen,  Joseph  Ewing 
and  Harry  Piers,  for  use  of  letters  and  assistance  in  procuring  illustrations; 
and  to  many  others  for  their  friendly  interest  displayed  in  a  great  variety 
of  ways. 

WILLIAM  0.  RAYMOND. 
St.  John,  N.  B.,  July  9,  1901. 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Page. 

1.  Old  Winslow  House  at  Plymouth,     ..     _...,    ... 7 

2.  Winslow  House  at  Woodstock,  N.  B.;  group  of  Judge  Winslow's 

descendants,       11 

3.  Old   Fort  Howe, 99 

4.  View  of  Halifax  in  1783, 150 

5.  Old  Chipman  House  at  St.  John,       278 

6.  Old  and  New  Parliament  Buildings  at  Fredericton,       . .      . .  354 

7.  Sir  John  Wentworth,  Bart.,  Lieut.  Gov'r  of  Nova  Scotia,     . .  399 
la  ViewofCampobello  in  1777 4S2 

8.  Church  at  Natley  Scures,  Hants,  England,  where  Lieut.  Gov'r. 

Carleton  is  buried,          541 

9.  Lord  Sheffield,       588 

10.  Hon.  Sampson  Salter  Blowers,  Chief  Justice  of  Nova  Scotia,   .  .  614 

11.  The  Prince's  Lodge,      632 

12.  John  Francis  Wentworth  Winslow, 646 

13.  Hon.  Ward  Chipman,  Chief  Justice  of  New  Brunswick,   . .      . .  656 

14.  Old  view  of  Fredericton 670 

15.  Edward  Winslow,  Jr., ........      ..      705 

16.  Fac  simile  of  Autographs, 713 


INTRODUCTORY. 


The  late  Judge  Window  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  New  Brunswick 
J  was  a  lineal  descendant  of  Edward  Winslow,  the  Mayflower  pilgrim  and 
nrst  Governor  of  Plymouth  Colony.  His  ancestry  may  be  traced  back  to 
Kenelm  Winslow  of  Kempsey,  County  of  Worcester,  England,  who  died 
in  1607.  To  Kenelm  Winslow  was  born  by  his  wife  Catharine,  in  1560, 
a  son  Edward.  This  Edward  Winslow  (the  first  of  the  name  so  far  as  we 
know)  was  the  progenitor  of  a  long  list  of  namesakes.  He  lived  at  Drort- 
wich,  England.  He  was  twice  married,  and  the  oldest  son  by  his  second 
wife,  whose  maiden  name  was  Magdaltne  Ollyver,  was  Edward,  the  May- 
flower pilgrim.  From  him,  as  the  first  of  the  name  in  America,  the  Wins- 
lows  of  New  Brunswick  trace  their  descent  as  follows: 

1.  Edward — son  of  Edward  and  Magdalene  Winslow,  born  1595,  died  in 

1654,  ageld  59  years.  By  his  second  wife,  Susannah  White  (widow 
of  William  White)  he  had  two  children,  Josiah  and  Elizabeth. 

2.  Josiah — son  of  Edward  and  Susannah  Winslow,  born  1628,  died  in 

1680,  aged  52  years.     Married  1657  Penelope  Pelham. 

3.  Isaac — son  of  Josiah  and  Penelope  Winslow,  born  1670,  died  in  1738, 

aged  68  years.     Married  Sarah  Wensley. 

4.  Edward — son  of  Isaac  and  Sarah  Winslow,  of  Marshfielfl,  born  1713, 

died  at  Halifax  June  9,  1784,  aged  71  years.  Married  Hannah 
(Howland)  Dyer. 

5.  Edward — son  of  Edward  and  Hannah  Winslow,  born  February  20, 

174:6;  died  May  13,  1815,  aged  69  years.  By  his  wife  Mary  he  had 
a  numerous  family,  including  Daniel  Murray,  Mary,  Thomas  Aston 
Coffin,  Penelope,  E/dward,  Hannah,  Sarah  Ann,  Christiana  Ban- 
nister, John  Francis  Went  worth,  Eliza  Chipman,  Catherine. 

6.  John  Francis  Wentworth — son  of  Judge  Edward  and  Mary  Winslow, 

born  at  Kingsclear,  New  Brunswick,  in  1793,  died  at  Woodstock, 
N.  B.,  October  14,  1859,  aged  66  years.  He  married  Sept.  25, 
1823,  Jane  Caroline,  youngest  daughter  of  Andrew  Rainsford, 
Esq.,  Eeceiver  General.  Their  children  were  Francis  Edward, 
John  Coffin,  Mary,  Edward,  Elizabeth  Rainsford,  Wentworth, 
Thomas  Braldshaw  and  Edward  Byron. 

A  few  words  with  reference  to  these  several  generations  will  not  be 
amiss. 


6  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  I  Introductory. 

(1)  Edward  Winslow  of  Mayflower  fame,  the  first  ancestor  in  Am- 
erica, joined  the  Pilgrims  at  Leyden,  Holland,  where  in  1618  he  married 
Elizabeth  Barker.  Not  long  afterwards  he  and  his  young  wife  left  the 
comforts  of  a  luxurious  home  to  encounter  the  perils  of  an  ocean  voyage 
in  a  frail  little  ship.  It  was  on  the  22nd  of  December,  1620,  the  May- 
flower arrived  at  Plymouth,  asd  the  little  Pilgrim  Colony  began  life  anew 
in  a  wilderness  whose  solitudes  were  broken  only  by  the  cries  of  the  wild 
beasts,  or  perhaps  the  still  more  fearful  war  whoop  of  the  savage.  The 
poor  young  wife  died  a  few  months  after  she  came  to  America.  Edwaitl 
Winslow,  as  already  stated,  was  the  first  Governor  of  Plymouth  Colony 
and  no  individual  contributed  more  to  its  establishment  and  success  than 
he.  He  combined  great  energy  with  an  extensive  knowledge  of  men  and 
affairs.  He  was  sent  to  England  four  times  as  agent  of  the  Colonies.  He 
died  in  1654  at  sea,  on  his  retv,rn  from  the  West  Indies,  where  he  had 
been  sent  by  Oliver  Cromwell  as  a  commissioner  to  superintend  an  expedi- 
tion to  the  Spanish  West  Indies. 

For  further  information  respecting  Governor  Edward  Winslow  and 
his  immediate  descendants,  the  reader  is  referred  to  W.  T.  Davis'  "Ancient 
Landmarks  of  Plymouth."  See  also  Wm.  S.  Kussell's  "Guide  to  Ply- 
mouth/' pp.  238-240. 

(2)  Governor  Winslow's  son  Josiah,  like  his  father,  filled  the  office 
of  Governor  of  the  Plymouth  Colony,  and  was  a  man  of  much  influence* 
and  ability. 

(3)  Hon.  Isaac  Winslow,  of  Marshfield,  filled  various  positions  of 
public  trust.     He  had  several  children,  whose  names  are  of  special  interest 
to  the  people  of  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia;  among  them  were  John, 
Elizabeth  and  Edward.     The  eldest  of  these,  General  John  Winslow,  is 
well  known  for  the  part  he  was  called  upon  to  play  in  the  Expulsion  of  the 
Acadians.     The  journal  of  his  doings  in  that  connection  will  be  found  in 
the  Collections  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Historical  Society,  Vol.  III.,  pp.  71- 
196.     Gen.  John  Winslow's  son  Pelham  was  a  Loyalist,  and  at  the  evacu- 
ation of  Boston  in  1776  came  with  the  army  to  Halifax;  he  married 
Joanna,  daughter  of  Gideon  White.     Elizabeth  Winslow,  sister  of  General 
John  Winslow,  married  Colonel  Benjamin  Marston,  and  their  son  Benja- 
min was  an  active  Loyalist,  who  at  the  peace  in  1783  was  employed  as 
Chief  Engineer  in  laying  out  the  Town  of  Shelburne,  and  afterwards  was 
the  first  Sheriff  of  Northumberland  County. 

(4)  Edward  Winslow,  brother  of  General   John  Winslow,  was   an 
accomplished  scholar  and  gentleman  of  fine  presence  and  engaging  man- 
ners.    He  was  a  generous  host,  and  his  mansion  was  often  filled  with  a 

-distinguished  company,  the  aristocracy  of  the  Old  Colony.     The  old  Wins- 
low  Mansion  is  still  standing  on  North  Street,  Plymouth,  within  a  stone's 


3kJ, 


. 


Introductory.-}  WINSLOW  PAPERS. 

throw  of  Plymouth  Rock;  the  following  description  is  condensed  from  the 
Boston  Herald  of  March  24,  1889. 

The  house  i»  a  large  square  one  with  fluted  Corinthian  corners  and 
an  air  of  old  English  solidity,  which  at  once  marks  it  as  a  residence  of 
some  former  leader  of  the  Colony.  It  was  built  about  the  year  1754  by 
Edward  Winslow,  a  great  grandson  of  Governor  Winslow,  who  purchased 
the  land  from  Consider  Howknd  (a  grandson  of  John  Howland,  one  of 
the  Mayflower  Pilgrims)  and  is  still  commonly  called  "the  Winslow  house. ' 
The  lofty  lindens  by  the  front  door  were  planted  in  1760  by  the  fair  hands 
of  Edward  Winslow^s  daughter.  A  big  hall- way  runs  from  front  to  back 
of  the  house  and  on  either  side  are  lofty  square  rooms.  Up  stairs,  in  the 
front,  the  rooms  are  very  high,  with  high  wainscoating,  deep  recessed 
window  seats  and  queer  old-fa&hioned  mouldings  around  the  ceilings.  At 
the  front-**- the  house  is  divided  into  two 'stories,  while  the  re'ar  contains 
three.  The  house  was  confiscated  and  sold- after  the  Winslowsr  abandoned 
it  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution. 

Edward  Winslow  was  a. man  of  note  in  the  community.  -From  1757 
to  1762  he  was  one  of  a  Board  of  .select-men,  and- in  176,0  .was  /Treasurer 
of  the  colony.  In  conjunction  :with  his  son,  Edward  Winslo,w,  Jr->  ne 
held  the  offices  of 'Collector  of  the  port,  Registrar  of  Probate;  and  Clerk 
of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas.  Deprived'  of -his  offices  in.,  1775,  he  so- 
licited permission  to  remove  to  New,  York,  and'in  1781  joined  the  British 
garrison  in  that  City,  the  Commander-in-Chief, 'Sir  ,-Henry  Clinton,  allow- 
ing him  a  pension  of  £200  per  annum,  with  rations  and  fuel.:  On  August 
30,  1783,  he  .embarked  at  New  York,  with  his  family  and  servants,  and 
on  September  14th  arrived  at  Halifax,  where  he  '.died  •;  a  few,  months  later 
at  the  age  of.  72  years.  He  was  accorded  a  public- funeral,  the  pall  bearers 
being  Governor  Went  worth,  Lieut.-  Governor  ^Fanning, ,  Hon.  Arthur 
Gcold,  Brigadier  General  John  Small,  Hon.  Foster  Hutchinson  and  Henry 
Lloyd,  Esqi  The  funeral  was  attended .  by  Governor  .Pan',  the  General 
commanding  the  Forces,  and  many  prominent  officials,  including  the 
Executive  Council  of  Nova  Scotia. 

The  tomb  of.  Edward  Winslow  wilLbe  -found  in  the  .upper ;  right  hand 
corner  of, old  St.  Paul's  grave-yard,  opposite  Government  House,  in  Hali- 
fax.    The  stone  is  a  flat  slab,  gray  in  color,  with  the  following  inscription': 
"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Edward  Winslow,  Esquire,  who  died 
the  9th  of  June,  1784,  in  the  72nd  year  of  his  age.     Descended 
from  a  race  of  ancestors,  Governors  of  the  ancieixt  Colony  of  Ply- 
mouth, he  in  no  one  instance  degenerated  from  their  loyalty  or 
virtue,  but  while  he  filled  the  first  offices,  became  as  conspicuous 
by  public  integrity  as  he  was  amiable  in  the  milder  shades  of 
private  life.     Although  his  fortunes  suffered  shipwreck  in  the 


g  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [Introductory. 

storm  of  Civil  War,  and  he  forsook  liis  native  country  from  an 

attachment  to  his  sovereign,  neither  his  cheerful  manners  nor  the 

calm  reward  of  conscious  rectitude  forsook  him  in  old  age.     He 

died  as  he  lived,  beloved  by  his  friends  and  respected  by  his 

enemies." 

The  widow  of  the  elder  Edward  Wmslow  survived  her  husband,  for 

twelve  years.     She  died  and  is  buried  at  Frederic-ton,  and  the  following 

is  the  epitaph  on  her  tombstone: 

"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Hannah  Winslow,  widow  of  Edward 
Winslow,  Esq.,  formerly  of  Plymouth,  in  the  Province  of  Massa- 
chusetts Bay,  who  died  on  the  23rd  day  of  May,  1795,  whose 
unaffected  piety,  peculiar  dignity  of  manners,  serenity  of  temper 
and  benevolence  of  heart  rendered  her  justly  and  universally  re- 
spected to  her  latest  hour.  This  tribute  is  erected  by  her  chil- 
dren." 

_x"  (5.)  Edward  Winslow,  son  of  the  above,  afterwards  Judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  New  Brunswick,  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  1765. 
He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Old  Colony  Club,  and  his  address  in 
1770  was  the  first  ever  delivered  at  an  anniversary  of  the  Landing  of  the 
Pilgrims,  fie  was  his  father's  assistant  in  the  various  offices  which  the 
latter  held,  and  was  also  Naval  Officer  of  the  port.  At  the  breaking  out 
of  the  Eevolution  he  was  loyal  to  the  crown.  When  Lord  Percy  led  the 
expedition  to  relieve  Major  Pitcairn  at  Lexington  on  April  19th,  1775, 
young  Winslow  was  his  guide.  He  received  from  General  Gage  the  ap- 
pointment of  Collector  of  the  Port  of  Boston  and  Eegistrar  of  Probate  for 
Suffolk  County.  On  the  evacuation  he  went  to  Halifax,  carrying  with 
him  all  the  Eecords,  and  also  the  Eoyal  Coat  of  Arms  from  the  Council 
Chamber.  The  Eecords  were  returned  in  good  order  after  the  peace,  but 
the  Coat  of  Arms  remained  and  now  hangs  on  the  walls  of  Trinity  Church, 
St.  John. 

Sir  William  Howe  appointed  him  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Officers, 
of  which  Lord  Percy  was  President,  for  the  distribution  of  donations  to 
the  troops,  sent  out  from  England  by  private  munificence.  Eeturning  to 
New  York  he  was  appointed  Muster-Master-General  of  the  Loyalist  forces 
with  the  rank  of  Lieutenant  Colonel. 

"Head  Quarters,  New  York,  30th  July,  1776. 

"EdwaUd  Winslow,  Esq.,  to  be  Muster-Master-General  to  the  Pro- 
"vincial  Troops  taken  into  His  Majesty's  pay  within  the  Colonies  lying  in 
"  the  Atlantic  Ocean  from  Nova  Scotia  to  West  Florida  inclusive. 

(Signed)  "Stephen  Kemble,  Deputy  Adjutant  Gen." 


Introductory.]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  9 

He  was  actively  engaged  throughout  the  war  and  had  deputy  muster- 
masters  at  various  centres  such  as  Halifax,  Ehode  Island,  New  York, 
Philadelphia,  and  in  Florida  and  the  Carolinas.  In  1779  he  commanded 
the  Associated  Eef ugees  at  Khode  Island  and  served  in  two  campaigns. 
At  the  close  of  the  war  he  was  sent  to  Nova  Scotia  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  to 
make  arrangements  for  the  disbanding  and  settlement  of  the  Loyalist 
Eegiments.  He  was  at  this  time  appointed  Military  Secretary  to  the 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Forces  in  Nova  Scotia.  He  was  largely  in- 
strumental in  promoting  the  division  of  the  old  Province  of  Nova  Scotia, 
and  had  General  Fox  accepted  the  post  offered  him  of  Governor  of  New 
Brunswick,  Edward  Winslow  would  have  been  our  first  Provincial  Secre- 
tary. He  was  appointed  a  member  of  His  Majesty's  Council  for  the  Pro- 
vince. He  held  in  addition  the  offices  of  Surrogate,  an'd  Surveyor  of  the 
King's  Woods  for  New  Brunswick  under  Sir  John  Wentworth  and  was 
the  presiding  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  the  County  of 
York. 

It  was  not,  however,  until  he  was  appointed  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme 
Court  in  1807  that  he  received  the  reward  justly  his  due  for  long  con- 
tinued and  disinterested  public  services.  The  following  year  he  was,  for 
a  short  time,  Administrator  of  the  Government  as  Senior  member  of  the 
Executive  Council.  He  died  at.  his  residence  "King's  Wood"  on  May 
13,  1815. 

A  beautiful  double  light  Memorial  Window  has  been  lately  placed  in 
St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Chatham,  N.  B.,  which  bears  the  following  inscription: 

"To  the  Glory  of  God  and  in  Memory  of  the  Honorable  Ed- 
ward Winslow,  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  one  of  the  Loy- 
alists of  the  Province.  Died  May  13,  A.  D.,  1815,  AE.  69  years, 
He  was  a  descendant  of  Governor  Winslow  of  Plymouth,  Mass. 
— Loyal  to  Church  and  King — Faithful  to  all  duties  of  his  public 
and  private  life — A  good  Son,  an  affectionate  Husband  and 
Father,  and  a  True  Friend.  This  window  was  erected  by  his 
grandson,  F.  E.  Winslow." 

(6)  John  Francis  Wentworth  Winslow  in  his  boyhood  was  a  clever 
lad,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  when  but  nine  or  ten  years  of  age  he 
occasionally  acted  in  the  capacity  of  amanuensis  for  his  father,  whose 
hands  were  not  infrequently  crippled  by  severe  attacks  of  rheumatic  gout. 
Among  the  "Winslow  papers"  of  the  years  1802-3  there  are  some  in  his 
boyish  hand.  When  about  14  years  of  age  he  was  gazetted  an  Ensign  in 
the  Nova  Scotia  Fencibles,  and  shortly  afterwards  joined  the  regiment  at 
Newfoundland.  Finding  that  the  influences  brought  to  bear  upon  him 
in  this  Corps  were  undesirable — many  of  the  officers  being  dissipated — he 


10  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [Introductory. 

was  by  his  father's  influence  transfered  in  1810  to  the  41st  Kegiment  in 
Upper  Canada.  He  served  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  was  with  General 
Brock  at  the  taking  of  Detroit  and  at  the  battle  of  Queenstown  Heights. 
He  displayed  great  coolness  and  courage  at  the  unfortunate  battle  of 
Sackett's  Harbor.  At  the  close  of  the  war  in  1814,  on  the  disbanding  of 
his  regiment  he  was  placed  on  half  pay.  He  returned  to  New  Brunswick 
and  was  with  his  father  in  his  last  illness.  He  married  Sept.  25,  1823, 
Jane  Caroline  Kainsford,  a  lady  who  was  universally  beloved  and  admired 
by  all  who  had  the  privilege  of  knowing  her.  She  survived  her  husband 
many  years  and  died  April  4th,  1891,  at  the  age  of  90  years  and  6  months. 
The  Eainsford  family  were  noted  for  their  longevity.  Mrs  Winslow's 
mother,  whose  maiden  name  was  Elizabeth  Cummings,  was  the  mother 
of  sixteen  children,  several  of  whom  lived  to  a  great  age. 

John  Francis  Wentworth  Winslow  was  a  namesake  of  the  Governor 
of  Nova  Scotia,  in  fact  Sir  John  and  Lady  Wentworth  were  his  God  par- 
ents, and  always  took  the  most  affectionate  interest  in  him.  When  the 
County  of  Carleton  was  organized  in  1832,  Mr.  Winslow  was  appointed 
High  Sheriff,  the  tenure  of  office  to  be  for  life  or  during  good  behaviour. 
He  held  office  until  1856,  discharging  the  duties,  which  were  often  of  an 
arduous  and  sometimes  dangerous  nature,  to  the  satisfaction  both  of  the 
government  and  of  the  public.  The  County  of  Carleton  at  first  extended 
from  Eel  Eiver  to  the  St.  Francis,  a  distance  of  more  than  150  miles. 
During  the  period  of  the  so  called  "Aroostook  war"  the  duties  of  his  posi- 
tion called  for  the  exercise  of  great  tact  combined  with  firmness  and 
courage.  Sheriff  Winslow  possessed  these  qualities  in  an  eminent  degree 
and  managed  to  maintain  friendly  relations  with  the  American  author- 
ties  on  the  border,  continuing  the  while  to  exercise  jurisdiction  in  the 
•'disputed  territory"  until  the  Aroostook  valley  was  awarded  to  the  United 
States  by  the  Washington  Treaty  in  1842.  Another  ordeal  through  which 
he  passed  was  during  the  time  of  the  Woodstock  riots  in  1847,  when  his 
manly  and  impartial  conduct  bore  good  fruit  in  maintaining  the  suprem- 
acy of  the  law  and  restoring  good  fellowship. 

In  the  year  1856  Sheriff  Winslow  was  removed  from  office  for  poli- 
tical reasons.  He  was  reappointed  the  next  year,  but  again  displaced. 
This  occasioned  much  feeling  on  the  part  of  his  friends,  and  was  a  sore 
disappointment  to  the  Sheriff  personally.  Some  two  hundred  letters  ex- 
pressive of  sympathy  and  esteem  were  sent  in  from  all  parts  of  the  country 
signed  by  the  best  adherents  of  both  political  parties.  At  least  a  thou- 
sand individuals  joined  in  the  remonstrance. 

Sheriff  Winslow  did  not  long  survive  his  retirement  to  private  life. 
He  died  at  his  residence  at  Upper  Woodstock  in  October,  1859,  aged  66 
years.  As  a  citizen,  he  was  the  soul  of  honor,  one  of  those  men  of  whom 


IS 

«  2 


ro 


Introductory^ 


WINSLOW  PAPERS. 


11 


it  might  be  said  "his  word  was  as  good  as  his  bond."  He  was  a  faithful 
anid  devoted  member  of  the  Church.  His  mortal  body  lies  beside  that  of 
his  wife  beneath  the  shadow  of  a  lofty  elm  in  the  old  churchyard  at 
Woodstock,  and  the  monument  erected  to  his  memory  bears  the  inscrip- 

tion: 

"A  staunch  friend,  a  generous  opponent,  a  f  aft  hfulr  official;  in 

honor  unstained;  of  loyalty  .  unimp'eachable;.  and  respected  even 

by  his  enemies/' 

Seven  of  >,  his  family  survived  him,  five  of  whom,  are  still  living,  in  Xew 
Brunswick,  viz.  :  —  Francis  Edward  ,  Winslow,  .  Manager  J>f  the  .Bank  of 
Montreal  at'  Chatham  foi\3,^.:years,past;  Mary  and'Wentworth  Winslow  of 
Woodstock;  Edward  Byron  Winslow,  Barrister,  of  :  Fredericton,  :/and 
Thomas  Bradghaw';  Winslow,  •  cleric..  in  the  -  Crown  liarid  <  Office,?  Fr'edejfcton. 

John  Coffin"  WinslowV~f  or  many  years  Post  '  Master  "afc  Woodstock;  .died 
at  that  place  a  *few  years  ago.  • 


-'    •        •'    •          :  '- ' 

,'•'. 


j;t^j;-]  <•.;;  :*> 

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<^ '.-'-. 4-  OJ    1";JT'*    111    '.'     •"".',;•   "    ' 

;      .^.^.:L:v;:-;: 

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.  .  >   x.  *«  yi>;^T§io  S.'foiJ  -,' 


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• 


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• 


EXPLANATORY    NOTE. 


For  the  selections  contained  in  the  pages  that  follow  the  responsibility 
rests  solely  with  the  writer  of  this  Note.  It  was  manifestly  impossible— 
and  if  possible  not  desirable — to  copy  the  whole  of  the  immense  collection 
of  "Winslow  Papers,"  containing  as  it  does  hundreds  of  letters  and  docu- 
ments of  all  degrees  of  interest  and  importance.  With  such  an  abund- 
ance of  materials  there  was  of  course  much  difficulty  in  making  choice  of 
what  should  appear  in  these  pages.  The  writer  could  only  endeavor  to 
use  his  best  judgment.  This  he  has  done. 

In  not  a  few  of  the  letters  it  will  be  found  that  parts  are  omitted — 
the  omissions  being  indicated  by  asterisks  or  other  marks.  Such  omissions 
were  necessary  in  order  to  keep  the  work  within  bounds.  Examination 
of  the  original  letters  will,  however,  show  that  the  portions  omitted  are 
usually  either  lacking  in  historic  interest,  or  are  merely  repetitions  of 
that  which  is  told  elsewhere. 

The  instances  in  which  it  has  seemed  advisable  for  any  other  reason 
to  omit  portions  of  letters  of  a  private  and  confidential  nature  are  surpris- 
ingly few,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  correspondents  were  numbered  by 
the  score  and  included  all  classes  of  men.  As  for  Winslow  himself,  fe\v 
men  have  so  little  reason  to  be  ashamed  of  anything  they  may  have  writ- 
ten as  he. 

W.  0.  Eaymond. 


WINSLOW    PAPERS. 


Jonathan  Sewall  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  Brompton-row,  No.  1, 
Jan'ry  10,  1776. 

Dear  Ned: 

#          ********* 

I  am  out  of  all  patience  at  hearing,  from  you  and  others,  the  accounts 
of  your  Sufferings — what  Excuse  can  be  Form'd  for  a  British  Admiral, 
who,  with  30  or  40  Ships  under  his  Command,  suffers  a  Garrison  to  starve 
tho'  surrounded  with  plenty  of  every  Necessary  within  the  reach  of  his 
Ships;  who  tamely  &  supinely  looks  on  and  sees  Fishing  Schooners, 
Whale-boats  and  Canoes  riding  triumphant  under  the  Muzzles  of  his  Guns, 
&  carrying  off  every  Supply  destined  for  your  relief.  Heaven  grant  you 
patience,  &  reward  every  one  according  to  the  Deeds  done  in  the  Body. 
I  can  tell  you  for  your  comfort,  that  he  is  cursed  as  hard  on  this  side  of 
the  Water,  as  he  can  be  on  yours — he  has  now  no  Advocate  here  &  I  be- 
lieve will  scarcely  find  a  Friend  in  England  upon  his  return.  I  hope  by 
this  time,  you  are  relieved  in  some  measure,  as  out  of  the  great  Number 
of  Ships  w'ch  have  sailed  loaded  with  provisions  &  Coal,  it  will  be  hard 
indeed,  if  some  don't  get  in  safe,  in  spite  of  the  Vigilance  of  the  Rebels,  & 
the  Inactivity  of  Trunnion.  I  verily  believe  your  Sufferings  are  drawing 
near  a  period — you  will  undoubtedly  have,  early  in  the  Spring,  an  Army 
of  40,000  &  a  Fleet  of  upwards  of  70  Ships,  &  then  the  Mettle  of  the 
Rebels  will  be  try'd — hitherto  their  successes  have  been  owing  to  their 
having  none  to  oppose  them — the  poor  infatuated  Wretches,  as  yet,  know 
Nothing  of  War — they  have  been  treated  as  fro  ward  Children  heretofore, 
but  now,  they  will  be  treated  as  incorrigible  Traitors.  I  pity,  I  feel  for 
the  Majority,  but,  for  their  Sakes,  I  wish  the  vengeance  of  G.  Britain  may 
speedily  overtake  their  base  Deluders. 

I  wish  you  were  here  Ned,  with  Money  enough  in  your  poctet — you 
can  have  no  idea  what  a  noble  Country  this  is  for  a  Gentleman — every 
Thing  is  upon  an  immense  Scale — whatever  I  have  seen  in  my  own  Coun- 
try, is  all  Miniature,  yankee-pnppet-show.  I  was  at  Court  the  Day  before 
yesterday,  being  the  Queen's  Birth  Day,  (I  am  now  at  the  20th)  &  I  be- 
lieve in  my  Conscience,  the  prime  Cost  of  the  Dresses  I  saw  there,  was 
sufficient  to  have  purchased  our  whole  Continent — the  Wealth  of  this 
Country  is  truly  astonishing-,  but  unless  a  Gentleman  can  get  his  Share  of 


14 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1776 


it,  he  has  no  Business  here — £600  per  An.  is  but  as  a  Drop  in  the  Ocean 
—the  Man  is  lost — he  is  Nothing — less  than  Nothing  and  Vanity — &  his 
Contemplation  of  his  own  comparative  Littleness,  is  Vexation  of  Spirit — 
but,  humiliating  as  it  is,  I  wish  to  stay  here  for  the  Sake  of  giving  my 
Boys  a  Chance  for  the  grand  prizes  which  every  professsion  presents  to 
yiew — however,  I  fear,  the  cold,  inhospitable,  Lilliputian  Eegion  of  Hali- 
fax will  finally  bring  me  up;  for  as  to  Massachusetts  Bay,  I  wish  it  well, 
but  I  wish  never  to  see  it  again  till  I  return  at  the  Millenium — No,  be- 
lieve me,  Ned,  the  Mad  Conduct  of  my  Countrymen  has  given  me  a  Dose 
I  shall  never  get  over — God  mend  them,  &  bless  them — bnt  let  me  never, 
never  be  cursed  with  a  residerce  among  them  again.  I  hate  the  Climate 
where  Eebellion  and  Fanaticism  are  ingendered — &  I  would  shun  it  as  I 
would  a  country  infested  with  the  plague — from  all  which,  good  Lord, 
deliver  me.  I  thank  you  for  writing  to  me,  &  beg  for  such  favors  every 
opportunity  &  in  return,  you  shall  have  frequent  Scribblings  from,  dear 
Ned, 

Your  faithful  Friend  &c. 

Jon.  Sewall.* 


Appointment  as  Muster-Master-General. 

Head  Quarters,  New  York, 
30th  July,  1776. 

Edward  Winslow,  Esq.,  to  be  Muster-Master-General  to  the  Provin- 
cial Troops  taken  into  His  Majesty's  pay  within  the  Colonies  lying  on  the 
Atlantic  Ocean  from  Nova  Scotia  to  West  Florida  inclusive. 

Stephen  Kemble,t 
Deputy  Adjutant  General. 


*  Jonathan  Sewell  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard  and  attorney  general  of 
Massachusetts,  and,  prior  to  the  Revolution,  the  intimate  friend  of  John  Adams, 
He  was  eloquent  and  gifted.  His  estate  was  confiscated  by  the  Americans.  He 
went  to  England  in  1775.  He  held  the  appointment  of  judge  of  the  admiralty 
for  Nova  Scotia  from  1769  until  his  death.  He  came  out  to  New  Brunswick  in 
17S8  and  died  at  St.  John  Sept.  26,  1796.  (See  letter  in  this  book  under  date  27th 
Sept.,  1796).  The  elder  Ward  Chipman  was  his  protege.  His  wife,  Esther 
Quincy,  was  sister  to  the  wife  of  John  Hancock,  the  first  signer  of  the  declara~ 
tion  of  independence.  He  died  in  Montreal  Jan.  21,  1910.  Jonathan  Sewell's 
eldest  son  and  namesake  became  chief  justice  of  Quebec. 

t  Stephen  Kemble  was  born  in  New  Brunswick,  in  New  Jersey,  in  1740.  At 
the  age  of  seventeen  he  was  an  ensign  in  the  44th  regiment.  He  served  in  the 
French  war,  and  rose  by  successive  gradations  of  rank  until  he  was  colonel  in 
the  60th,  or  Royal  American  Regiment  of  Foot,  and  was  deputy  adjutant  gen- 
eral, in  1772,  of  the  British  forces  in  North  America.  In  1805  he  retired  from 
the  army.  He  received  a  grant  of  20.000  acres  of  land  on  the  St.  John  river, 
which  included  a  large  -oortion  of  the  parishes  of  Hampstead  and  Greenwich. 
He  died  in  1822,  aged  81  years.  See  article  by  Jonas  Howe  on  "Kemble  Manor" 
in  New  Brunswick  Magazine  for  September,  1898. 


1776]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  15 

Edward  Winslow  to  Col.  Patterson,  Adjutant  General. 

New  York,  6th,  Nov'r,  1776. 

Sir: — At  the  request  of  Brig.  Gen.  Delancey  I  attended  at  Hamp- 
stead  on  Long  Island  the  28th  ulto.  &  mustered  all  those  who  have  en- 
listed in  his  Brigade  and  were  not  included  in  my  returns  of  the  4th  inst. 
I  cannot  make  a  better  apology  for  any  errors  in  my  method  of  proceed- 
ing than  by  observing  that  all  the  battalions  which  are  to  form  this  bri- 
gade are  at  present  incomplete,  &  I  am  not  able  to  obtain  from  Mr.  Porter, 
or  others  any  precedent  or  form  for  such  partial  musters;  I  am  therefore 
reduced  to  the  necessity  of  establishing  a  kind  of  system  for  myself  and 
I  have  endeavored  to  calculate  my  reports  so  as  to  answer  those  purposes 
which  you  were  pleased  to  tell  me  were  expected  viz.,  "ascertaining  the 
whole  number  of  effectives  &  also  the  particular  numbers  raised  by  each 
Captain."  When  any  one  of  the  battalions  is  perfect  I  shall  engross  the 
companies  of  which  it  is  formed  &  return  one  regular  roll. 

I  most  humbly  beg  to  trouble  you  once  more  on  the  subject  of  the 
donations*  in  my  custody — Among  'em  are  4,000  flannel  waistcoats,  7  or 
8,000  yards  fine  warm  baize,  a  considerable  quantity  woolen  caps,  mittens 
and  gloves,  and  12  Hogsheads  shoes  all  of  which  are  very  scarce  articles 
here  &  would  be  particularly  useful  to  the  army  at  this  time.  I  have 
made  several  applications  to  Earl  Percy  for  a  meeting  of  the  board  of 
General  Officers,  that  a  distribution  might  be  made.  The  fear  of  in- 
curring his  Lordship's  displeasure  prevents  me  from  repeating  my  request. 
At  present  the  goods  remain  in  store  subject  to  some  risque  &  totally 
useless.  If  I  can  be  favor'd  with  any  directions  respecting  them  I  shall 
immediately  obey — I  am  with  great  respect, 

Yr.  most  obed't  &  h'ble  serv't, 

E.  Winslow. 
Col.  Patterson. 

E.  Bridgham  to  Edward  Winslow. 

December  5th,  1776. 
Dear  Sir, — 

I  have  sent  you  pr.  John  all  the  papers  you  required. 

Major  Rogers,  Captains  Grant  and  Campbell  and  another  Captain 
who  is  raising  another  independent  Company  were  all  here  yesterday 
enquiring  for  you  to  muster  their  men.  They  were  all  extremely  anxious 
to  have  it  done  as  till  then  they  cannot  receive  pay,  &c.  Major  Eogers 
sent  an  officer  to  you  Express,  whether  he  found  you,  you  can  best  tell — 

"These  donations  were  provided  by  generous  individuals  in  England.  See 
references  in  this  book  under  date  January  12,  1778;  also  under  Edward  Wins- 
low's  memorial,  Dec.  28,  1780. 


16 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1776-77 

If  it  could  with  propriety  be  done  I  would  muster  them  for  you  with  all 
my  heart.  General  Howe  sailed  this  day  for  Amboy  with  all  his  Family 
&  ^Baggage.  It  is  reported  that  Gen.  Cornwallis  is  at  Prince-Town  within 
forty  miles  of  Philadelphia. 

A  vessel  arrived  yesterday  from  Halifax.  Reports  by  her  are  that 
a  considerable  body  of  rebels  have  landed  in  that  Province  and  have  be- 
sieged Fort  Cumberland.  The  people  in  Halifax  are  in  great  conster- 
nation. It  is  said  Gen'l  Massey  has  requested  of  Gen.  Howe  a  reinforce- 
ment of  2,000  men.  *  *  * 

Capt.  Grant  has  this  minute  called  upon  me,  says  that  Capt.  Mc- 
Kenzie  is  going  to  the  Jerseys,  refuses  paying  him  till  his  company  is 
mustered. 

Yrs.  &c., 
E.  Bridgham,*  Deputy-MusterMaster. 


Governor  Montfort  Browne  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Flushing,  February  6th,  1777. 

Dear  Sir — Lieutenant  Colonel  Pattinsont  is  arrived  here  last  night, 
and  has  brought  me  a  copy  of  the  General  orders  of  Monday  in  which  the 
General  has  appointed  him  to  my  corps.  As  it  will  take  up  some  time  to 
arrange  matters  with  him  respecting  the  regiment,  I  am  apt  to  think  I 
cannot  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  in  New  York  before  Saturday 
morning.  *  *  *  I  have  just  rec'd  an  express  order  from 
the  neighborhood  of  Rie  that  ninety  odd  fine  young  fellows  are  lying  hid 
at  a  lady's  farm.  I  have  therefore  ordered  Capt.  Hoyt  hither  without 
delay,  and  I  am  about  arming  the  new  schooner  with  swivells,  &c.,  which 
my  people  cut  out  of  Rayway  river  in  the  Jerseys. 

We  all  met  yesterday  at  Mr.  Cumlines  and  spent  a  very  chearfull  day. 
Your  company  would  have  added  exceedingly  to  our  jollity,  but  suppose 
from  a  multiplicity  of  business  you  forgot  your  promise. 
Adieu  and  believe  me,  with  the  greatest  amity 
Dear  Sir 
Your  most  obedient  &  most 

humble  Servant, 

Montfort  Browne. 
P.  S.     My  best  compliments  to  my  worthy  friend  McKenzie. 

*Ebenezer  Bridgham  had  been  a  merchant  in  Boston.  He  was  at  this  time 
Colonel  Winslow's  deputy  at  New  York.  Later  he  was  a  deputy  inspector  of 
provincial  forces  under  Lt.  Col.  Alex.  Innes.  He  went  to  St.  John  in  1783  and 
was  a  grantee  of  Parr  Town. 

t  Lieut.    Col.    Thomas    Pattinson,    according    to    Sabine,    died    at    Charleston, 
South  Carolina,  prior  to  December,  1782. 


1777]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  17 

Benjamin  Kent  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Boston  Feb'y  24th,  1777. 

These  acquaint  you  that  your  Father  Edward  returning  to  Plymouth, 
by  a  Fall  dislocated  his  shoulder  but  soon  had  it  restor'd.  Mrs.  Solomon 
Davis  died  at  Plymouth  last  Thursday. 

When  Mr.  Temple  returned  to  Boston  he  informed  me  that  you  said 
the  Files  and  Piecords  of  our  Court  of  Probate*  were  carried  to  Halifax. 
I  beg  to  know  of  you  what  is  become  of  them  &  also  that  you  would  use 
your  interest  that  by  some  means  the  Files  of  that  Court  may  be  had  by  us, 
for  I  believe  they  were  carried  away  from  Boston  through  your  kindness. 
They  can  be  of  no  service  to  you  or  your  Friends,  but  are  of  very  great 
importance  to  us  &  doubt  not  but  you  will  do  what  you  or  your  superiors 
shall  judge  proper  to  be  done  in  the  premises  and  you  will  greatly  oblige 

many  Thousands  beside 

Your  serv't 
• — • Benj'n  Kent.f 

Gov.  Montfort  Browne  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Flushing,  22nd  June  1777. 

Sir, — I  pay'd  you  a  visit  yesterday  morning  to  acquaint  you  that  your 
presence  is  much  wanted  at  my  head  quarters  in  order  to  muster  about 
eighty  or  ninety  men  which  are  a  part  of  those  in  whom  I  place  particular 
confidence — it  is  possible  I  may  receive  many  more  ere  your  arrival  here, 
as  they  only  waited  for  Captain  Hoyt's  armed  sloop;  Governor  Wentworth 
wishes  you  would  call  upon  him  in  your  way  hither  as  he  purnoses  doing 
me  the  honor  of  a  visit,  and  waits  at  home  for  that  purpose. 

A  Company  of  Gentlemen,  each  of  good  fortune,  are  in  their  way 
hither  to  joyn  me,  they  decline  pay,  or  any  emolument  whatsoever,  some 
of  them  are  already  arrived,  and  all  of  my  acquaintance.  I  shall  request 
the  General's  permission  to  put  them  all  into  one  Company:  Such  spirited 
conduct  deserves  applause.  I  did  intend  writing  on  this  subject  to  my 
worthy  friend  McKenzie,  but  upon  second  thoughts,  suppose  he  wishes 
I  would  not  trouble  him  with  matters  out  of  his  line — I  am  in  vast  haste, 
Sir, 

Your  most  obed't  &  most  humble  serv't, 

Montfort  Browne,  f 

P.  S.     Write  me  a  line. 

*See  letter  of  Edward  Winslow  to  G.  W.  Murray,  dated  April  7,  1811. 

f Benjamin  Kent,  of  Boston,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1727,  and  was  a  per- 
sonal friend  of  Adams  and  Hancock.  He,  however,  cast  in  his  lot  eventually 
with  the  Loyalists.  He  died  in  Halifax  in  1788,  aged  81  years. 

JMontfort  Browne  was  commander  of  the  Loyalist  corps  called  the  Prince 
of  Wales  American  Regiment,  with  the  rank  of  brigadier  general.  He  was 
lieutenant  governor  of  West  Florida  in  1768-1769,  and  afterwards  governor  of  the 
Bahamas. 


lg  WINSLOW  PAPERS  [1777 

Edward  Winslow,  Esq.,  Muster-Master-General  of  Provincial  Forces — to 

Ward  Chipman,  Dr.: 
July,  1777. 
For  assisting  him  in  his  office  from  10th  Jnly  to  24th  October 

inclusive  being  107  days  at  5s  pr.  diem £26     15     0 

Edward  Winslow  to  Lt.  Col.  Innes.* 

Long  Island,  31st  Oct'r,  1777. 

Sir, — I  this  day  communicated  the  order  of  the  Com'r  in  Chief  to 
Brig.  Gen'l  Skinner  relative  to  the  men  inlisted  by  Mr.  Maddox — I  also 
paraded  Maddox  company  at  Decker's  ferry  &  discharged  therefrom  3£ 
men  whose  names  are  in  the  list  enclosed,  all  of  whom  acknowledged  that 
they  were  taken  from  the  prison  ships  &  that  they  were  formerly  in  rebel 
privateers,  &c. — these  I  committed  to  a  guard  of  25  men  who  had  orders 
to  escort  'em  to  the  ships  from  which  they  were  taken.  It  was  my  inten- 
tion to  have  mustered  all  the  battalions  in  Brig.  Gen'l  Skinner's  Brigade, 
of  which  I  had  given  previous  notice  to  the  respective  commanding  offi- 
cers, but  on  my  arrival  at  Staten  Island  I  found  it  impracticable.  Before 
the  late  storm  they  were  encamped  on  the  Hill  near  the  redoubts  in  huts 
of  their  own  forming,  roofed  with  poles  and  covered  with  earth.  By  the 
violence  &  long  continuance  of  the  rain  those  huts  were  entirely  destroyed 
&  the  men  reduced  to  the  necessity  of  seeking  shelter  wherever  they  could 
find  it.  They  are  now  scattered  over  almost  every  part  of  the  island,  & 
very  many  of  'em  are  sick  with  agues,  rheumatics  and  other  disorders.  Tn 
such  a  state  it  was  impossible  to  collect  them.  I  therefore  requested  Brig. 
Gen.  Skinner  to  give  me  notice  when  he  was  readv  for  a  gereral  muster. 
As  soon  as  I  receive  information  from  him  I  shall  attend.  *  *  * 
I  am  Your  most  obedient  servant, 

Ed.  Winslow. 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Valley  of  Hadad.t  Saturday  Night  29th:  Nov:  '77. 
Dear  Winslow, 

I  have  been  anxiously  expecting  to  hear  from  you  since  my  last  which 
was  written  &  sent  while  you  remain'd  at  the  Hook,  but  am  fearful  your 
passage  was  equally  tedious  &  disagreeable  with  your  stay  here,  as  several 
Arrivals  within  these  few  days  give  no  Intelligence  of  you,  we  have  how~ 

*Lieut.  Colonel  Alexander  Tnnes  was  inspector  general  of  all  the  Loyalist 
(or  provincial)  troops  during  the  Revolutionary  war.  In  April,  1779,  he  was 
g-azetted  lieut.  colonel  of  the  South  Carolina  Royalists.  Soe  further  concerning 
him  under  date  Dec.  28,  1780. 

fA  place  in  the  vicinity  of  New  York  City.  See  Winslow's  references  under 
June  22nd.  1778. 


1777]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  19 

ever  at  last  the  pleasing  account  of  the  reduction  of  the  Forts  on  the  Dela- 
ware, which  have  so  long  "been  the  object  of  general  expectation,  which 
will,  I  hope,  facilitate  your  immediate  accession  to  Head  Quarters.  Noth- 
ing of  great  importance  has  occurred  here  since  you  sailed,-* -what  circum- 
stances are  worth  relating  I  will  endeavor  to  recollect.  For  this  fortnight 
past  the  Eehels  have  regularly  every  night  landed  in  small  parties  on 
Staten  Island,  generally  without  effect,  sometimes  taking  off  two  or  three 
of  the  Picket  Guards  stationed  along  the  shore,  this  conduct  however  is 
very  distressing  to  the  troops  there,  as  they  are  kept  constantly  alarmed,  & 
have  not  during  all  that  time  had  one  night  in  bed.  Last  Wednesday 
night  they  seem  to  have  meditated  a  serious  attack.  Gen'l  Dickinson 
landed  with  14  or  15,00  men,  with  some  pieces  of  artillery,  but  upon  dis- 
covering some  Frigates  coming  down  early  in  the  morning,  upon  the 
signal  Gun  for  that  purpose  being;  fired,  he  returned  to  the  Jerseys,  taking 
off  a  Lieut.  Buskirk  &  a  few  men  of  Buskirk's  Corps:!  as  I  learn  from 
general  Eeport.  Gen.  Clinton  went  down,  but  returned  early  in  the  after- 
noon on  Thursday.  At  the  same  time  a  party  attacked  somewhere  near 
Kingsbridge,  but  to  as  little  purpose  I  believe,  tho'  I  have  not  vet  been 
able  to  learn  the  particulars. — On  Tuesday  night  a  party  of  the  Villians 
landed  at  Bloomingdale,  J  &  after  having  plundered,  set  fire  to  Gen'l 
Delancey's  house,  and  took  off  one  or  two  of  the  guard  which  he  kept 
there,  from  the  first  Battalion,  who  being  employed  upon  working  upon 
his  farm,  in  the  day  time,  of  course  slept  all  night,  which  prevented  a 
seasonable  Discovery  of  their  intention.  About  the  same  time  two  or 
three  Persons  were  intercepted  in  an  attempt  to  make  their  escape  from 
the  City,  who  being  searched  and  examined,  have  led  to  the  discovery  of 
a  plot  formed  by  a  number  of  the  Inhabitants,  to  set  fire  to  the  City  upon 
an  attack  being  made  from  without;  thirteen  are  said  to  be  found  out  & 
3  or  4  sentenced  to  be  hanged; — since  this  discovery,  whether  in  conse- 
quence of  any  connection  between  them  I  know  not,  all  the  rebel  officers 

*With  the  army  under  General  Howe  to  Philadelphia,  where  there  were 
some  Loyalist  corps  to  be  mustered. 

fThis  was  the  fourth  battalion  of  the  Loyalist  corps,  called  the  New  Jersey 
Volunteers,  the  commander  of  which  was  Lieut.  Colonel  Abraham  Van  Buskirk. 
His  commission  is  dated  Nov.  16,  1776.  The  majority  of  the  corps  were  of  Dutch 
extraction.  Col.  Van  Buskirk  was  the  first  mayor  of  Shelburne,  N.  S.,  but 
many  of  his  men  settled  in  the  parish  of  Kingsclear  and  others  at  Fredericton. 

J  Bloomingdale,  on  Manhattan  Island,  was  the  country  seat  of  General 
Oliver  DeLancey.  It  was  at  that  time  in  the  suburbs  of  New  York  but  has  long 
since  been  incorporated  in  the  city  limits.  The  incident  here  referred  to  is  re- 
lated in  detail  in  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York.  Brig.  Gen.  Oliver  De- 
Lancey in  1776  raised  for  the  kind's  service  three  battalions,  which  are  men- 
tioned in  this  letter.  (See  Jones'  Loyalist  Hist,  of  N.  Y.,  vol.  1,  p.  264.).  At  the 
peace  in  1783  the  first  and  second  battalions  received  a  large  grant  of  land  at 
AVoodstock,  N.  B.  The  Griffiths,  Smiths  and  others  of  that  place  are  descended 
from  officers  of  that  corps.  Most  of  the  third  battalion  of  DeLancey's  brigade 
settled  in  Queens  and  Sunbury  counties. 


20  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1777 

on  this  Island  were  surprised  about  2  in  the  morn'g  a  few  days  ago  and 
hurried  off  by  the  assistance  of  the  militia  &   the  Volunteer  Company 
called  together  for  that  purpose,  &  sent  on  board  ship;  not  one  of  them, 
to  our  great  joy  is  left. — The  Battalion  from  Satauket*  is  now  stationed 
about  3  miles  below  Col.  Ludlows,  on  the  north  side  of  the  plain,  &  that 
from  Huntington  at  Jamaica,  which  saved  me  great  trouble  in  the  muster; 
since  their  removal  the  Eebels  have  landed  at  Huntington  &  taken  off 
some  Friends  to  Government.     A  general  attack  is  daily  threatened,  & 
the  destruction  of  the  City  warmly  anticipated,  as  we  could  collect  by 
People  that  have  come  in;  but  I  think  we  shall  be  quite  safe  if  the  re- 
inforcement talk'd  of,   arrives   from  Gen'l  Howe's  Army.      There  have 
been  &  still  continue  frequent  Desertions  from  the  Provincial  Corps  at 
Kings-bridge; — Genl.  Skinner's  Brigade!  is  not  yet  reduced  to  three  Bat- 
talions, as  we  expected;  I  wish  to  know  if  it  is  a  measure  determined  upon, 
as  in  that  case,  I  shall  defer  entering  them  in  the  Books,  till  it  takes  place. 
I  shall  enclose  you  an  exact  State  of  the  Provincial  Troops,  from  the  last 
muster,  which  I  have  just  completed,  you  will  observe  those  detach'd  to 
the  Chasseurs,  make  an  additional  casuality,  this  I  tho't  best,  as  that  com- 
pany seems  now  to  be  established,  &  it  gives  a  very  erroneous  idea  of  some 
of  the  Battalions,  to  have  those  thus  detach'd,  considered  as  a  part  of  their 
present  effective  strength — particularly   the  independent   Companies,    as 
you  will  see  by  inspection.     By  comparing  this  State  of  the  Provincial 
Troops  with  that  you  carried  with  you,  you  will  see  the  "total  inlisted" 
in  this,  owing  to  the  recruits,  considerably  exceeds  them  in  that,  &  yet 
the  "total  Privates  present,"  falls  short;  this  is  owing  to  those  in  the  ad- 
ditional Casuality  being  considered  as  present,  in  the  former  State.     Most 
of  the  abstracts  for  pay,  are  signed,  if  you  should  not  return  soon,  which 
I  anxiously  hope  you  will,  I  shall  wish  for  your  directions  with  respect 
to  the  next  muster. 

*The  third  battalion  of  DeLancey's  brigade  was  commanded  by  Colonel 
Gabriel  G.  Ludlow,  with  Lieut.  Col.  Richard  Hewlett  second  in  command.  The 
men  of  this  battalion  were  nearly  all  natives  of  Queens  County,  Long  Island, 
N.  Y.  The  battalion  stationed  at  Huntingdon  at  this  time  was  the  first,  com- 
manded by  Brigadier  Gen.  DeLancey  in  person,  with  Lieut.  Col.  John  Harris 
Cruger  as  second  in  command.  The  second  battalion  was  at  Kingsbridge,  above 
New  York.  It  was  commanded  by  Colonel  George  Brewerton,  with  Lieut. 
Colonel  Stephen  DeLancey  (the  general's  son)  second  in  command. 

fThe  New  Jersey  Volunteers  comprised  at  first  six  battalions.  The  corps 
was  raised  about  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1776  by  the  efforts  of  Brig.  Gen. 
Cortlandt  Skinner.  The  corps  was  known  as  '"Skinner's  Greens,"  probably  on 
account  of  the  color  of  uniform.  Officers  and  men  were  chiefly  natives  of  New 
Jersey,  Pennsylvania  and  New  York.  In  the  engagement  at  Staten  Island, 
Aug.  22,  1777,  the  brigade  lost  quite  heavily,  and  in  consequence  the  first  and 
fifth  battalions  were  amalgamated  in  April,  1778,  The  third  and  sixth  bat- 
talions were  consolidated  into  one  about  the  same  time.  Finally  in  1781  the 
second  battalion  was  merged  with  the  others,  thus  reducing  the  original  six 
battalions  to  three.  These  at  the  close  of  the  war  were  commanded  by  Lieut. 
Colonels  Stephen  DeLancey,  Isaac  Allen  and  Abraham  Van  Buskirk. 


1777]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  21 

I  have,  agreeable  to  your  directions,  waited  on  Gov.  Wentworth,  & 
presented  him  a  state  of  the  Provincial  Troops,  with  which  he  appeared 
highly  gratified,  &  was  induced  to  say  things  which  I  had  no  right  to 
expect;  he  made  such  unsolicited  offers  of  assistance  upon  his  arrival 
in  England,  as  encouraged  me  to  make  known  my  situation  exactly:  &  he 
has  kindly  promised  to  make  particular  inquiry  into  the  cause  of  my  diffi- 
culties. His  civility  was  beyond  expression,  and  as  I  am  generally  em- 
barassed  on  such  occasions,  I  fear  I  appeared  very  awkward  in  expressing 
my  gratitude;  I  wish  if  you  have  an  opportunity,  you  would  let  him  know 
the  peculiarly  grateful  sense  I  entertain  of  his  kindness;  as  it  is  the  only 
return  that  will  ever  be  in  my  power  to  make. 

Bridgham  was  mistaken  in  the  account  he  first  gave  me  of  the  Dona- 
tions, he  since  tells  me  that,  Genls.  Vaughan,  Robertson  &  Jones  as  a 
board  appointed  the  person  I  mentioned,  as  knowing  best  to  whom  to 
distribute  them;  who  has  since  taken  them  all  into  his  possession. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Committee  on  Relief  of  Soldiers,  Etc. 

Philadelphia,  12  January  1778. 
Gentlemen, 

It  was  my  intention  to  have  Transmitted  Your  Committee  everj 
transaction  of  the  Board  of  General  Officers  (relatives  to  the  distribution 
of  those  articles  sent  for  the  relief  of  Soldiers  serving  in  America  &c)  as 
they  occur.  This  was  practicable  while  a  Majority  of  the  members  who 
ccmpos'd  the  Board,  remained  in  Garrison;  but  the  separation  which  took 
place  immediately  on  our  landing  in  the  Province  of  New  York,  rendered 
a  meeting  impossible  &  prevented  me  from  receiving  such  instructions  as 
I  supposed  necessary. 

I  am  now  directed  by  the  Commander  in  Chief  to  furnish  you  with 
the  best  information  which  my  present  situation  will  admit,  &  I  have 
ordered  the  Store  Keeper  at  New  York  (who  is  in  Possession  of  all  the 
papers)  to  transmit  a  particular  account  of  the  receipts  &  issues  from  our 
leaving  Nova  Scotia  to  the  present  time. 

[Note  by  the  Editor. — The  goods  that  remained  undistributed  were 
shipped  to  Staten  Island.  The  cheese  was  divided  among  the  British 
regiments;  5000  Ibs.  tobacco  among  the  foreign  troops;  the  molasses  and 
essence  of  spruce  made  into  beer  and  issued  to  the  soldiers  at  New  York. 
On  arrival  of  the  "Catherine  &  Richmond"  from  England  with  another 
donation,  there  was  a  second  general  distribution.  The  distressed  widows 
and  orphans  were  supplied  with  shoes,  hose,  flannel,  etc.  The  money 
donated  also  was  judiciously  used.  Winslow  closes  his  letter  as  follows.] 

I  have  Generally  performed  in  person  the  pleasing  Task  of  distribut- 


22 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 


ing  the  Donations  &  of  Course  have  had  the  best  opportunity  of  observing 
the  effects,  &  I  think  I  may  venture  to  assert  that  the  most  Sanguine 
expectations  of  the  Generous  Subscribers  to  this  Charity  must  be  fully 
Answer^.  Many  objects*  have  been  snatched  from  extreme  wretchedness 
&  made  comfortable,  and  many  friendless  Orphans  now  live  to  acknowl- 
edge your  Bounty  who  without  it  might  not  have  existed. 

I  flatter  myself  that  my  particular  account  will  meet  your  approba- 
tion— and  I  beg  leave  to  subscribe  my  Self, 

Your  most  faithfull  & 

Obed't  Serv't, 

Ed.  Winslow, 

Sec'ry  to  the  Board  of  Gen'l.  Officers. 
To  the  Committee  for 

relief  of  Soldiers,  &c. 

"Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Valley  of  Hadad,  Feb'y  15,  1778. 
My  dear  Friend, — 

One  Mr.  Shenstone  in  a  book  of  his,  which  I  once  read,  says  "that 
the  best  time  to  answer  the  letters  from  a  friend  is  the  moment  of  the 
receipt  of  them,  because  then  the  intelligence  received  and  the  warmth  of 
Friendship  most  forcibly  co-operate." 

Never  was  female  weakness  more  conspicuous  upon  the  most  interest- 
ing interview,  than  my  sensations  were  joyous,  melancholy,  calm,  im- 
moderate &  confused  at  the  perusal  of  the  most  unexpected  yet  pleasing 
letters  that  I  ever  received;  unexpected  because  I  imagined  the  first  egg 
ehell  that  could  float  from  the  Delaware  to  the  Hock  would  have  owned 
you  its  passenger,  and  pleasing  as  they  acquaint  me  with  incidents  with 
respect  to  a  Friend  whose  interest  and  happiness  is  very  justly  the  first 
object  of  my  wishes  and  attention.  *  *  * 

Friendship,  in  this  very  self-interested  period  of  the  world,  or  per- 
haps more  properly  that  part  of  the  world  where  we  are  at  present  amusing 
ourselves  is  a  name  almost  exploded  and  I  suppose,  with  half  mankind 
around  us,  would  be  laughed  at  if  placed  in  competition  with  interest  on 
any  occasion, — but  on  this  as  in  many  other  instances  I  value  it  the  more 
for  its  rarity  and  thank  God  I  am  not  so  improved  in  the  polite  maxims 
of  the  present  age  as  to  have  forgot  the  old  fashioned  principles  I  learned 
at  home.  *  *  *  , 

I  am  glad  your  envy  of  the  retirement  of  the  Valley  (of  Hadad)  is 
like  to  operate  so  forcibly  as  to  induce  you  to  partake  of  it.     I  think  yon 
would  not  be  disappointed  if  your  situation  is  such  as  you  describe.     My 
*i.  e.,  Unfortunate  people. 


1778]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  23 

dear  fellow  you  need  not  enjoin  it  upon  me  to  write  by  every  opportunity. 
I  can  with  you  say  "this  cursed  itch  for  scribbling"  will  never  suffer  me  to 
neglect  you. 

It  is  with  pleasure  I  inform  you  that  Polly  &  Murray*  have  been  in 
high  health  ever  since  you  sailed.  Not  a  return  or  even  a  symptom  of 
those  complaints  which  used  to  be  so  frequent  and  were  so  distressing  to 
me. 

In  your  letter  No.  3,  comes  a  new  subject  and  a  d d  affair  it  is 

&  first  let  me  thank  God  we  did  not  hear  of  it  till  you  were  so  far  recoverd. 
What  astonishes  me  is  that  the  Villain  has  not  been  discovered.  If  he 
has  been,  it  is  still  more  extraordinary  that  discipline  should  be  so  far  re- 
laxed upon  any  prudential  or  political  considerations  as  to  suffer  so  flag- 
rant a  piece  of  Villainy  to  pass  without  its  due  punishment. 

I  hope  you  have  not  concealed  the  worst.  I  tremble  to  think  of  the 
danger  you  have  been  in.  I  fear  you  are  now  so  used  to  these  hair  breadth 
escapes  that  you  will  think  a  shield  will  always  be  supplied  by  your  pro- 
pitious stars. 

But  before  I  quit  the  subject  I  must  tell  you  that  the  most  ludicrous 
turn  is  given  to  the  whole  affair  in  the  city.  They  say  you  fought  with 
a  post  and  wounded  yourself  and  mention  the  story  of  jumping  into  the 
sloop — had  you  not  written  so  seriously  I  should  not  have  suspected  it  was 
just  as  you  have  related. 

I  am  glad  you  have  had  an  opportunity  of  providing  for  Eichard 
tho'  I  believe  few  masters  would  have  parted  with  so  good  a  servant,  espe- 
cially when  in  so  great  need  of  one,  on  such  considerations.  As  for  your 
Dutch  ''Valet  de  Chambre,"  I  think  he  will  find  his  rnatcji  here  for  stupid- 
ity, slowness,  dirtiness  and  honesty  in  an  English  blue-coat-boy  that  Tom 
Moore  f  inlisted  for  a  Drummer,  whom  I  have  taken  to  clean  shoes  and 
shovel  snow.  *  *  * 

Polly  is  wishing  to  see  you  and  hopes  this  will  never  find  you  at 
Philadelphia. 

Your  unalterable,  affectionate  & 

faithful  Friend, 

Chip. 

Memorandum  of  Agreement  between  Nicholas  Cowenhoven  Esqr:  of 
New  Utrecht  J  in  Kmgs  County  in  the  Province  of  New  York'  on  the  One 

"Colonel  Winslow's  wife  and  infant  son,  the  latter  named  after  his  father's 
friend  and  comrade  in  arms,  Major  Daniel  Murray,  of  the  King's  American 
Dragoons. 

fThomas  William  Moore,  a  captain  in  DeLancey's  second  battalion. 

tNew  Utrecht  on  Long  Island,  opposite  Staten  Island,  at  the  entrance  of 
New  York  harbor. 


26  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

who  have  just  emerged  from  the  very  centre  of  rebellion,  fellows 
who  have  fill'd  chairs  at  Congress — persecuted  the  loyal  members 
of  committees,  and  commanded  Eebel  regiments  in  times  of  action,  now 
pushed  most  rapidly  into  places  confidential  and  lucrative.*  But  I  am 
growing  imprudently  scurrilous. 

Tell  Mrs.  H.  that  I  have  not — nor  will  I  forget  my  obligations  to  her; 
make  my  most  sincere  respects  to  her  and  to  your  brothers  and  Capt. 
Bishop's  families,  and  to  such  other  of  my  American  friends  as  may  fall 
in  your  way. 

Believe  me,  most  affectionately  &  sincerely 

Yours, 

E.  Winslow. 


Pelham  Winslow  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Newport,  May  30,  1778. 

Dear  Sir: — I  received  yours  by  Doct'r  Wightman  with  the  order  in- 
closed which  he  has  since  discharged. 

Mr.  Leonard,  who  went  from  this  garrison  with  the  fleet  to  receive 
Gen.  Burgoyne's  army,  by  stress  of  weather  was  driven  into  Plymouth 
harbour,  where  he  obtained  permission  to  supply  your  father  with  two 
quarter  casks  of  wine.  He  has  again  sailed  for  Boston  with  a  fleet  laden 
with  provisions,  by  which  opportunity  we  sent  some  clothing  and  other 
necessaries  for  your  patients  consigned  to  the  care  of  Mai-tin  Brimner 
Esq'r,  which  we  flatter  ourselves  will  be  safely  delivered.  *  »  * 

There  is  about  a  year's  pay  due  to  me  as  Fort  Major  of  Castle  William, 
whereof  I  presume  the  warrants  are  lodged  in  the  paymaster's  office,  I 
have  drawn  an  order  in  your  favor  to  receive  it. 

The  rebels  are  still  persecuting  our  unhappy  friends.  In  a  late  letter 
of  Mrs.  Blowers  to  her  husband  she  writes  that  even  your  father  has  been 
called  upon  to  turn  out  as  a  common  soldier,  hire  a  man  in  his  room,  or  go 
to  gaol.  I  have  refrained  from  sending  this  intelligence  to  [your]  sistar 
Pen,  lest  it  should  too  strongly  affect  her  tender  filial  heart — perhaps 
you  may  blame  me  for  mentioning  it  even  to  you.  When  Mrs.  Blowers 
wrote,  your  father  was  at  Marshfield,  whether  as  a  place  of  abode  or  on 
a  visit  she  does  not  say.  Sister  Penny  is  very  much  perplexed  and  unde- 
termined about  returning.  She  is  anxious  of  seeing  her  parents  and 
conducing  to  their  happiness.  *  *  * 

*This  statement  Is  corroborated  in  some  measure  by  Judge  Thomas  Jones 
in  his  Loyalist  History  of  New  York,  Vol.  1,  p.  159,   etc. 


1778]  WINSLOW   PAPERS  27 

Give  me  leave  to  congratulate  you  on  your  removal  to  New  Utrecht, 
where  I  will  with  pleasure  visit  you  on  my  return. 

Compliments  to  the  happy  family  and  all  other  friends  concludes 

me,  Yours  sincerely, 

Pelham  Winslow.* 
Edward  Winslow,  Esq'r. 


There  was  a  strong  Loyalist  party  in  Plymouth  County. 
There  is  filed  among  the  Winslcw  papers  a  "List  of  Eefugees  from  the 
County  of  Plymouth,"  dated  in  1775,  in  which  there  appear  some  ninety 
names,  of  which  seventy-three  are  from  Marshfield.  The  list  is  printed 
in  full  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Mass.  His.  Society  for  March,  1886. 
Amona:  the  prominent  Loyalists  in  the  list  we  find  the  following:  — 

From  Middleborough,  —  Hon.  Peter  Oliver,  Dr.  Peter  Oliver,  Jnr., 
Ebenezer  Spooner. 

From  Plymouth,  —  Edward  Winslow,  Jun.,  Cornelius  White,  Gideon 
White,  Jun.,  Lemuel  Goddard,  Elkanah  Cushman. 

From  Halifax,  —  Josiah  Sturtevant,  Daniel  Dunbar. 

From  Pembroke,  —  Thomas  Jocelyne. 

From  Scituate,  —  Dr.  Benjamin  Stockbridge,  Charles  Curtis. 

From  Marshfield,  —  Hon'ble  N.  K.  Thomas,  Abijah  White,  Deacon 
John  Tilden,  Capt.  Nath'l  Phillips^  Pelham  Winslow,  Dr.  Isaac  Winslow, 
Nathaniel  Thomas,  Elisha  Foord,  Sylvanus  White,  Capt.  Cornelius  White, 
Stephen  Tilden,  Warren  White,  Seth.  Bryant,  Joseph  Hall,  Gideon  Walker. 


Major  Barry  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Newport,  June  14th,  1778. 

Dear  Winslow,  Business  adieu  !      Now  for  yourself,  let 

me  tell  you  my  friend  I  am  by  no  means  pleased  with  your  situation  on 
Long  Island  which  seems  to  me  a  very  dangerous  one,  as  I  would  be  bound, 
were  I  on  the  other  side  of  the  Question,  to  take  you  or  our  friend  the 
Brig'r  from  any  part  of  that  Island,  and  truly  my  fears  tell  me  you  are 
of  sufficient  consequence  to  be  attempted.  Therefore  I  will  direct  that 
on  the  receipt  of  this  you  forthwith  retire  either  to  New  York  or  Newport, 
at  the  last  of  which  places  I  have  an  house.  Your  sister  is  with  us  as 

*Pelham  Winslow  of  Plymouth,  Mass.,  attorney-at-law,  was  a  son  of  Gen- 
eral John  Winslow  (well  known  in  connection  with  the  Acadian  expulsion)  and 
a  cousin  of  Edward  Winslow.  Pelham  Winslow  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1753 
and  entered  the  office  of  James  Otis  as  a  law  student.  At  the  revolution  he  be- 
came a  pronounced  Loyalist,  and  in  1774  was  obliged  to  seek  refuge  with  the 
British  forces  in  Boston.  In  1776  he  accompanied  the  army  to  Halifax  and  went 
thence  to  New  York.  He  engaged  in  the  royal  service  and  was  fort  major  of 
Castle  William.  He  died  in  1783,  leaving  a  wife  and  infant  daughter,  who  were 
afterwards  living  at  Shelburne.  Mrs.  Pelham  Winslow  was  a  sister  of  Capt. 
Gideon  White  of  Shelburne. 


28  WINSLOW  PAPERS.1  [1778 

you  will  find  from  the  enclosed.    How  does  the  change  in  the  Commander 
in  Chief  affect  you  ?         *         *         * 

Our  affair  at  Warren,  Bristol,  &c.  you  have  heard  of.  It  has  produced 
this  effect  at  least,  the  delaying  Mr.  Sullivan's  intended  attack  on  us  and 
perhaps,  for  a  time,  has  frustrated  a  more  general  plan.  Adieu, 

Yours  truly, 

Henry  Barry. 


Governor  Montfort   Browne  to   Edward   Winslow. 

Ehode  Island,  June  18,  1778. 

I  wished  exceedingly,  my  Dear  Sir,  for  the  pleasure  of  seeing  yon 
before  I  embarked  at  K.  York,  and  I  endeavored  all  I  could  to  effect  that 
wished  for  satisfaction  by  calling  several  times  at  your  house  to  no  purpose; 
it  was  a  mortification  to  me  not  to  have  had  it  in  my  power  to  have 
trusted  you  with  our  destination,  which  had  been  kept  a  secret  for  some 
time,  as  thereby  I  might  have  received  a  line  of  introduction  to  some 
of  your  relations  who  I  wished  to  be  acquainted  with.  Having  under- 
stood that  your  amiable  sister*  lived  within  the  district  of  the  Encamp- 
ment under  my  Command,  I  took  the  liberty  to  visit  her,  &  had  the 
satisfaction  to  find  her  the  pleasing  Counterpart  of  her  affable  and  agree- 
able brother  for  whom  as  well  as  his  sister  I  retain  the  most  perfect 
friendship  and  esteeem;  if  it  can  come  within  the  circumstance  of  my 
Command  to  do  anything  that  can  serve  any  friend  or  relation  of  yours 
I  request  you  will  communicate  it  to  me,  as  thereby  I  shall  have  an 
opportunity  to  testify  the  personal  attachment  Esteem  &  regard  with 
which  I  have  the  pleasure  to  subscribe  myself,  My  Dear  friend; 

Your  most  obedient  SerVt. 

You  have,  inclosed,  a  letter  Montfort  Browne, 

sent  me  this  morning  by  your 
Amiable  Sister. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Sir  John  Wentworth. 

June  22nd,  1778. 

Altho'  no  opportunity  for  England  has  offered,  I  will  not  suppress 
the  before  going  lengthy  epistle  but  go  on  to  tell  your  Excy.  that  since 
the  writing  I've  had  perhaps  as  fortunate  an  escape  as  any  man  in  this 
world  can  boast  of.  On  my  return  from  Philadelphia  I  removed  my 
quarters  from  the  Valley  of  Hadad  to  the  house  where  Gen'l  Howe's  Head 
Quarters  were,  in  New  Utrecht  Town.  On  the  13th  inst.  about  12  at 
"The  sister  referred  to  Avas  Penelope,  eldest  sister  of  Col.  Winslow. 


1778] 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  29 


night  a  party  of  rebels  (supposed  to  be  about  25)  landed  directly  below 
my  house,  marched  up  to  the  street,  reconnoitered  and  as  we  imagine 
satisfy'd  themselves  that  I  was  at  home,  but  as  their  principal  object  was 
Flat  Bush  and  an  alarm  might  be  the  consequence  of  an  attempt  on  me, 
they  passed  on  to  the  houses  of  Major  MoricreifTe*  and  Mr.  Bache,  both 
of  whom  they  made  prisoners  and  carried  off.  They  also  attacked  the 
Mayor's  house  near  Flat-Bush  Church,  but  he  luckily  heard  'em  early 
enough  to  take  possession  of  his  garret  to  which  there  was  no  entrance 
but  a  trap  door.  A  musket  fired  in  the  town,  just  at  the  time  alarmed 
'em  and  induced  'era  to  desist.  On  their  return  a  small  party  were 
detached  from  their  road,  which  was  about  200  yards  from  my  house. 
Most  happily  I  had  a  number  of  n.-y  friends  about  me,  Daniel  Murra}% 
Mr.  Upham,  Parson  Pan  ton,  t  Mr.  Chipman  and  myself  were  very  socially 
sitting  round  my  table  with  t'he  windows  open.  Whether  our  appearance 
was  too  formidable  or  whether  they  suspected  from  our  being  up  at  so 
late  an  hour  that  we  were  ready  for  'em — or  what  was  the  cause,  God 
knows,  the  fact  is  that  they  civilly  omitted  calling  and  until  8  o'clock 
in  the  morning  I  did  not  hear  or  suspect  than  anything  of  the  kind  had 
or  could  have  happened.  You  may  imagine  that  a  small  effusion  of 
gratitude  succeeded  the  intelligence.  Not  a  single  charge  of  powder  or 
ball  had  I  in  my  house.  It  is  perhaps  the  most  extraordinary  circum- 
stance that  ever  took  place.  A  party  of  men  to  land  in  a  clear  evening, 
pass  five  miles  in  a  public  road  by  a  great  number  of  houses,  enter  a 
town,  take  two  of  the  principal  inhabitants  and  return  and  embark 
unmolested — is  not  it  a  pleasant  telling  story  !  It  is  beyond  a  doubt 
that  it  was  a  premeditated  plan  between  the  rebel  officers  on  parole  and 
the  scoundrels  who  came  over.  I  fear  that  some  of  the  inhabitants  of 
this  village  were  not  innocent.  It  has  had  a  very  happy  effect  for  me. 
Gen'l  Try  on  immediately  ordered  a  party  of  the  35th  to  Flat  Bush  and 
your  Excellency's  Troop  of  Dragoons  were  sent  to  New  Utrecht.  I  have 
this  week  had  the  pleasure  of  putting  them  in  possession  of  very  com- 
fortable quarters  lately  occupied  by  rebel  officers.  They  are  all  round 
me,  Bannister!  in  the  house  with  me.  I  am  prodigiously  gratify'd  at 
this  movement  for  various  reasons.  The  lads  are  exceedingly  pleased  at 
this  mark  of  confidence  and  are  perfectly  reconciled  to  the  performance 

*Major  James  Moncreiffe,  an  officer  in  the  Engineers,  who  afterwards  per- 
formed distinguished  services  in  the  war,  particularly  at  Savannah  and  Charles- 
town.  See  Sabine's  American  Loyalists. 

fRev.  George  Panton,  M.  A.,  of  Trenton,  New  Jersey,  and  afterwards  of 
Philipsburg  (now  Yonkers),  N.  T.  During  the  war  he  was  chaplain  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales  American  Regiment.  At  the  peace  he  came  to  Nova  Scotia 
and  became  S.  P.  G.  missionary  at  Yarmouth. 

jThomas  Bannister  of  Rhode  Island,  of  Wentworth's  Volunteers.  He  was 
one  of  the  famous  "Fifty-five"  petitioners  at  the  close  of  the  war  for  lands  in 
Nova  Scotia.  He  was  a  magistrate  at  Weymouth  in  1785. 


;>0  \VIXSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

of  very  severe  duties.  Six  of  them  patrole  every  night  on  the  beach 
from  Gravesend  point  to  Deny's  and  in  the  street.  Murray*  is  quite 
Commandant  of  the  City  and  Fm  a  sort  of  Magistratical  assistant. 
(Together)  I  believe  we  shall  make  a  tolerable  figure,  and  effectually 
prevent  any  future  incursions  of  the  Eebels  —  I  am  endeavoring  to  put 
him  in  a  way  of  issuing  orders,  making  reports  &  communicating  such 
other  facts  as  I  am  acquainted  with.  I  flatter  myself  when  your  Exc'y. 
next  sees  the  company  you'l  find  'em  greatly  improved. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Benning  Wentworth  (Sea^of  3-w^Went  worth). 

July  9th,  1778. 

What  in  the  Devil's  name  Mr.  Benning  Wentworth  are  you  about 
that  you  can't  spare  the  time  to  write  a  line  to  your  friends  in  this  country. 
From  the  Gov'r  I  did  not  expect  a  letter  immediately  on  his  arrival  in 
England  because  I  supposed  he  would  have  matters  of  great  importance 
to  transact,  but  I  concluded  that  you  could  find  a  few  minutes  leisure.  I 
desire  fir,  after  you  have  seen  the  Lions  &  all  the  other  monstrous  curi- 
osities of  London,  that  you  collect  yourself  and  remember  that  there  are 
several  persons  in  this  Land  of  Liberty  and  peace  who  are  anxious  to 
hear  from  you.  The  Gov'r  will  inform  you  of  a  pretty  little  maneuvre 
of  the  rebels  on  my  end  of  the  Island.  Guess  if  I  did  not  feel  desperate 
queerly.  The  Mayor  saved  himself  by  a  trap  door.  Chip  is  determined 
tc  cut  one  at  my  house  and  I  suppose  the  example  will  be  followed  by 
the  neighbors  so  that  whenever  there's  an  alarm  all  the  Inhabitants  will 
be  bobbing  up  and  down,  like  Coons  &  Neo  in  "Nid  &  Nod."  It  is  said 
that  Gen.  Clinton  is  certain  to  come  with  the  army  by  land  to  Xew  York, 
if  so  they  must  kick  up  a  hell  of  a  dust  in  the  Jersies.  I  really  imagined 
soon  after  your  departure  that  something  very  capital  would  have  taken 
place  ere  this,  but  there  has  been  such  a  damnable  series  of  treating  and 

*Major  Daniel  Murray,  formerly  of  Brookfleld,  Mass.,  a  son  of  Colonel  John 
Murry,  whose  portrait  by  Copley  is  now  in  possession  of  J.  Douglas  Hazen  ot 
St.  John.  Daniel  Murray  at  this  time  held  a  commission  in  Governor  Went- 
worth's  Volunteers,  but  later  was  major  in  the  King's  American  Dragoons.  He 
commanded  the  'latter  corps  when  they  were  sent  to  the  St.  John  river  in  1783. 
It  was  the  first  of  the  Loyalist  regiments  to  arrive,  and  for  a  while  it  lay  en- 
camped at,  or  near,  the  site  of  Carleton  on  the  west  side  of  the  St.  John  harbor, 
but  later  it  was  sent  up  the  river  to  be  disbanded  in  Prince  William.  Major 
Murray  operated  saw  mills  on  the  Pokiok  river,  but  they  proved  unremunerative. 
and  were  destroyed  by  fire  in  1798.  He  owned  200  acres  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Pokiok  and  also  120  acres  on  Long  Island,  in  Prince  William,  and  here  he  re- 
sided for  some  years.  His  property  was  sold  at  the  instance  of  his  creditors, 
Messrs.  Donaldson  and  Garden,  in  1807.  The  major  had  left  the  province  in 
very  embarrassed  circumstances  about  the  year  1803.  He  died  at  Portland, 
Maine,  in  1832.  He  was  an  able  and  enterprising  man,  but  unfortunate. 


1778]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  31 

retreating — Pidling,  conciliating  &  commissioning,  that  fighting  (which 
is  the  only  remedy  for  the  American  disorder  has  been  totally  suspended). 
However  &c.,  &c., — God  grant  that  my  next  to  you  may  be  dated  in  some 
Province  rather  to  the  northward  of  this.  Sure  am  I  that  the  army  at 
present  here  may  crush  this  cursed  rebellion  if  they  exert  themselves  no\v. 
I  hate  the  subject.  Again  I  desire  to  be  informed  when  are  you  to  return, 
what  you  are  about,  &c.  Let  me  be  remembered  to  all  my  American 
friends,  and  believe  me 

Most  cordially  &  affectionately  yours, 

Ned. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Judge  Jonathan  Sewali. 

August,  1778. 

As  well  may  a  Man  of  Y\rar  put  to  sea  without  Her  tender — or  a 
new-made  General  move  without  his  Aid  d'Camp —  as  a  letter  from 
Chipman  to  Judge  Sewali  be  concluded  without  a  Scrip  from  me.  His 
epistles  lately  are  of  a  bulk  so  enormous  &  contain  intelligence  so  pro- 
digious with  comments  so  monstrous,  that  a  summary  or  abridgement  is 
absolutely  necessary — mine  like  running  Footmen  push  forward  with  all 
possible  expedition  just  to  announce  his  coming.  And  now  may  it  please 
your  honor,  he  is  coining  to  inform  you  of  a  number  of  particulars — 1 
wish  I  could  saw  with  "authentic  certainty" — and  to  give  his  opinion 
upon  a  number  of  events  which  I'm  oblig'd  to  declare  have  not  as  yet 
&  probably  never  will  take  place.  Monstrously  gratify'd  was  I  at  reading 
a  few  paragraphs  in  your  letter  wherein  you  charge  him  with  being  rather 
"too  sanguine  in  giving  credit  to  vague  reports"  &  inform  him  that 
"many  of  his  articles  of  intelligence  have  been  propagated  &  refuted 
before  his  letters  arrive."  This  very  matter  I  have  told  him  of  several 
times —  but  to  little  purpose —  until  the  other  day  an  accident  convinced 
him  how  dangerous  it  was  to  report  stories  relative  to  public  matters  in 
these  uncertain  times,  until  they  were  certainly  authenticated.  You  will 
please  to  observe  that  we  live  in  a  house  directly  opposite  to  a  remarkable 
Dutch  Church,  which  is  built  in  an  octagonal  form  tapering  from  Bottom 
to  Top  &  terminating  in  a  small  Belfry —  In  short  the  external  appearance 
is  so  very  singular  and  odd  that  my  friend  Jesse  Adair  when  we  landed 
at  this  place  on  the  great  27th  of  Aug.  swore  "it  was  a  Haystack  with 
a  chimney  to  it."  Within  side  of  the  building  is  a  dark  crooked  stair- 
case which  winds  round  the  house  &  leads  at  last  to  the  Belfrey  from 
whence  you  have  a  most  extensive  view  of  the  sea.  To  this  place  on 
all  occasions  our  friend  repairs  when  there's  the  least  suggestion  that  a 
Fleet  or  Ship  is  to  be  seen.  Unfortunately  a  report  prevail'd  that  the 


32  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

French  fleet  had  return'd  to  this  harbor.  He  together  with  a  Mr.  Forrest 
(who  like  other  human  creatures  is  liable  to  mistakes)  mounted  the  look- 
out and  saw  most  distinctly  with  a  "very  good  glass,"  Count  D'Estaing 
advance  toward  the  Hook  &  his  Lordship  our  Commander  in  Chief  retreat 
from  before  him  &  cover  himself  within  the  Beach — their  colors  were 
plain  to  be  seen,  their  motions  were  such  as  from  the  reason  &  nature 
of  things  render'd  it  impossible  that  the  fleet  without  should  be  any 
other  than  that  commanded  by  Count  D'Estaing  and  the  fleet  within  of 
course  the  same  which  was  directed  by  Viscount  Howe.  Full  of  this 
important  news  he  posted  to  the  City,  &  (saving  a  little  altercation  with 
an  honest  farmer  who  declar'd  that  no  fleet  or  vessel  had  arriv'd)  he  got 
safe  to  the  Coffee-house  Bridge  (where  all  secrets  are  divulg'd).  Here  he 
communicated  the  tidings  &  soon  monopoliz'd  the  attention  of  a  gaping 
multitude.  Every  presumptuous  doubter  was  satisfy'd  by  Chip's  reason'g 
&  conclusions — the  story  flew — it  reached  Head-Quarters — our  friend  was 
summoned  to  appear,  expatiated  on  the  motions  —  the  signals  —  the 
Colors — the  numbers — &  the  magnitude  of  the  Ships,  &  came  off  after 
convincing  the  most  obstinate  that  he  was  right.  But  alas  he  was  wrong. 
It  was  not  the  French-fleet,  it  was  only  a  small  detachment  of  his  Lord- 
ship squadron  which  were  station'd  without  &  were  approaching  nearer 
the  shore.  Since  this  I  really  believe  that  proof  more  authentic  will  be 
waited  for — and  that  greater  dependence  may  be  placed  on  his  next  in- 
formation. 


E.  Winslow  to  Capt.  John  Smith,  Pay  Master  of  the  Loyalist  Forces. 
Sir,— 

Inclosed  is  a  contingent  bill  for  extra  expenses  and  payment  of 
Deputies  from  August  1777  to  August  1778. 

In  July  1776  I  had  the  honor  of  being  appointed  Muster  Master 
General  of  Provincial  Forces  raised  and  to  be  raised  in  North  America 
from  Nova  Scotia  to  West  Florida  inclusive.  At  that  time  there  was 
only  one  provincial  corps  in  his  Majesty's  service  (excepting  those  at 
Halifax).  Afterwards  the  Queen's  Ranger's,  DeLancey's  Brigade,  Jersey 
Volunteers,  &c.,  &c.,  were  recruited  and  quartered  in  various  places  remote 
from  each  other.  It  was  thought  expedient  that  all  the  corps  should 
bo  mustered  once  in  two  months — this  order  occasioned  much  travelling 
and  expense  to  the  muster-master;  I  was  therefore  directed  to  charge 
extra  expenses  and  indulged  in  appointing  a  deputy.  The  provincial 
corps  have  increased  so  very  considerably  since,  that  Sir  Wm.  Howe  was 
induced  to  appoint  deputies  for  me  in  several  places.  Mr.  Turner  was 
appointed  at  Halifax.  On  Mr.  Bridgham's  resignation  Mr.  Chipman  was 


1778]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  33 

appointed  at  New  York,  and  on  my  being  ordered  to  Philadelphia  his 
appointment  was  confirmed  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton.  I  was  afterwards 
ordered  from  Philadelphia  and  Mr.  Mouat  was  appointed  to  act  during 
my  absence,  and  on  his  departure  Mr.  Bell  transacted  the  business. 
General  Howe  also  appointed  Capt.  Martyn,  a  refugee  from  New  England, 
to  act  as  deputy  muster-master  at  Ehode  Island,  and  directed  me  to  pay 
him  5  shillings  per  day  which  I  have  done  to  24th  August. 

As  I  am  under  a  necessity  not  only  of  mustering  the  provincial  Forces 
six  times  a  year  exclusive  of  the  partial  musters,  but  also  of  adjusting  and 
certifying  every  abstract  for  pay  of  the  commissioned,  non  commissioned 
and  private  men,  the  business  of  my  office  has  Become  very  important  and 
laborious.  At  a  moderate  computation  I  do  not  ride  less  than  260  or 
270  miles  every  muster  and  I  am  obliged  to  keep  one  person  constantly 
employed  in  my  office. 

I  shall  esteem  it  a  very  particular  favor  if  you  will  present  my  account 
and  obtain  the  necessary  warrant  for  that  and  my  pay.  I  would  not  have 
presumed  to  trouble  you  on  this  occasion,  but  am  prevented  by  sickness 
from  making  a  personal  application. 

I  am  very  respectfully, 

Your  most  obed't  serv't. 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Edward  Winslow  to  Lieut.  Col.  Innes.* 

11  August,  1778. 
Sir,- 

When  anything  materially  affects  the  service  I  conceive  it  my  duty 
to  represent  it  to  you,  whether  my  knowledge  of  the  transaction  is 
acquired  by  accident,  or  officially.  I  have  in  a  free  conversation  suggested 
my  opinion  to  }rou  that  the  Corps  of  King's  Orange  Rangers!  is  at  present 
in  a  position  peculiarly  alarming —  Feuds  &  dissensions  among  the 
Officers —  Mutinies  &  Desertions  among  the  men.  Irregularities  in 
Eeports  are  becoming  exceedingly  frequent.  From  what  cause  or  con- 
currence of  causes  these  circumstances  arise  I  cannot  presume  to 
determine. 

Whether  the  present   Commandant  t    is  not  sufficiently  experienced 

*Colonel  Innes,  as  inspector  general  of  the  Loyalist  regiments,  was  in  a 
large  measure  responsible  for  their  efficiency. 

fThe  King's  Orange  Rangers,  a  Loyalist  corps  raised  mainly  in  Orange 
county,  New  Jersey,  by  Lieut.  Col.  John  Bayard.  The  first  enrollment  was  in 
December,  1776.  The  corps  was  ordered  to  Nova  Scotia,  and  embarked  for 
Halifax  Oct.  27,  1778.  It  remained  in  Nova  Scotia  till  the  peace  in  1783,  and  was 
then  disbanded  at  Quaco  (or  St.  Martins),  near  St.  John. 

J Major  Samuel  V.  Bayard,  son  of  Col.  John  Bayard,  is  probably  here  re- 
ferred to.  He  was  at  this  time  only  twenty -one  years  of  age.  He  settled  in 
Wilmot,  N.  S.,  and  died  there  in  1832.  Dr.  William  Bayard  of  St.  John  is  & 
srandson. 


34  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

in  military  matters  ?  or  whether  by  any  other  means  there  is  in  officers 
and  men  a  want  of  that  confidence  in  him  which  is  essential  to  order  & 
discipline  in  a  new  Corps  I  know  not —  but  from  the  variety  of  unhappy 
events  which  have  of  late  taken  place,  I  apprehend  one  or  the  other. 
I  am  sensible  that  on  days  of  public  parade —  such  as  Inspections  & 
Musters — there  is  not  a  provincial  Corps  in  his  Majesty's  service  more 
capable  of  distinguishing  itself  by  a  performance  of  military  exercise  & 
maneuvres  than  this — nor  is  there  a  better  body  of  men. 

These  considerations  increase  my  concern  at  the  information  this 
day  received  from  Mr.  Chipman,  who  on  his  way  from  mustering  Col. 
Emerick's*  recruits  yesterday  learned  that  on  Sunday  night  last  fourteen 
men,  including  the  non-Comniissioned  Officers  of  the  Guard,  deserted  to 
the  enemy  from  the  Ship  where  they  were  posted.  Of  these  men  the 
principal  part  were  such  as  inlisted  when  the  corps  was  in  its  infancy  & 
until  this  have  continued  faithful  &  obedient. 

An  example  of  this  sort,  with  repeated  declarations  of  other  men 
that  they  shall  avail  themselves  of  the  first  opp'y  to  follow  it,  appears  to 
me  sufficiently  important  to  justify  my  troubling  you  with  this. 
I  am  very  respectfully, 

Your  most  obed't  h'ble  Serv't. 

Ed.  Winslow, 


Edward  Winslow  to  Jonathan  Sewall. 

[1778.] 

The  conduct  of  our  dearly  beloved  cousins  at  Boston  towards  Blowers 
gives  a  pretty  little  idea  of  the  present  government.  It  surely  deserves 
the  name  that  used  to  be  so  emphatically  pronounced  by  our  superlative 
friend  now  at  Brompton,  "most  mixtest."  A  certain  quantity  of  power 
seems  to  be  dealt  out  by  the  grand  Congressional  Assembly  to  each 
province  [State.]  The  division  of  that  among  the  variety  of  orders 
which  compose  the  system  makes  a  monstrous  confusion;  the  consequent 
little  squabbles  (as  somebody  observed  to  Blowers)  must  be  expected  in 
"a  free  State/' 

Blowers  tells  us  many  extraordinary  stories  relative  to  the  improve- 
ment of  the  Bostonians  in  what  a  certain  lady  calls  "the  liberal  arts/' 
Would  you  realise  that  the  sons  of  some  of  our  true  old  charter  saints 
publicly  roll  in  chariots  with  kept  mistresses,  and  that  many  of  our 

*Lieut.  Col.  Andreas  Emerick,  a  German,  who  commanded  a  corps  of 
chasseurs  and  dragoons,  mostly  Loyalists,  which  was  organized  about  April, 
1778.  See  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York,  vol.  ii.,  p.  82. 


1778]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  35 

former  meek  and  lowly  Christians,  now  freed  from  restraint,  are  rioting 
at  a  great  rate.  The  principal  ladies,  deal  creatures,  are  not  so  well 
pleased  with  the  present  assemblies  as  they  were  with  the  former  ones. 
A  daughter  of  Hitchbcrn  the  Boat-builder  married  to  Bruce  the  butcher 
(who  had  made  his  fortune  by  privateering  and  been  to  France)  was 
heard  to  make  comparisons  not  to  the  advantage  of  the  present  managers. 
She  exclaimed  bitterly  and  loudly  that  it  was  not  now  as  in  the  old  times; 
then  they  were  judicious  in  the  choice  of  company  but  now  forsooth 
assemblies  were  like  operas,  everybody  that  could  pay  was  admitted.  I  wish 
I  could  know  what  were  Mrs.  Bruce's  ideas  of  operas  five  years  ago — I 
dare  say  she  thought  they  were  something  to  eat.  *  * 

There  is  no  scene  that  can  be  exhibited  on  the  face  of  the  earth  the 
observation  of  which  would  afford  more  genuine  pleasure  to  me  than  a 
public  gathering  (in  the  way  of  dance  &  cards)  of  these  new  made  gentry- 
mixed  with  broken  French  Counts,  &c.  &c. 

Ed.  Winslow. 

Benning  Wentworth  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  Berners- Street,  Sep.  19,  1778. 
Dear  Winslow, — 

I  am  exceedingly  gratified  by  your  friendly  letter  of  the  23rd  of 
June,  and  really  ashamed  that  it  was  not  in  answer  to  one  from  me.  I'm 
censurable  indeed  for  not  having  addressed  you  long  since,  even  before 
I'd  seen  the  Lions  and  other  great  curiosities  in  this  vast  metropolis, 
which  Fve  viewed  in  turn,  but  as  you  may  have  heard  of  them  from  an 
F.ble  hand,*  and  possibly  examine  them  yourself  soon,  Fll  not  attempt  a 
description.  * 

I  find  you  still  keep  up  the  old  game  and  that  your  house  is  yet  the 
most  desirable  in  the  country —  I  congratulate  you  on  your  escape  from 
the  hands  of  tyranny;  rcethinks  had  the  ragged  rogues  felt  bold  enough 
to  storm  your  castle,  it  would  have  deprived  me  of  so  pleasant  an  epistle 
from  you.  Late  hours  are  sometimes  useful  and  a  good  appearance  is 
half  the  battle.  I  want  to  see  Chip's  Trap  door  exceedingly;  Fd  hazard 
a  voyage  in  the  month  of  March  for  a  single  sight  and  it  would  be 
charming  to  see  it  improved  upon  an  alarm. 

Pray  make  my  best  regards  to  him,  for  in  truth  he  is  among  the 
first  of  my  friends.         *         *         * 
I  am  dear  Sir, 

"Y  our  attached  friend  and  servant, 

B.  Wentworth. 

*The  reference  is  to  Governor  Wentworth.  Benning  Wentworth  was  a  brother 
of  Lady  Wentworth;  he  died  Feb.  18th,  1808,  in  his  53rd  year  and  was  at  the  time 
Secretary  of  Nova  Scotia. 


36  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

Jonathan  Sewell  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Bristol,  20th  Sep'r  1778. 

Ned,— 

For  heaven's  sake  tell  me  when,  where,  and  how  you  learnt  the  art 

of  painting  eo  critically  as  to  make  me  laugh  and  cry  at  the  same  instant  ? 
I  noier  experienced  it  before,  but  upon  my  soul  your  tragic-comic  letter, 
strange  as  it  may  seem,  did  absolutely  produce  these  two  contrary  effects 
upon  your  humble  servant.  I  read  and  wept  and  laughed,  and  laughed 
and  wept  and  read  in  unison  through  your  whole  epistle.  Such  serious 
heart  rending  truths  told  in  a  style  and  manner  so  Ceivantic,  so  Shandyish, 
so  strio-comically,  had  they  been  read  to  an  Angel  and  a  Devil  must 
have  forced  a  smile  and  a  tear  from  both —  no  wonder  then  that  I,  who 
am  a  compound  of  both,  should  laugh  like  Demoeritus  while  tears  flowed 
plentifully  at  every  line —  Your  crooked  rivers,  Chesapeaks,  reason  & 
nature  of  things,  and  then  the  "army  in  high  spirits" — the  burthen  of 
the  sons:,  faith,  for  three  years  past — or  at  least  the  chorus  at  the  end 
of  every  campaign,  affords  such  a  picture  of  three  years  transactions,  that 
I  am  almost  determined  to  print  it  and  set  every  man,  woman  and  child 
in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  and  the  Town  of  Berwick  upon  Tweed  to 
laughing  and  crying.  No  faith  I'll  inclose  it  to  Lord  North  to  be  com- 
municated to  His  Majesty  in  private — &  yet,  God  bless  his  good  soul, 
why  should  I  wish  to  make  him  cry  ?  It  is  no  fault  of  his  that  this 
cursed  rebellion  was  not  suppressed  long  ago —  unless  you  call  mercy  and 
tenderness  in  the  extreme  a  fault.  Well  I  believe  it  is  in  this  instance,  & 
so  let  his  Majesty  cry  a  little,  it  won't  hurt  him  much,  considering  the 
accompanyment  will  be  laughing,  allegro  et  il  penseroso.  His  Majesty, 
heaven  long  preserve  him,  is  a  great  lover  of  music  &  a  shrewd  sign  that 
in  his  composition  is  too  much  of  the  milk  of  human  kindness  to  suffer 

him  to  deal  justly  with  our  d d  fanatical,  republican,  New  England, 

rebellious,  ungenerous,  ungrateful  scoundrels.  Oh  !  how  I  wish  they  had 
for  their  sovereign  for  a  little  time  an  unfeeling,  politic  king  of  Prussia 
or  Empress  of  Russia  with  such  an  army  and  navy  as  for  the  last  three 
years  have  been  marching  and  counter-marching  by  land  and  regattaing 
by  sea,  reconnoitring  breastworks  &  peeping  into  rivers  and  harbors — 
"all  in  high  spirits."  Under  the  direction  of  a  mind  not  entangled  with 
the  softer  feelings  of  humanity  or  something  worse,  what  might  not  have 
been  effected  ?  would  not  the  Congress  have  been  sent  to  the  Devil  long 
ago  ?  We  should  have  seen  Cities,  towns,  villages  and  fields  destroyed 
and  laid  waste  till  distress  had  opened  the  eyes  of  the  deluded  and  changed 
the  hearts  of  the  deluding,  and  brought  back  the  surviving  remnant  to 
dutv  and  happiness.  *  *  Boston  well  fortified  was  left 

standing  with  all  its  conveniences  for  Trade  and  piracy  to  accommodate 


[1778  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  37 

these  vipers  who  first  fomented  the  rebellion.  Long  Island  was  taken 
and  the  brave  conquerors  restrained  till  15,000  rebels  quietly  retreated  to 
a  place  of  safety  —  Philadelphia  was  taken  late  in  the  Autumn  only  to  be 
oiven  up  in  the  Spring,  cum  multis  aliis  quae  nunc  prescribere  longum  esf,  and 
would  only  serve  renovere  dolorem 

Patience  !  It  is  mortifying  to  look  back,  let  us  look  forward  then. 
I  have  not  lost  my  anchor  of  hope  yet.  I  natter  myself  the  perfidy  of 
.France  and  the  obstinacy  and  haughtiness  of  the  Congress  will  rouse 
Britons  to  vengeance.  I  have  great  dependence  upon  the  present  Com- 
mander in  Chief  and  if  Admiral  Lord  Howe  will  but  give  a  good  account 
of  D'Estaing's  French  fleet  all  may  be  well  yet. 

Jan'y  4th  1779. 

N.  B.  Thus  far  had  been  wrote  some  months  in  answer  to  your  first 
letter.  Let  me  go  en  a  little.  How  prematurely  we  judge 

on  this  side  of  the  water  as  well  as  you.  0  Lord  !  are  we  to  go  on 
thus  all  the  voyage  ?*  No.  Heaven  forbid.  It  must  come  right  some 
time  or  other,  but  God  only  knows  when. 

I  thank  you  for  all  your  kindness  to  Chippy,  t  I  hope  I  shall  live  to 
thank  you  at  Cambridge  my  lad  ! 

Yours,  de  tout, 


Edward  Winslow  to  Eobert  McCulloh. 

->  20th  Oct'r.  1778. 

Sir,—  ^  ''' 

Mr.  Chipman  informs  me  that  you  are  to  accompany  the  provincial- 
Corps  who  are  at  this  time  under  orders  for  embarkation,  and  that  there 
is  no  objection  either  with  Col.  Innes  or  yourself,  to  your  acting  as  an 
assistant  to  me,  at  which  I  am  gratify'd,  &  I  inclose  you  such  instructions 
as  have  been  given  to  the  other  gent'n  who  are  employed  by  me.  The 
last  of  which,  (respecting  an  alphabetical  record)  you  need  not  comply 
with,  so  far  as  relates  to  those  Corps  which  embark  from  this  place  as  I 
have  one  already.  I  only  wish  you  would  send  me  the  Muster-Eolls  at 
every  period  &  I'll  enter  the  Recruits,  Casualties,  &c.  Should  any  new 
Corps  be  raised  within  your  muster  you  will  find  the  advantage  of  such 
an  alphabetical  list  —  on  a  wide  paper  —  for  at  a  subsequent  muster  you 
can  see  without  any  kind  of  trouble  if  the  same  person  has  been  absent  two 
successive  musters  on  any  doubtful  pretence,  and  a  variety  of  other  con- 
veniences arise  from  it. 

*ReferrJng  to  the  ill  success  of  British  arms. 

fWard  Chipman  had  spent  several  years  in  Mr.  Sewell's  family,  and  was 
greatly  endeared  to  him.  See  letter  in  New  Brunswick  Magazine,  October,  1899, 
page  183. 


38  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

Our  book  is  divided  into  7  Columns.  Names:  Casualties  at  Febry; 
April;  June;  Aug't;  Oct;  Dec'r. 

I  am  so  exceedingly  ill  that  I  have  no  expectation  of  seeing  you  before 
your  departure,  otherwise  I  should  have  settled  the  matter  of  your  pay, 
&c.  Col.  Innes  has  been  so  obliging  as  to  say  that  he  would  do  what  was 
necessary  about  your  appointm't.  My  other  deputies  receive  five  shillings 
a  day  &  (if  they  are  oblig'd  to  travel),  are  allowed  for  their  expenses. 

I  sincerely  wish  you  health  &  an  agreeable  campaign,  &  am  - 
Your  Friend  &  Serv't, 

Ed.   Winslow. 


Benjamin  Hallowell*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  23rd  October,  1778. 
Dear  Sir, — 

Since  I  have  been  in  England,  I  have  often  by  the  way  of  my  brother 
Kobert,  had  very  great  pleasure  in  hearing  that  you  were  well  and  had 
employments  under  Government  which  filled  up  most  of  your  time,  and 
taking  it  for  Granted  that  some  of  the  businesses  must  be  Lucrative  I 
had  the  greatest  Satisfaction  in  thinking,  that  for  your  many  losses  and 
much  Suffering,  you  would  after  paying  the  expenses  of  Management 
realize  something  handsome. 

Eve^body  but  Scounderals  in  this  country  have  been  much  Dis- 
appointed in  their  expectations  from  your  Side  of  the  water.  The  last 
as  well  as  former  Summer  had  like  to  have  passed  over  without  anything 
being  done.  General  Clinton's  passage  thro'  the  heart  of  the  Enemies 
Country  with  the  Eemains  of  Gen.  Howe's  Army,  opposed  by  the 
Combined  force  of  the  United  States  has  done  Sir  H.  Clinton  great  Credit, 
and  had  not  Count  D'Estaing  arrived  off  the  Coast,  and  required  the 
attention  of  the  Army  and  Navy,  much  more  would  have  been  done,  and 
have  put  an  end  to  the  War  by  Conquest,  had  not  the  Commission  re- 
strained the  Military  operations. 

Some  time  since  I  wrote  and  requested  the  favour  that  you  would 
urge  Mr.  Isaac  Winslow,  Executor  to  his  unkle  the  late  Isaac  Winslow 
Esq.,  who  was  formerly  of  Boston  and  died  in  N.  York,  to  impower  his 
Attorney  here,  (who  has  abundance  of  Effects  in  his  hands)  to  Discharge 
a  bond  due  to  me  from  the  Estate  of  the  Deceased  with  Interest  Between 
£7  &  £8  hundred  pounds,  &  having  never  heard  from  either  of  you  I 

*Benjamin  Hallowell  was  a  brother  of  Robert  Hallowell  (comptroller  of 
customs)  and  was  himself  prominent  in  the  customs'  troubles  at  Boston,  which 
were  one  of  (the  causes  of  the  American  revolution.  He  was  a  commissioner  of 
the  customs.  He  sailed  for  Halifax  March  10,  1776,  and  in  July  following  went 
to  England,  where  he  remained  until  the  close  of  the  war.  He  died  in  Upper 
Canada  in  1799,  aged  75  years. 


1778]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  39 

suppose  that  my  letter  must  have  miscarried.  Therefore  I  must  now 
renew  my  request  that  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  deliver  the  inclosed  to 
the  Executor  &  press  him  to  give  orders  for  the  Discharge  of  the  Debt. 

I  am,  Dear  Sir,  With  the  Greatest  Truth  Your  faithful 
Friend,  And  wish  it  was  in  my  power  to  shew  my  inclination  to  be  of  use 
to  you,  I  am  Sure  none  stands  more  ready  than 

Your  Much  Obliged  Humble  Serv't 

Benj.  Hallo  well. 
Please  to  direct  my  letters  to  Lane  &  Frazier, 


Edward  Winslow  to  Major  Barry. 

November  13,  1778. 

In  Penny's*  last  letter  I'm  informed  "that  Major  Barry  has  charged 
me  with  negligence  in  not  writing  to  him,"  &  she  is  pleased  to  add  in 
a  very  pretty  sisterly  kind  of  stile — that,  "if  I  do  not  immediately  make 
a  satisfactory  apology  I  am  an  ungrateful  scoundrel  &  deserve  to  be 
hanged."  I  should  almost  assent  to  the  propriety  of  her  conclusion  & 
the  justice  of  her  sentence  if  I  could  not  excuse  myself  by  asserting  that 
I've  been  scarcely  able  to  write  my  name  for  the  four  last  months,  Bilious 
fever,  agues,  &  rheumatics,  &  sundry  other  disorders  (peculiar  to  this 
uncivil  capricious  climate)  united  in  their  attack  upon  me  &  effectually 
hindered  the  performance  of  any  duty  social  or  official.  This  apology 
(made  as  early  as  possible)  will  I  trust  be  acknowledged  as  satisfactory. 

The  uninteresting  events  which  constantly  succeed  each  other  in  a 
garrisoned  City,  afford  a  man  no  chance  of  amusing  his  friend  at  a 
distance;  a  detail  of  'em  would  be  painful  to  a  writer  &  would  give  no 
pleasure  to  him  who  reads. 

Our  attention  has  been  rous'd  at  some  late  movements  of  the  army. 
The  Caching  of  nine  British  regiments  (viz.  4th,  5,  27,  28,  35,  40,  46, 
49,  55th)  who  under  Maj.  Gen'l  Grant  it  is  agreed  are  gone  to  the  West 
Indies,  and  two  Provincial  regiments,  the  Pennsylvania  &  Maryland 
Loyalists  (who  were  in  the  same  fleet)  to  Pensacola.  The  Expedition 
commanded  by  Lt.  Col.  Campbell  furnishes  matter  for  variety  of  con- 
jectures. It  consists  of  the  71st  Eegt.,  two,  or  part  of  two  Eegt's 
Foreigners,  New  York  Volunteers  300;  1st  Delancey's  260;  2nd  Do.  200; 
3rd  of  Skinners  300 1  &  a  small  party  of  Artillery.  The  prevailing  idea 
at  first  was  that  they  were  intended  for  St.  Augustine  but  before  their 

*Edward  Winslow's  sister  Penelope. 

fThe  Loyalist  corps  greatly  distinguished  themselves  in  the  campaigns  in 
the  south.  Some  description  of  their  exploits  will  be  found  in  Tarleton's  Cam- 
paigns and  in  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York. 


40  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1778 

departure,  which  was  delayed  by  contrary  winds,  some  circumstances  took 
place  to  alter  our  opinion.  While  they  lay  at  the  Hook,  Light  Infantry 
Companies  were  formed,  and  each  corps  contributed  in  proportion  to  its 
strength,*  Sir  James  Baird  to  command  the  whole  &  such  other  arrange- 
ments were  made  as  sufficiently  convinced  me  that  they  expected 
opposition  at  their  landing.  It  is  since  confidently  asserted  that  a  large 
body  of  men  in  K  Carolina  &  Georgia  had  solicited  Sr.  Henry  to  send 
a  party  into  either  of  these  provinces  which  they  would  instantly  join, 
but  we've  been  so  often  amused  by  this  kind  of  intelligence  that  I 
acknowledge  my  expectations  from  the  report  are  not  very  sanguine. 
Bayard's  Corps!  reinforces  Nova  Scotia. 

The  speculators  on  Political  subjects  who  now  exercise  their  talents 
here  are  either  Refugees  from  the  Country,  mortify'd  with  their  present 
situation  &  murmuring  at  every  public  measure,  or  mere  superficial 
traders  collected  from  every  quarter  of  this  strange  world.  From  such 
men  impartial  discussions  cannot  be  expected,  I  listen  to  'em  because 
there  are  none  better.  The  sending  Provincial  Troops  on  such  services 
has  become  matter  of  consideration  among  'em;  they  have  generally 
censured  the  measure  as  unjust  &  not  consistent  with  the  original  com- 
pact. This  assertion  arises  from  an  idea  that  all  or  most  of  the  provincial 
corps  were  Local  &  intended  to  defend  particular  provinces  from  which 
they  could  not  be  removed  but  by  their  own  consent.  Contracted  as  this 
sentiment  may  at  first  appear  there  is  some  reason  for  it.  Those  men 
who  consulted  their  own  immediate  advantage  and  reputation  more  than 
the  public  good  gave  assurances,  for  which  they  had  no  authority  from 
the  Com'r  in  Chief,  and  seduced  men  into  the  service  by  promises  that 
they  should  not  be  called,  on  any  emergency,  from  particular  places. 
Howe\er  as  I  have  the  honor  of  being  connected  with  those  troops  I'm 
not  puzzled  to  account  for  the  policy,  if  unable  to  applaud  the  justice 
of  the  measure.  Most  of  the  recruits  enlisted  expressly  for  the  term 
of  two  years,  or  during  the  continuance  of  the  rebellion;  there  is  not 
wanting  among  them  men  of  sufficient  cunning  to  suggest  that  those 
terms  imply  an  option  in  the  soldier  whether  he  will  continue  in  service 
after  the  expiration  of  the  first  period;  quibbling  and  dishonorable  a» 
this  suggestion  may  seem  to  a  European  gentleman;  it  is  a  tolerable 
pretence  for  an  American  labourer,  and  the  consequences  of  it  were  more 
serious  than  you  would  at  first  imagine.  Discharges  have  been  demanded 
by  those  who  enlisted  early,  &c.  Were  they  to  remain  entirely  inactive 
and  in  the  vicinity  of  the  places  where  they  formerly  lived  desertions 

*A  light  infantry   corps   formed   in  this   way  was  known  as   the  Provincial 
Light  Infantry,  and  was  in  1780  under  command  of  Major  Thomas  Barclay, 
t Bayard's  corps  was  known  as  the  King's  Orange  Rangers. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  41 

would  be  frequent.  The  pleasure  of  gratifying  revenge  for  recent  perse- 
cutions and  injuries,  or  a  flush  of  romantic  military  ardor  were  the 
inducements  to  engage.  They  have  been  in  some  measure  disappointed 
in  their  first  expectation  and  a  two  years  service  as  soldiers  has  con- 
siderably cooled  'em  in  the  latter.  It  cannot  therefore  be  impolitic  to 
change  their  ground. 

Those  who  are  actuated  by  mere  caprice  I  do  not  pity,  but  there 
are  many  who  would  with  alacrity  serve  during  the  rebellion  under  the 
sa'me  officers  who  promised  to  lead  them — but  from  necessity  or  some 
other  cause,  Commanders  have  beeen  changed,  men  drafted,  &c.,  &c. 
Coxcombs — Fools — &  Blackguards,  have  been  provided  as  officers  in  the 
Provincial  Line.  The  soldiers,  unaccustomed  to  severity,  have  been  made 
miserable  and  unhappy.  I  really  am  no  advocate  for  indulgencies  to 
soldiers  but  I  cannot  think  it  below  the  dignity  of  an  officer  who  wishes 
well  to  the  service  in  general  to  consult  the  disposition  of  his  men. 
But  enough  *  I've  been  listening  this  day  with  great 

satisfaction  to  the  observations  of  my  friend  Blowers,  made  during  his 
barbarous  confinement  at  Boston,  but  before  I  communicate  any  part  of 
'em,  let  me  add  my  grateful  acknowledgements  to  those  of  that  worthy 
man  for  your  extreme  politeness  and  attention  to  him.  When  he  left 
this  garrison  I  should  have  taken  the  liberty  of  mentioning  him  to  you, 
but  I  considered  that  from  his  connections  at  Rhode  Island  you  would  most 
probably  see  him  &  I  was  sure  that  his  good  qualities  could  not  escape 
your  discernment  I  am  exceedingly  gratify' d  at  finding  that  you  were 
made  acquainted  with  his  plan  and  that  it  met  your  approbation.  The 
harsh  treatment  which  he  received  during  his  stay  at  Boston  was  most 
unprecedented  &  cruel  .  You  may  one  day  hear  the  particulars  from  him, 
I  will  only  tell  you  that  the  dampest,  dirtiest  hole  in  the  common  gaol 
was  the  place  allotted  him. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Dr.  Jeffries.* 

[1779.] 

As  I  have  reason  to  suppose  that  your  pursuits  as  an  individual  arc 
nearly  similar  to  my  own,  and  that  our  attachment  to  this  country  arises 
from  the  same  cause,  &  is  fixed  on  the  same  principles,  I  am  under  no 
restraint  in  writing  on  any  subject  which  concerns  it:  and  tho'  my 
speculations  may  not  be  materially  useful,  there  is  a  satisfaction  in  com- 

*Doctor  John  Jeffries,  of  Boston,  was  born  in  1744  and  graduated  at  Harvard 
in  1763 — two  years  prior  to  graduation  of  Edward  Winslow.  He  left  Boston  at 
the  evacuation  in  1776  and  went  to  Halifax.  In  1779  he  went  from  thence  to 
England.  Afterwards  he  was  appointed  surgeon  to  the  British  forces  at 
Charlestown  and  New  York.  He  died  in  Boston  in  1819,  aged  75  years. 


42 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  f!779 


municating  'em.  To  gratify  your  curiosity  is  among  my  motives  for 
writing  at  present,  but  I  acknowledge  the  principal  one  is  to  support, 
by  as  fair  arguments  as  I  can  produce,  some  opinions  which  I  offered 
during  your  friendly  visit  at  Springfield.  A  long  acquaintance  with  you 
has  confirmed  me  in  the  idea  that  I  forfeit  your  esteem  whenever  my 
actions  or  my  serious  decisions  appear  the  result  of  passion,  prejudice 
or  interest.  That  forfeiture  is  an  event  which  I  should  deprecate  as 
very  unfortunate  to  myself,  and  to  avoid  it  I  shall  endeavor  to  convince 
you  that  I  was  not  influenced  by  any  such  principle  in  the  declarations 
which  I  frequently  made  on  our  favorite  subject,  The  Provincial  Troops  I 
I  have  uniformaly  asserted  and  I  most  sincerely  believe  that  those  Corps 
if  duly  encouraged  would  have  been  much  more  respectable  in  point  of 
numbers  than  they  are  at  present,  and  if  properly  employed  would  have 
contributed  largely  towards  suppressing  the  rebellion  in  America.  These 
are  the  facts  on  which  I  mean  to  enlarge. 

It  seems  to  be  a  proposition  almost  incontrovertible  that  the  original 
design  in  the  institution  of  Provincial  Corps  was  "  To  employ  as  bene- 
"ficially  as  possible  such  of  the  Americans,  or  American  residents,  as 
"  inclined  to  serve  in  a  military  line;  that  those  who  were  of  consequence 
'•'  in  the  country  might  exert  their  influence  in  procuring  recruits  for  the 
c"  service  of  Government/7  In  this  light  the  plan  was  viewed  by  the 
King's  friends  assembled  at  Boston  when  it  was  first  suggested  by  the 
venerable  Gen'l  Ruggles;*  and  I  have  not  forgotten  with  what  alacrity 
the  idea  was  adopted  by  many  of  the  most  respectable  characters  among 
the  refugees.  Such,  however,  was  the  situation  of  the  British  army,  their 
distress  for  provisions  &  other  perplexing  circumstances,  that  an  effort 
to  raise  Recruits  there  would  have  been  impolitic  and  must  have  proved 
ineffectual.  'Tis  unnecessary  for  my  present  purpose  to  take  any  notice 
of  the  Regiment  called  The  Emigrants  f  as  that  is  now  numbered  in  the 

*General  Timothy  Ruggles,.  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1711,  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  in  1732.  He  attained  the  rank  of  brigadier  general  during  the  French 
war.  He  was  an  energetic  Loyalist.  After  the  peace  in  1783  he  settled  at  Wil- 
mot,  N.  S.,  where  he  died  in  1795  at  the  age  of  85  years.  Benjamin  Marston 
(under  date  Dec.  13,  1784)  writes  in  his  journal:  "Arrived  at  General  Ruggles, 
"  spent  two  days  with  that  brave,  worthy  old  man,  who  at  three  score  and  ten 
"  is  beginning  the  world  anew  with  as  much  activity  as  if  he  were  but  one  score 
"  and  ten."  See  biography  of  General  Timothy  Ruggles  by  Henry  Stoddard 
Ruggles  of  Wakefield,  Mass. ;  also  Sabine's  Loyalists  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion. 

fThe  Young  Royal  Highland  Emigrants  were  organized  by  General  Gage's 
order  to  Lieut.  Col.  Allan  McNab,  June  14,  1775.  The  men  were  recruited  at 
Quebec,  Prince  Edward  Island,  Nova  Scotia,  and  (later)  at  Newfoundland. 
The  second  battalion  of  the  regiment,  commanded  by  Major  John  Small,  was 
stationed  in  Nova  Scotia  during  the  war.  The  corps  was  very  efficient,  and 
was  on  Dec.  25,  1778,  included  in  the  British  establishment  as  the  84th  regiment 
of  foot. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  43 

Line;  nor  need  I  mention  The  Fencible  Americans*  who  were  principally 
recruited  at  New-Foundland — or  Legge's  Corps,  which  is  yet  inconsider- 
able and  has  been  mostly  at  Halifax.  Passing  these  by,  I  shall  attempt 
to  shew  from  other  instances  how  much  the  original  intention  has  been 
perverted  and  to  enumerate  some  of  the  discouragements  which  some  of 
these  regiments  have  labored  under.  This  I  confess  is  a  task  peculiarly 
painful  because  it  obliges  me  to  take  a  retrospective  view  of  some  of  Sir 
William  Howe's  administration — an  administration  which  no  real  friend 
!o  the  British  Government  can  look  back  upon  without  experiencing 
extreme  chagrine. 

The  first  provincial  recruits  that  joined  the  army  was  a  party  called 
The  New  York  Volunteers.  They  were  collected  about  the  North  Kiver 
before  the  Trooys  appeared  in  that  quarter  and  (with  their  leaders  Grant  & 
Campbell,  half-pay  officers,  who  had  settled  in  that  country  and  acquired 
property  and  influence)  they  escaped  to  the  King's  Ships  at  Sandy-Hook. 
After  some  months  they  were  forwarded  to  Halifax,  where  they  arrived 
a  few  days  before  the  embarkation  of  the  Troops.  Here  they  were 
reviewed  and  formed  into  two  companies  &  Grant  &  Campbell  were 
appointed  Captains.  At  that  time  it  was  urged  that  no  provision  was 
made  or  fund  established  from  which  these  unfortunate  men  could  be 
cloathed  or  accoutred,  and  they  embarked  with  the  Troops  with  only  the 
wretched  remnant  of  the  apparel  in  which  they  had  escaped  from  the 
rebels  six  or  eight  months  before.  In  this  distress,  they  landed  at  Staaten 
Island.  A  few  small  articles  were  bestowed  on  them  while  there,  but 
nothing  to  relieve  them  essentially.  On  the  famous  27th  of  August, 
1776,  when  the  rebels  were  subdued  on  this  island,  the  two  companies 
served  together  and  distinguished  themselves  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
extort  the  most  particular  compliments  from  the  Commander-in-Chief. 
Almost  naked  &  extremely  feeble  from  a  long  series  of  fatigues,  they 
absolutely  did  not  murmur,  but  appeared  to  realize  that  the  rebels  of 
the  country  were  the  original  causes  of  all  their  misfortunes,  and  this 
consideration  whetted  their  resentment  to  a  great  degree  of  keenness. 
But  the  inattention  to  this  meritorious  little  party  (altho'  it  had  not  the 
effect  which  might  naturally  have  been  expected  on  the  members  who 

*The  Royal  Fencible  Americans  were  organized  in  Nova  Scotia  in  June 
1775,  and  by  the  close  of  that  year  300  men  were  enlisted.  The  majority  were 
by  birth  Europeans  or  Loyalists  from  the  old  colonies;  many  also  were  recruit- 
ed in  Newfoundland.  A  considerable  portion  of  the  corps  settled  in  Charlotte 
county  in  1783.  During  the  war  the  garrisons  at  Fort  Cumberland  and  Fort 
Howe  were  supplied  principally  by  this  regiment. 

t Governor  Legge's  order  for  raising  this  corps  (the  Loyal  Nova  Scotia 
Volunteers)  was  issued  Oct.  16,  1775,  but  in  April  following  it  only  numbered 
about  60  men.  However,  the  number  enlisted  on  Feb.  1,  1780,  was  568.  At  the 
peace,  in  1783,  many  of  the  corps  settled  at  Ship  Harbor,  N.  S. 


44  WINSLOW  PAPEKS  [1779 

composed  it)  was  matter  of  serious  concern  to  others.  Sensible  men  who 
were  zealots  in  the  King's  cause  had  anticipated  the  most  cordial  welcome 
&  ample  support  to  such  as  should  join  the  troops.  They  were  exceed- 
ingly disconcerted  at  the  treatment  of  these  Volunteers.  It  was  not 
credited  that  a  General  whose  command  was  so  extensive  could  possibly 
want  the  power  to  furnish  common  necessaries  for  200  men,  if  his  dis- 
position toward  them  was  favorable,  especially  as  it  was  known  that 
*  *  *  * 

[Eemainder  of  this  letter  is  missing.] 


Edward  Winslow  to  Lord  Eawdon.* 

New  York,  12th  January,  1779. 
My  Lord: — 

On  the  15th  July,  1776,  I  was  appointed  by  Sir  Wm.  Howe  Muster- 
Master-Gen'l  of  all  His  Majesty's  Provincial  Forces,  raised  and  to  be  raised 
within  the  district  of  North  America,  under  his  command,  and  was 
informed  by  him  that  I  was  to  receive  ten  shillings  a  day  and  an  allowance 
for  extra  expenses. 

At  the  time  of  my  appointment  only  one  Provincial  Corps,  the  York 
Volunteers  existed  here,  but  before  the  expiration  of  the  first  year, 
warrants  were  issued  for  raising  several  brigades  and  regiments  and  the 
recruits  for  them  were  scattered  through  the  various  parts  of  the  Gar- 
risons then  held  by  the  King's  Troops.  It  was  judged  necessary  to  mustei- 
i.hem  all,  once  in  two  months  and  to  certify  the  concurrence  of  the 
abstracts  and  Subsistence  accounts  with  the  Muster  Rolls,  previous  to 
their  being  paid.  On  the  appointment  of  an  Inspector  General!  I  con- 
sented to  continue  that  part  of  the  duty  and  exhibited  an  account  for 
the  expenses  I  had  incurred  and  for  the  payment  of  a  Deputy  for  the 
first  year,  up  to  August  1777,  which  was  approved  and  paid.  In  the 
course  of  the  last  year  I  was  ordered  to  Rhode  Island  and  Philadelphia, 
and  as  Provincial  Corps  were  forming  in  both  those  places,  Sir  Wm.  Howe 
was  pleased  to  appoint  Deputies  there.  Those  Deputies  have  been  paid 
by  myself.  When  at  Philadelphia  I  presented  accounts  up  to  March  in 
Ihe  second  year,  but  was  desired  to  postpone  them  till  the  year  expired. 
I  was  immediately  ordered  to  New  York,  soon  after  which  Sir  Henry 
Clinton  took  the  command.  At  the  expiration  of  the  year  in  August 
last,  I  delivered  my  accounts  for  my  deputies  and  expenses  to  Capt.  Smith 

*Lord  Rawdon  was  intimately  associated  with  the  Loyalist  regiments.  He 
commanded  a  corps  known  as  the  Volunteers  of  Ireland,  raised  in  America  in 
1778,  which  rendered  gallant  service  and  was  mustered  as  a  Loyalist  corps. 
Lord  Rawdon  was  adjutant  general  of  the  Loyalist  forces. 

fLieut.  Colonel  Alexander  Innes. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  45 

and  requested  they  might  be  presented:  after  they  had  been  some  time 
in  his  hands  I  was  informed  it  was  necessary  for  me  to  deliver  them 
personally  to  the  Commander  in  Chief.  I  was  then,  and  for  two  or  three 
months  afterwards,  confined  to  my  bed  with  a  most  tedious  and  dangerous 
fever  and  am  now  wholly  unable  to  attend  at  Headquarters.  During  all 
this  time  I  have  been  able  but  twice  to  go  to  New  York.  Once  the 
Commander  in  Chief  was  absent,  at  the  other  time  I  was  informed  he 
was  so  particularly  engaged  that  he  could  not  be  seen. 

To  avoid  giving  more  trouble  than  this  application  necessarily  re- 
quires, I  have  desired  Mr.  Chipman  to  attend  your  Lordship's  leisure  for 
an  answer. 

I  am  with  the  highest  respect,  my  Lord, 

Your  Lordship's  most  obed't  &  most  humble  serv't, 

Ed.  Winslow. 


Hugh  Mackay  Gordon*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Pensacola  20th  March,  1779. 
My  dear  Sir, — 

I  am  happy  to  inform  you  that  I  have  at  last  arrived  at  my 
Banishment.  We  had  but  a  narrow  escape  upon  our  Passage  from  New 
York  to  Jamaica  our  Convoy  having  parted  with  us  a  week  after  being  out. 
However  or.  the  30th  Nov'r  the  Transports  arrived  safe  at  Kingston, 
where  we  remained  one  month  owing  to  the  alarming  state  of  the  island 
of  St.  Domingo.  I  assure  you  I  spent  a  very  agreeable  time.  It  is  a 
pleasant  and  most  plentiful  country,  but  it  never  was  known  so  sickly 
for  32  years  past,  A  number  of  Provincial  Officers  were  taken  ill  of  most 
violent  fever — Capt'n  Graf  ton  Dulanyt  &  Doct'r  Kidd  died  after  a  few 
days  illness.  You  may  easily  conceive  what  a  change  it  is  coming  from 
a  pleasant  plentiful  country  into  a  wretched  one,  &  I  may  say  with  safety 
I  am  now  in  the  worst  part  of  the  world — nothing  to  be  had  but  lean 
Beef  and  Pork  except  Poultry  which  is  extravagantly  dear,  &  it  is  BO 

d d  hot  fish  stinks  before  it  can  be  boiled.      The  only  thing  this 

pleasant   place  abounds   in   is   a   beautiful  white   sand  which   circulates 
freely     It  gives  me  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  General  Campbell  has 

*Hugh  Mackay  Gordon  at  this  time  was  Edward  Winslow's  deputy  at 
Pensacola.  He  went  to  Halifax  at  the  peace  in  1783,  and  there  the  intimacy 
with  Winslow  was  further  increased.  Gordon  rose  rapidly  in  his  profession, 
was  a  colonel  in  the  army  in  1807,  and  in  1815  a  major  general.  He  proved  a 
good  friend  to  Colonel  Winslow.  See  letter  of  Winslow  to  S.  S.  Blowers  of  7th 
June,  1806. 

fCaptain  Grafton  Dulany  in  1777  organized  a  company  for  the  Maryland 
Loyalists.  He  died  Dec.  23,  1778.  Dr.  Alex.  Kidd  of  the  same  corps  died  Nov. 
21.  1778. 


46  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

appointed  me  both  Deputy  Muster  Master  General  and  Deputy  Inspector 
of  Provincials  in  West  Florida  &  I  conceive  myself  much  obliged  for  your 
attention. 

As  Lieut.  Col.  [Wm.]  Allen's  Corps*  was  the  first  disembarked  I 
mustered  them  on  the  30  Jan'y.  Copies  of  the  Muster  Rolls  are  enclosed 
which  I  took  some  pains  to  get  correct  &  I  hope  you  will  find  'em  so. 
Lieut.  Col.  Chalmers  Corps |  was  not  mustered  until  the  22nd  FeVy 
owing  to  the  number  ill  of  the  Small  Pox.  You  will  observe  by  the 
Muster  Eolls  enclosed  this  disorder  carried  off  a  great  many,,  which  in- 
duced General  Campbell  to  disperse  one  Company  agreeable  to  the 
enclosed  order — for  the  propriety  of  this  measure  see  the  Strength  of  the 
Companies. 

There  is  a  dispute  concerning  the  Eank  of  Lt.  Col's.  Allen  & 
Chalmers,  it  has  been  referred  to  General  Campbell  who  will  not  settle 
but  conceives  Allen  has  the  preference.  You  must  know  who  has  the 
preference  &  I  am  sure,  altho'  Allen's  not  on  the  spot,  you  will  endeavor 
to  have  justice  done  him.  Chalmers  goes  to  New  York,  &  I  believe 
principally  with  a  view  to  get  the  Rank,  for  fear  those  Corps  should  be 
thrown,  together.  For  my  part  I  ought  to  have  some  knowledge  and  I 
must  confess  I  have  no  doubt  but  Allen  should  be  the  eldest  which  I 
told  General  Campbell. 

Enclosed  I  send  you  monthly  returns  &  have  only  to  beg  you  may 
send  me  such  further  Directions  as  you  shall  think  necessary. 

Pray  make  my  best  Compliments  to  Mr.  Anderson,  K  &  W.  Coffin 
and  all  my  old  Friends,  and  tell  them  not  to  come  to  Pensacola. 
Believe  me  to  be,  Most  sincerely  Yours, 

Hugh  Mackay  Gordon. 

General  Prescott's  Orders   for   the   Bedford  Expedition. 

Instructions  for  Edward  Winslow  Esquire  hereby  appointed  to  com- 
mand a  detachment  of  Provincial  Forces  and  Refugees  ordered  on  a 
Secret  Expedition:  Head  Quarters,  Newport,  March  30th,  1779.  J 

The  Transports  with  the  Troops  &  one  Privateer  (the  General  Leslie) 
are  to  proceed  to  Clark's  Cove,  while  the  other  Privateers  proceed  up  the 

"Lieut.  Col.  William  Allen's  commission  was  dated  Oct.  14,  1777.  He  was  a 
son  of  the  chief  justice  of  Pennsylvania.  The  Allen  family  were  celebrated 
Loyalists.  Atf  the  peace,  in  1783,  he  went  to  England.  He  was  a  grantee  of  Parr 
Town. 

t  Lieut.  Col.  James  Chalmers'  commission  as  commander  of  the  Maryland 
Loyalists  bears  date  Oct.  14,  1777 — same  date  as  Col.  Wm.  Allen's  commission. 
At  the  close  of  the  war  he  went  to  England.  His  corps  settled  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Mary's,  York  County,  N.  B. 

J'An  account  of  this  expedition  will  be  found  in  Macy's  History  of  Nantucket 
Island. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  47 

River  of  Bedford  by  the  West  Channel,  leaving  Palmer's  Island  between 
them  and  the  Fort.  It  is  recommended  that  Mr.  Leonard*  go  with 
the  Privateers  &  that  he  prevent  any  irregular  landing  of  the  sailors  & 
others  until  a  communication  is  effected.  The  Troops  to  disembark  at 
Clark's  Cove;  the  Transports  &  "General  Leslie"  privateer  will  remain  in 
the  Cove  until  they  receive  orders  from  the  Commandant  of  the  Troops. 
The  Troops  first  disembarked  will  instantly  begin  to  destroy  the  Bridge 
at  the  Head  of  the  Cove  leaving  proper  sentinels  at  a  convenient  Post 
near  this  Pass  when  the  Troops  have  moved  from  it. 

Captain  DePeysterf  with  fifty  men  to  move  forward  toward  the  Town, 
take  possession  of  the  wharves  &  hinder  all  communication  between  the 
town  &  the  rebel  shipping,  the  remainder  of  the  party  to  hold  possession 
of  the  hill  behind  the  town,  which  commands  it;  this  position  to  continue 
until  it  is  evident  that  all  the  Rebel  property  is  secured  by  the  Privateers. 
Such  men  as  are  well  acquainted  with  shipping  to  be  put  on  board  those 
Rebel  Vessels  that  are  nearest  the  wharves  so  as  to  navigate  them  out. 
After  having  destroyed  all  buildings  improved  as  Barracks,  store  houses, 
and  every  public  deposit,  the  Troops  will  embark  with  all  possible  ex- 
pedition to  return  to  this  Post  from  which  to  be  employed  in  such  other 
service  as  may  be  thought  necessary. 

The  success  of  this  attempt  wholly  depending  on  the  quickness  & 
reguJarity  with  which  it  is  executed,  it  is  therefore  most  strictly  enjoined 
that  no  stores  are  broke  open  &  Plundered  or  any  other  Depredations 
suffered  which  may  retard  the  movements  or  create  disorder. 

The  order  of  debarkation  to  be  as  follows: — Capt.  DePeyster  with 
thfi  Grenadiers  &  GoVr  Wentworth's  Volunteers t  to  land  first,  after- 
wards the  Refugees.  This  order  to  be  reversed  at  embarking.  It  will 
be  understood  that  when  the  Grenadiers  are  in  front,  Governor  Went- 

*George  Leonard  of  Massachusetts  was  second  in  command  of  the  Associ- 
ated Refugees.  In  1783  he  was  one  of  the  agents  employed  in  the  locating  of  the 
Loyalists  on  the  River  St.  John.  He  was  a  member  of  the  council  of  New 
Brunswick.  In  the  legislature,  as  a  magistrate,  colonel  of  militia,  and  in  the 
execution  of  the  very  difficult  office  of  superintendent  of  trade  and  fisheries  he 
was  active  and  fearless.  As  a  churchman  and  as  a  member  of  the  board  of 
commisssioners  of  the  New  England  company  for  civilizing  and  Christianizing 
the  Indians  he  was  equally  energetic.  Throughout  his  life  George  Leonard  was 
a  great  friend  and  admirer  of  Edward  Winslow.  He  died  at  Sussex  Vale  in  1826. 

fAbraham  DePeyster  commanded  the  Grenadier  company  of  the  King's  Am- 
reican  Regiment,  in  which  his  commisssion  is  dated  Dec.  13,  1776.  He  came  to 
New  Brunswick  in  1783,  and  was  a  grantee  of  Parr  Town.  In  1785  he  was  sheriff 
of  Sunbury  county,  residing  at  Maugerville.  He  became  provincial  treasurer 
in  1792  and  removed  to  St.  John.  He  died  at  his  residence  opposite  the  site  of 
the  present  Custom  House  in  Prince  William  street,  Feb.  19,  1798,  aged  46  years. 
For  further  particulars  see  Lawrence's  Foot  Prints,  page  55. 

^Governor  Went  worth's  Volunteers  were  organized  about  the  year  1777  under 
the  patronage  of  John  Wentworth,  late  governor  of  New  Hampshire.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  corps  were  mostly  Massachusetts  men  of  good  standing  and  educa- 
tion. Many  of  them  afterwards  obtained  commissions  and  were  posted  to  other 
corps,  notably  the  King's  American  Dragoons. 


48  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

vortlv's  Volunteers  will  be  in  the  rear,  the  Refugees  always  in  the  centre. 
Captains  Goldsbury  &  Martin  will  keep  their  companies  as  distinct  as 
possible.  The  future  reputation  &  dearest  interests  of  the  Refugees 
depending  on  the  success  of  this  exertion  it  is  not  doubted  that  regularity, 
sobriety  &  the  most  implicit  obedience  will  invariably  be  observed. 

At  all  events  Captain  DePeyster's  Company  is  to  return  with  proper 
convoy  to  Rhode  Island  immediately  after  the  Party  leaves  Bedford.  The 
Privateers  that  convoy  the  Transports  will  be  furnished  with  private 
signals.  Mr.  Leonard  will  also  have  private  signals.  Some  rebels  of 
importance  or  in  Public  offices  are  to  be  bought  off. 

Should  it  be  found  unadvisable  from  the  apparent  Force  of  the 
enemy  or  other  causes,  such  as  contrary  winds  or  extreme  badness  of 
weather,  to  pursue  the  Enterprize  it  must  then  be  expedient  to  return; 
Easy  conquests  being  the  object  in  view  &  not  a  contention  with  a  too 
superior  Force. 

R'd  Prescott. 


Col.  Winslow's  Report  of  the  Bedford  Expedition. 

Newport,  6th  April,  1779. 
Sir,— 

I  have  the  honor  to  report  to  you  my  arrival  at  this  place  with  the 
Grenadier  Company  of  the  King's  American  Regiment*.  Our  attempt 
on  Bedford  failed  of  success  by  want  of  wind  to  carry  our  vessels  into 
the  harbour — the  Rebels  had  observ'd  us  off  &  had  collected  in  force  to 
oppose  our  landing  &  had  manned  a  fort  which  commanded  the  entrance 
of  the  Harbour  &  made  various  other  preparations. 

Their  great  superiority  of  numbers,  strong  positions  &  other  material 
circumstances  rendered  an  attack  upon  them  too  hazardous,  especially  as 
General  Prescott  had  so  pointedly  ordered  me  not  to  contend  with  superior 
force  &  suggested  that  in  the  infant  state  of  our  party  "easy  conquests 
ought  to  be  our  object."  I  therefore  reluctantly  relinquished  the  enter- 
prize,  and  as  I  was  instructed  to  alarm  the  coast  &  harrass  the  enemy  as 
much  as  possible  I  proceeded  with  the  party  down  the  Sound  as  far  as 
the  town  of  Falmouth,  against  which  Mr.  Leonard  drew  up  the  Privateers 
in  a  line  and  kept  up  a  fire  for  two  hours  directly  at  the  houses,  while 
Capt.  DePeyster  of  the  King's  American  Regt.,  and  Capt.  Murray  of  Gov'r 
Wentworth's  Vols.,  with  a  party  of  about  forty  men  (which  was  all  we 

*The  warrant  for  raising  this  corps  was  issued  about  Dec.  11,  1776,  at  least 
this  is  the  date  of  Colonel  Edmund  Fanning's  commission.  The  men  of  the 
regiment  belonged  to  Rhode  Island,  Connecticut  and  New  Tork.  A  troop  of 
cavalry  was  included  in  the  corps.  At  the  peace,  in  1783  the  King's  American 
Regiment  settled  between  Pokiok  and  Eel  River,  on  the  west  side  of  the  River 
St.  John. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  49 

could  embark  at  the  time,  having  no  flat  boats)  made  a  show  of  landing. 
The  Rebels  alarmed  by  the  firing  at  Bedford  had  thrown  up  a  very  long 
breastwork  from  behind  which  they  fired  without  effect  at  the  party  who 
coasted  along  the  shore.  As  there  was  no  object  in  view  at  this  place 
beyond  harrassing  the  Eebels  the  party  returned  to  the  Vessels  without 
receiving  any  other  injury  thr.n  two  men  very  slightly  wounded. 

This  expedition  will  be  productive  of  good  consequences  exclusive  of 
effectually  alarming  the  whole  coast  from  point  Judith  to  Hyannas  <te 
even  the  whole  of  Cape  Cod,  we  had  frequent  opportunities  of  conversing 
with  the  inhabitants  of  Eliz'h  Islands,  &  have  reason  to  apprehend  that 
the  arguments  of  Major  General  Gray  has  caused  a  very  sincere  conversion 
in  them. 

F  am  exceedingly  gratified  at  an  opportunity  of  testifying  that  every 
individual  of  the  party  discovered  the  most  extreme  ardor,  and  I  am 
perfectly  convinced  that  it  will  be  more  my  duty  to  check  than  to  en- 
courage them  in  their  future  operations.  I  am  particularly  indebted  to 
Major  Ilpham*  for  his  advice  &  assistance  on  all  occasions. 

I  left  the  command  of  the  Refugees  with  Capt.  Murray  who  has 
already  exhibited  most  convincing  proofs  of  a  spirit  of  enterprize  &  sound 
judgment.  They  are  to  proceed  to  Nantucket  and  deprive  of  the  means 
of  commerce  a  nest  of  traders  who  have  carried  on  a  trade  to  France  and 
who  import  a  variety  of  articles  necessary  for  the  Rebels.  I  have  no 
doubt  of  their  success  in  this  attempt. 

Ed.  Window,  Lt.  Col.  Refugees. 


Regimental  Orders  of  the  Corps  of  Loyal  Associated  Refugees. 

Quarters,  Newport,  April  11,  1779. 

Captain  Murray,  Captain  Goldsbury  &  Captain  Martin,  with  the 
officers  &  men  of  their  respective  companies,  to  assemble  and  embark  at 
5  o'clock  this  afternoon.  This  detachment  to  be  furnished  with  Sixty 
Rounds  of  Ammunition  and  to  take  with  them  their  Blankets  and  pro- 
visions for  two  days. 

*Major  Josnua  Upham  of  Brookfield,  Mass.,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1763. 
He  begun  his  military  career  in  conjunction  with  his  old  "friend  Edward  Wins- 
low  on  this  occasion.  He  was  afterwards  with  Benedict  Arnold  in  his  attack 
on  New  London,  Connecticut.  In  1781  he  was  deputy  inspector  general  of  Re- 
fugees at  Lloyd's  Neck  on  Long  Island.  Here  with  the  aid  of  the  undisciplined 
Refugees  he  repulsed  the  attack  of  some  French  marauders.  In  March,  1781, 
he  was  major  in  the  King's  American  Dragoons,  and  in  September,  1782,  aide- 
de-camp  to  the  commander  in  chief,  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  He  settled  in  New 
Brunswick  at  the  peace  and  became  one  of  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  and 
a  member  of  council.  His  death  took  place  in  England  Nov.  1,  1808,  at  the  age 
of  67  years.  His  mission  to  England  was  to  secure  an  increase  in  the  salary  of 
the  judges,  and  in  this  he  was  successful. 


50  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

Captain  Murray  the  Commanding  Officer  of  this  detachment  will 
wait  on  Colonel  Fanning,*  the  Commandant  of  the  Corps  of  Refugees, 
when  the  party  are  embarked,  to  receive  his  orders  and  Instructions.  The 
Transports  and  armed  vessels  for  this  service  will  be  furnished  by  Mr. 
Leonard  the  navy  agent  and  contractor  for  the  Associated  Kefugees. 

[The  embarkation  was  postponed  for  certain  reasons  until  the  23rd 
April.] 


Quarters,  Newport,  23  April,  1779. 

The  whole  Corps  of  associated  Refugees  to  embark  at  6  o'clock  this 
afternoon  on  board  the  armed  vessels  "General  Leslie"  and  "George"  and 
a  transport  brig.  Captain  Murray  will  take  the  command  and  when  the 
party  is  embarked  will  report  to  Colonel  Fanning  their  number  and  receive 
his  Orders  and  Instructions  for  carrying  into  execution  the  particular 
service  recommended  by  the  Board  of  Directors  and  approved  by  Major 
Genera]  Prescott  the  Commander  in  Chief  of  his  Majesty's  Forces  on  this 
Island.  Mr.  Loringt  the  surgeon  will  go  on  this  service  with  the  proper 
materials  and  preparations  for  such  an  expedition  which  may  probably  be 
performed  in  forty  eight  hours. 


[Note.]  On  the  14th  May,  1779,  a  party  of  167  Loyal  Associated 
Refugees  under  command  of  Capt.  Daniel  Murray  started  with  the  design 
of  making  a  second  attempt  on  Bedford,  but  learning  of  the  presence  of 
a  superior  force  they  took  post  at  Tarpaulin  Cove  and  asked  leave  to 
establish  themselves  there. 

The  Associated  Refugees  under  Winslow  had  on  June  10,  1770, 
captured  2  brigs,  2  schooners,  1  sloop,  10  boats  with  a  considerable  quan- 
tity of  goods  of  various  kinds  and  35  prisoners,  among  them  some  persons 
of  considerable  note.  Also  134  horses,  138  cattle,  1843  sheep,  11  hogs, 
642  lambs,  38  cal/es.  On  Sept.  16,  1779,  Winslow  reports  that  in  the 
subsequent  excursions  13  prizes  were  taken  by  the  Refugee  vessels,  3  of 
them  armed  vessels,  and  that  the  account  of  sales  of  property  taken  from 
the  Rebels  by  the  Agent's  certificate  amounted  to  the  sum  of  £23,427.18.6 
sterling.  In  June  and  September  the  Associated  Refugees  seem  to  have 

"Colonel  Edmund  Fanning  of  North  Carolina  graduated  at  Tale  College 
He  was  gazetted  colonel  Dec.  11,  1776,  and  raised  the  King's  American  Regi- 
ment, toward  which  large  sums  were  subscribed.  (See  Sabine's  Loyalists). 
He  went  to  Halifax  at  the  close  of  the  war,  and  on  Sept.  23,  1783,  was  appointed 
Lieutenant  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia.  In  1786  he  became  Lieutenant  Governor 
of  Prince  Edward  Island,  which  position  he  held  nineteen  years.  He  continued 
to  advance  in  military  rank— was  major  general  in  1793,  lieutenant  general  In 
1799  and  general  in  1808.  He  died  in  London  1818. 

f  Benjamin  Loring,  M.  D.,  of  Boston.  In  1783  he  went  from  New  York  to 
Shelburne.  His  losses  in  consequence  of  his  loyalty  were  estimated  at  £3,000. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  51 

been  under  Col.  Winslow's  direction,  his  superior  officer  and  Commandant 
being  Lt.  Col.  Eichard  Hewlett*  of  DeLancey's  3rd  Battalion,  then 
stationed  on  Long  Island. 

The  Associated  Kefugees  included  Governor  Wentworth's  Volunteers 
under  Capt.  Murray,  a  detachment  of  Colonel  Wightman's  Loyal  New 
Englanders  under  Captain  Zebedee  Terry,  and  Captain  Martin's  Corps. 
The  Party  sailed  from  Newport  to  Lloyd's  Neck,  Long  Island,  in  June, 
where  they  were  joined  by  Capt.  Bonnel's  party  with  their  whale  boats. 
Two  men,  Smith  and  Sears,  were  taken  on  board  the  Royal  Charlotte  by 
Winslow  to  act  as  guides.  The  expedition  proceeded  to  Norwalk  where 
it  arrived  in  the  early  morning  of  June  30th  but  whether  it  accomplished 
anything  of  consequence  does  not  appear. 

In  September  1779,  an  expedition  was  undertaken  to  Martha's  Vine- 
yard, and  in  the  Orders  of*  the  9th  of  that  month,  issued  on  board  the 
Eoyal  Charlotte,  the  words  occur,  "It  is  Lieut.  Col.  "Winslow's  particular 
request  that  the  Loyal  Refugees  will  exert  themselves  to  prevent  every 
species  of  depredations  from  being  committed  on  the  Inhabitants  of 
Martha's  Vineyard  and  the  other  Elizabeth  Islands;  it  being  his  as  well 
as  Mr.  Leonard's  determination  to  treat  all  those  defenceless  people  and 
their  families  with  consideration.  Countersign  from  Lieut.  Col.  Hewlett, 
Winslow."  It  is  altogether  probable  that  the  Associated  Refugees  accom- 
panied General  Tryont  in  his  expedition  in  July,  1779,  in  which  many 
of  the  Connecticut  towns  were  ravaged  and  Norwalk  and  Fairfield 
destroyed. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

13th  June,  1779. 

Dear  Chip, — I  catch  every  transient  moment  to  write  you.  I  yester- 
day closed  a  formal  letter  introducing  Mr.  Marston. 

As  to  my  finances,  d — n  them,  my  expences  since  I've  been  here  have 
been  less  than  they  ever  were  in  the  same  period  of  time.  Could  I  help 
when  I  met  my  precious  old  father  and  sister  giving  them  everything 
I  had  and  more  too  ?  Heaven  forbid. 


*Lieut.  Col.  Richard  Hewlett  of  Hampstead,  Long  Island.  He  rendered  good 
service  as  commander  of  the  3rd  battalion  of  DeLancey's  brigade  at  Satauket, 
where,  in  1777,  he  repulsed  the  attack  of  General  Parsons.  See  Jones'  Loyalist 
History  of  New  York,  vol.  1,  p.  182.  He  contributed  much  to  the  security  of 
Long  Island  during  the  war.  At  the  peace  he  came  to  St.  John  in  the  month  of 
September,  1783,  as  senior  officer  commanding  the  British  and  Loyalist  troops 
that  were  to  be  disbanded  on  the  river.  He  settled  at  Hampstead,  Queens 
County,  near  Long  Island,  and  died  there  in  1789. 

fMajor  General  William  Tryon  of  North  Carolina  filled  the  office  of  gov- 
ernor (the  last  royal  governor  with  one  exception).  He  was  transferred  to  New 
York,  where  he  was  governor  from  July,  1771,  to  1780.  He  was  commander  in 
chief  of  the  Loyalist  forces.  Went  to  England  at  the  peace  in  1783. 


52  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

Oh  !  for  the  pen  of  a  Sterne  to  describe  a  scene  on  Prudence  Island  f 
Figure  to  yourself  the  venerable  old  man  sitting  on  a  rock  watching  the 
boat  which  held  his  only  son  while  it  beat  against  the  wind  for  an  hour. 
Suppose  him  collecting  all  his  fortitude,  strengthening  himself  by  anti- 
cipation and  struggling  against  a  variety  of  feelings  tender  and  distressing. 
See  him  wiping  his  brow,  which  alternately^  clouded  and  cleared. 

In  his  pocket  were  papers  giving  a  particular  account  of  my  death 
and  burial,  etc.  As  I  approached  the  shore  he  pulled — literally  pulled 
(I  could  not  change  the  word  for  any  other  in  the  world)  the  paper  from 
his  pocket — looked  at  it — looked  at  me;  then  he  cried,  "My  God,  he 
died  I" 

When  I  landed — sound  and  strong,  my  father  fell  on  his  face.  I 
should  have  deserved  everlasting  damnation  if  I  could  have  spoke  one 
word.  No,  no,  I  boast,  I  glory,  that  I  could  not  speak.  I  flung  myself 
by  my  father  on  the  ground:  it  was  his  business  to  begin.  There  was 
a  spark  of  something  like  courage  left  in  his  breast  and  he  kindled  it — 
mine  was  all  lost.  "I  am  glad,  I  am  glad,"  says  he,  "to  see  you  my  boy," 
and  down  he  fell  again,  the  spark  then  quenched  on  the  verge  of  expira- 
tion— [Major]  Barry,  who  had  been  motionless,  and  stared  with  silent 
astonishment  at  the  loving  fulness  of  our  sensibility,  by  a  violent  exertion 
of  strength,  dictated  by  humanity  aroused  us.  There  were  present  rebel 
officers  and  rebel  soldiers,  King's  officers  and  King's  soldiers,  sailors  of 
both  denominations  and  negroes — not  a  heart  among  them  that  did  not 
melt.  All  formalities  usual  with  flags  was  forgotten,  every  man  turned 
from  us,  walked  different  ways  and  were  profoundly  silent.  By  degrees 
my  father's  countenance  brightened,  and  flashes  of  gratitude  dartecl  from 
his  eyes  in  rapid  succession.  He  did  not  trouble  Heaven  with  words, 
but  the  throne  of  Grace  was  never  ornamented  with  a  purer  effusion  of 
thanks.  The  poor  girl,  my  sister,  had  fainted  and  recovered,  and  fainted 
again.  I  summoned  every  power  to  comfort  her,  and  at  length  prevailed 
on  her  to  speak. 

I  afforded  them  every  possible  comfort  and  consolation.  The  old  man 
declared  he  was  happy  and  when  we  parted  he  only  shook  his  head  and 
pronounced  "God  bless  my  son." 


Associated  Eefugees. 

June  19,  1779. 

Window  writes  : — "Fifty  of  the  Associated  Eefugees  under  my  com- 
mand are  now  embarked  as  marines  on  board  their  own  armed  vessels  to 
assist  in  conveying  his  Majesty's  troops  from  Ehode  Island  to  New  York. 
*  Prudence  Island  is  an  island  in  Narraganset  Bay,  Rhode  Island. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  53 

When  we  have  performed  this  service  I  propose  to  indulge  the  party  in 
making  some  incursions  in  the  colony  of  Connecticut.  Hitherto  we  have 
been  successful  beyond  our  most  sanguine  expectations,  having  had  the 
satisfaction  of  contributing  essentially  to  the  relief  of  his  Majesty's  Troops 
in  this  garrison  and  of  greatly  distressing  the  rebels  by  our  depredations 
and  continued  alarms." 


Kev.  Edward  Winslow  to  Colonel  Winslow. 

August,  1779. 
Dear  Sir,  — 

At  the  request  of  Rev.  Mr.  Learning  of  Norwalk  I  take  the  liberty 
to  trouble  you  with  this  to  engage  your  friendly  influence  and  offices 
towards  his  recovering  sundry  parts  of  his  property  which  he  missed 
after  the  late  conflagration,*  and  apprehends  may  have  been  taken  by 
some  persons  under  your  authority  who  may  be  willing  to  restore  them 
if  properly  notified  of  the  Principles  &  condition  of  the  Proprietor  — 

A  number  of  Table  Cloths  &  Sheeting  —  number  uncertain. 

A  large  Turkey  Carpet.      A  Mahogany  Tea  Table. 

Eight  Feather  Beds.  A  Gown  &  Cassock  &  Suit  of  Cloaths,  (Broad 
Cloth)  w'ch  Mr.  Learning  t  heard  were  seen  on  board  the  Ship  Prince  of 
Wales,  &  Sundry  other  Articles  of  his  Wearing  Apparel. 

Two  setts  of  Bed  Curtains,  Chintz. 

All  Mrs.  Learning's  Wearing  Apparel  &  Linnen. 

Seven  pairs  of  large  Rose  Blankets,  &  a  Bed  Quilt. 

There  are  many  other  articles  which  Mr.  Learning  cannot  recollect. 
If  of  all,  or  any  of  them,  you  could  obtain  tidings  and  would  be  so  good 
as  to  take  any  measure  that  they  might  be  recovered,  Mr.Leaming  would  be 
extremely  obliged  and  it  would  be  adding  a  particular  favour  to  the  many 
instances  of  Friendship  which  will  ever  bind  me  to  acknowledge  myself, 
Dear  Sir, 

Yr.  aft'ect.  &  much  obliged  Friend  &  SerVt. 

Edw^d  Winslow.  J 


*Norwalk  was  burned  July  12,  1779.  Among  those  who  retired  with  the 
Royal  Army  were  my  own  ancestor,  Silas  Raymond,  and  family,  and  many 
other  Loyalists.  Silas  Raymond  is  said  to  have  set  fire  to  his  own  house  saying 
that  "the  miserable  rebels  should  not  enjoy  his  property."  —  W.  O.  R. 

fRev.  Jeremiah  Learning  was  the  first  choice  of  the  clergy  as  Bishop  of 
Connecticut.  The  state  of  his  health  forbade  his  acceptance  of  the  office,  and 
Rev.  Dr.  Seabury  was  then  chosen. 

jThe  Rev.  Edward  Winslow  was  born  in  Boston  and  graduated  at  Harvard 
in  1741.  He  was  rector  of  Braintree,  Mass.  He  was  driven  from  his  parish  on 
account  of  his  loyalty,  and  about  1777  retired  to  New  York.  He  died  there  the 
year  after  this  letter  was  written,  at  the  age  of  59  years,  and  is  buried  beneath 
St.  George's  church.  He  was  related  to  Colonel  Edward  Winslow,  but  older  by 
a  quarter  of  a  century. 


54  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

Winslow  &  Leonard  to  Nantucket  Committee.* 

Holmes  Hole,  20th.  Sept.,  1779. 
Gent'n; — 

We  have  read  the  extraordinary  paper  or  memorial  presented  by 
you  as  a  committee  from  Nantucket,  and  we  must  in  the  most 
explicit  terms  inform  you  that  we  do  not  consider  it  a  satisfactory 
explanation  of  your  conduct,  but  as  a  specimen  of  that  duplicity  and 
mean  evasion  which  are  the  distinguishing  characteristic  of  the  people  of 
this  country. 

Our  letter  to  the  Inhabitants  was  dictated  by  friendship  and  was 
forwarded  at  the  express  request  of  some  of  your  principal  men  who 
represented  to  us,  "  That  in  the  present  state  of  public  matters,  the 
"Magistrates  have  not  a  due  influence  and  that  the  only  power  now  in 
"being  at  Nantucket  is  that  which  men  of  property  exert  over  their 
"  immediate  dependants."  To  aid  those  men  in  their  exertions,  to  increase 
their  influence  and  thereby  oblige  the  Town  were  our  motives,  and  we 
expected  our  letter  would  have  been  productive  of  some  candid  acknow- 
ledgement of  past  crimes  and  an  absolute  promise  to  avoid  similar  ones 
in  future.  Nor  had  we  an  idea  that  all  the  cunning  of  the  island  would 
have  been  summoned  to  produce  such  an  ambiguous  monster  as  your 
memorial.  Disappointed  in  this  respect — it  is  incumbent  on  us  to  prove 
the  charges  exhibited  against  you  in  justification  of  the  threats  contained 
in  our  letter.  And  first  to  prevent  any  mistakes,  you  will  observe  that 
we  hold  ourselves  amenable  to  our  superiors  for  all  our  transactions,  and 
we  are  perfectly  satisfied  from  our  own  experience  that  Insults  and 
Indignities  offered  us  will  be  a  sufficient  apology  for  our  executing 
vengeance  against  any  people  under  Heaven. 

[The  letter  goes  on  to  advance  proofs  of  the  following  charges; — 

(a)  "Rescuing   the    Sloop    Nancyrnoiid   from   our    Letters    of   Marque," 

(b)  "That  you  aid  his  Majesty's  Enemies,"  (c)  "That  you  molest  &  disturb 
his   Majesty's   servants."     Among   the   statements   made   in   support   of 
these  charges  Winslow  &  Leonard  aver  that  "The  Inhabitants  (Nantucket) 
do  constantly  go  off  in  whale  boats  from,  the  back  of  the  Island  on  the 
appearance  of  rebel  vessels  and  give  intelligence  to  them  of  Ships  of  War 
(British)  or  other  cruisers  in  Boston  Bay  or  the  Vineyard  Sound,  and  by 
this  means  effectually  prevent  the  property  of  the  Rebels  from  being 
intercepted.     They  persevere  in  their  Trade  with  1he  French  West  Indies 
&  thereby  afford  considerable  supplies  to  the  Rebels  &  this  is  done  not- 
withstanding you  conditioned  with  Sir  George  Collier  to  discontinue  that 
Trade  on  his  granting  you  permission  to  purchase  those  goods  in  the 

*The  Nantucket  committee  comprised  Messrs.  Folger,  Rotch,   Starbuck  and 
Tupper. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  55 

King's  garrisons  at  Newport  &  New  York."  Winslow  &  Leonard  further 
aver  "that  no  King's  officer,  friend  to  Government,  or  suspicious  Person 
dare  make  his  appearance  on  your  island,  but  that  such  persons  are  under 
a  necessity  of  concealing  themselves  as  cautiously  as  if  among  their  avowed 
enemies — Witness  D'cr.  Tupper  Jun'r.,  Mr.  Thaxter  &  Mr.  Barker  who 
have  been  lately  in  that  predicament.] 

When  ships  of  War  have  made  their  appearance  at  your  island — awed 
by  their  power  you  have  shewn  respect  &  as  much  politeness  as  you  are 
capable  of,  but  we  defy  you  to  produce  any  other  instance. 

Having  finished  our  proofs  which  we  suppose  are  ample  to  establish 
every  fact  by  us  advanced — We  must  as  briefly  as  possible  take  notice  of 
your  apology  for  the  first  transaction,  and  we  are  under  a  necessity  of 
observing  that  we  consider  it  as  an  insult  offered  to  our  understandings 
and  as  a  trick  too  frequently  played  in  America  to  pass  current  at  present. 
The  blame  of  the  proceeding  is  lay'd  on  "lads"  who  are  supposed  to  have 
done  the  mischief  without  orders  and  of  course  the  Town  is  not  answer- 
able, and  in  imitation  of  that  metropolis  of  mobs,  Boston,  you  resolve  and 
vote  that  you  are  perfectly  peaceable,  that  you  disavow  all  hostile  proceed- 
ings! But  Gentlemen — can  you  possibly  imagine  that  your  very  frivolous 
pretence  is  a  sufficient  satisfaction  for  personal  injuries,  or  that  your  peace- 
able resolves  are  in  any  degree  a  recompence  for  waifing  an  armed  vessel 
&  cargo,  five  hundred  muskets  &  other  war  instruments,  out  of  the  hands 
oi'  his  Majesty's  friends  into  those  of  his  rebellious  subjects? 

Your  accusations  against  Capt.  Duggan  are  too  serious  to  pass  entirely 
unnoticed.  We  say  that  the  unruly  behaviour  of  his  sailors  was  subse- 
quent to  the  loss  of  the  prize;  he  acknowledges  that,  irritated  by  such  pro- 
vocation, they  were  in  some  degree  irregular,  but  that  every  injury  done 
by  them  was  instantly  repaired  either  by  ample  recompence  or  punishment 
of  the  delinquents,  and  we  have  declared  &  do  repeat  that  if  the  Inhabi- 
tants have  suffered  by  any  manner  of  persons  under  our  command  that  we 
are  ready  to  make  immediate  restitution.  It  is  our  duty  to  assure  yon 
that  in  future  we  shall  resent  every  Indignity  offered,  nor  will  the  simpli- 
city of  your  language  or  the  speciousness  of  your  excuses  be  a  satisfaction 
for  the  hostility  of  your  actions. 

We  are  Gent'n  Your  H'ble  Servants, 

Ed.  Winslow— 
for  himself  &  G.  Leonard. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Colonel  Fanning. 

Newport,  Ehode  Island,  25th  Sept'r,  1779. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honor  to  report  to  you  that  in  pursuance  of  the  plan 
agreed  on  at  New  York,  I  on  the  6th  inst.  embarked  with  Governor  Went- 


56  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1779 

worth's  Volunteers  on  board  the  armed  vessel  under  command  of  Mr. 
Leonard,  and  on  the  9th  we  arrived  at  the  harbor  of  Holmes  Hole  in  the 
island  of  Martha's  Vineyard.  The  Eebels  on  the  coast  had  (as  usual)  been 
informed  of  our  preparations,  and  on  our  approach  were  in  motion  all  the 
distance  from  Seconet-point  to  Hyannas.  The  militia  of  the  three  coun- 
ties of  Plymouth,  Bristol  and  Barnstaple  were  on  the  march,  and  the  artil- 
lery moved  from  the  town  of  Plymouth  towards  Falmouth.  Finding  that 
Martha's  Vineyard  was  our  object,  the  Troops  &  cannon  were  counter- 
manded, and  they  only  reinforced  the  two  posts  of  Bedford  and  Falmouth. 
At  the  former  they  stationed  250  men,  at  the  latter  300  men  with  three 
Field-pieces. 

As  it  was  yoiir  advice,  as  well  as  my  inclination,  to  endeavor  at  con- 
ciliating the  affections  of  the  Inhabitants  of  these  Islands  by  every  means 
in  my  power,  and  at  the  same  time  not  to<  insist  upon  the  performance  of 
any  service  from  them  which  might  subject  them  to  the  resentment  of  the 
rebels  after  my  departure,  I  immediately  forwarded  the  Eequisition  No.  1 
of  the  inclosed  papers,  accompanied  by  the  Letter  No.  2 — the  one  for  their 
justification  for  coming  on  board,  the  other  as  a  proof  of  our  friendly  in- 
tentions. 

Before  I  proceed  further  in  my  journal  of  occurrences  I  shall  beg 
leave  to  observe  that  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Elizabeth  Islands  are  now  in 
a  predicament  peculiar  to  themselves.  Their  situation  is  such  as  to  admit 
of  a  free  and  constant  intercourse  with  the  people  of  the  main,  while  their 
interviews  with  those  of  the  King's  service  are  accidental,  seldom  &  short. 
Reports  favorable  to  the  Rebels  are  circulated  with  extreme  assiduity,  pre- 
judices are  imbibed  and — for  want  of  authentic  intelligence — egregious 
mistakes  are  made"  relative  to  important  facts.  At  the  commencement  of 
hostilities  they  engaged  with  reluctance,  because  they  were  exceedingly 
exposed  to  depredations  from  either  party,  but  at  length  by  the  strategems 
of  the  rebels  and  their  immediate  influence  they  were  seduced  into  the 
commission  of  open  acts  of  treason,  and  they  continued  in  arms  against 
the  King  until  they  were  deprived  of  them  by  Maj.  Gen.  Grey  in  Sept'r, 
1778.  He  also  obliged  them  to  furnish  considerable  supplies  for  the 
King's  Garrisons.  By  this  exertion  of  the  British  Troops  they  were  not 
only  more  confirmed  in  their  ideas  of  danger,  but  "they  were  also  furnished 
with  a  sufficient  apology  for  remaining  in  a  state  of  neutrality  &  peace. 
******* 

Conscious  that  in  various  respects  they  had  deviated  from  their 
agreement  with  General  Grey,  they  expected  severity  from  us.  A  conduct 
directly  opposed  to  such  expectation  disappointed  them  agreeably  &  pro- 
cured us  their  confidence;  so  that  from  being  timid,  ambiguous  &  cunning 
they  became  free,  explicit,  &  in  some  instances  ingenuous.  Upon  the  re- 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  57 

turn  of  their  committees  the  Inhabitants  of  the  several  towns  assembled 
and  without  a  dissentient  voice,  voted  to  supply  us  as  far  as  they  were  able 
and  their  laborers  and  teams  were  immediately  employed  in  procuring 
wood,  &c. 

On  the  10th  I  was  informed  that  Mr.  Welsh,  purser  of  the  Restora- 
tion, being  on  shore  on  duty  was  taken  by  a  party  of  Rebels  from 
Falrnouth  As  Welsh  was  a  native  of  Boston  &  a  very  obnoxious  char- 
acter (having  been  an  active  Revenue  officer)  I  did  not  think  it  improbable 
that  he  might  receive  indignities,  but  I  was  convinced  by  an  answer  to  a 
letter  of  Mr.  Leonard's  from  the  commanding  officer  at  Falmouth,  that 
the  Rebels  meant  to  adopt  a  different  kind  of  policy  with  us,  and  that 
Welsh  was  favored  with  particular  indulgencies.  I  this  day  landed  with 
Capt.  Murray's  party  and  wa^  received  by  the  inhabitants  with  as  much, 
civility  as  could  be  expected.  Such  articles  as  we  wanted  for  our  imme- 
diate consumption,  were  brought  to  us,  and  we  paid  for  them  in  com- 
modities useful  to  them.  The  scattering  among  them  a  few  articles  of 
British  manufacture  had  not  a  bad  effect — it  revived  their  old  predilection 
and  produced  comparisons  between  British  &  French  commodities  not 
favorable  to  the  latter. 

The  llth,  12th,  13th,  14th  [September]  I  spent  in  reconnoitring  the 
groiinds  in  different  parts  of  ihe  island,  attended  by  some  of  the  principal 
inhabitants  who  began  to  give  us  new  proofs  of  their  hospitality  and  readi- 
ness to  oblige  us — they  also  made  proposals  to  sell  us  their  stock  of  cattle, 
poultry.,  &e.,  for  which  we  engaged  to  pay  them  in  tea,  sugar,  coffee,  &o. 
Mr.  Leonard  appropriated  a  small  vessel  (the  Fancy)  to  receive  those 
articles  and  in  two  days  she  was  loaded  with  poultry. 

15th  [Sept.]  I  received  the  following  information,  "That  the  General 
"Assembly  of  Massachusetts  Bay  continue  to  assess  the  Inhabitants  of 
"  Martha's  Vineyard,  and  that  the  Rate  Bills  for  the  present  year  are  now 
"  in  the  hands  of  Benjamin  Pease,  jun'r,  "who  is  appointed  collector  of 
taxes."  [The  letter  goes  on  to  state  that  certain  persons  on  the  island 
were  serving  on  board  armed  vessels  in  the  service  of  the  rebels  and  had 
taken  prizes;  also  that  the  pilots  warned  the  vessels  approachng  in  the 
offing  of  the  presence  of  the  squadron  under  Winslow  and  Leonard  pre- 
venting their  capture.] 

Mr.  Leonard  *  *  ordered  Capt.  Baxter  of  the  Leslie  to  take  into 
custody  the  Collector  of  Taxes  &  to  bring  him  &  his  Rate  Bills  to  Holmes 
Hole,  and  he  also  issued  a  proclamation  forbidding  all  pilots  at  their  peril 
from  pursuing  a  practice  so  detrimental  to  the  service.  Those  who  were 
concerned  in  the  capture  of  Bell's  Vessel  instantly  fled  to  the  main — others 
who  had  been  engaged  in  privateers  surrendered  &  By  way  of  atonement 
entered  our  service.  The  Collector  and  his  Rate  Bills  were  brought  and 


58  WINSLOW  PAPEKS.  [1779 

we  have  reason  to  apprehend  that  the  order,  relative  to  the  pilots,  answered 
the  purpose  intended. 

The  Inhabitants  were  exceedingly  gratified  at  the  proceedings  against 
the  Collector.  *  *  *  * 

I  made  a  public  declaration  to  them  that  as  the  taxes  were  assessed 
for  the  express  purpose  of  levying  war  against  the  King,  it  would  be  con- 
sidered as  a  most  presumptious  act  in  any  person  who  should  pay  any  pro- 
portion for  that  purpose.  They  requested  that  they  might  be  permitted 
to  represent  this  matter  to  Ihe  /General  Assembly.  We  consented  that 
Mr.  Atheam  should  pass  to  Bcston  on  that  business.  He  communicated 
our  threats,  &cv  and  obtained  a  temporary  exemption. 
On  Atheams  return  he  communicated  to  some  of  the  principal  men  in  the 
County  of  Barnstaple  the  indulgencies  which  he  had  obtained  from  the 
General  Court.  They  warmly  resented  the  partiality  and  declared  that  as 
their  situations  on  the  peninsula  of  Cape  Codd  were  equally  exposed  to 
our  depredations  they  would  apply  for  the  same  privileges. 
We  have  this  day  the  pleasure  of  hearing  that  our  vessels  at  Old  Town 
had  taken  a  prize  from  the  West  Indies  laden  with  sugar,  molasses  &  coif ee. 

On  the  16th  I  received  the  declaration  of  Bosswell  &  Bradshaw  rela- 
tive to  the  sloop  Nancymond. 

I  refer  you  to  enclosures  No.  12,  13,  14,  15  for  all  the  subsequent 
transactions  relative  to  Nantucket,  and  will  only  add  that  the  committee 
after  carefully  attending  to  the  proofs  alleged  in  my  letter,  begged  leave 
to  withdraw  their  memorial  and  apologies  and  desired  to  throw  themselves 
on  our  mercy  and  that  we  would  make  as  favorable  a  representation  as  cir- 
cumstances would  admit.  Altho'  I  acknowledge  myself  exceedingly  affronted 
by  their  insinuations  &  deceitful  conduct — I  was  disposed  to  avoid  any 
severities,  and  I  consented  to  make  the  best  excuse  possible  for  them. 


Francis  Green*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  25th  Sept'r,  1779. 

Dear  Sir, — Enclosed  in  a  letter  from  my  kinsman,  Joshua  Winslow, 
Esq'r,  lately  arrived  from  Boston  at  Halifax,  I  rec'd  a  letter  unsealed  for 
you,  which  this  serves  to  cover.  I  embrace  the  earliest  opportunity  of 
forwarding  it. 

*Francis  Green  was  a  Boston  merchant.  He  graduated  at  Harvard.  He 
was  an  ensign  in  the  40th  Regiment  at  the  siege  of  Louisburg,  being  but  a 
boy  of  sixteen.  He  was  a  sturdy  Loyalist,  and  a  very  entertaining  biographical 
sketch  of  him  is  to  be  found  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists.  At  the  peace  he 
settled  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  was  sheriff  of  the  County  of  Halifax.  He  afterwards 
returned  to  the  United  States,  and  lived  at  Medford,  Massachusetts,  where  he 
died  in  1809. 


1779]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  59 

By  an  extract  from  a  Boston  News  Paper  of  13th  of  this  month,  we 
find  they  were  steadily  watching  the  motions  of  your  Fleet  and  determined 
if  opportunity  presented  to  effect  the  Destruction  of  it.  It  is  a  favorite 
object  with  them  but  I  natter  myself  their  expectations  will  be  frustrated 
by  the  Prudence  of  our  Conductors. 

That  you  may  succeed  in  everything  is  the  warm  wish  of 
Dear  Sir; 
Yours  with  much  esteem., 

F.  Green. 

[This  letter  is  addressed  "Colonel  Edw'd  Winslow,  commanding  the 
Associated  Loyalists,  &c.,  New-Port."] 


Rigdon  Brice*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Savannah,  6th  November,  1779. 

I  thank  you  for  the  appointment  you  have  been  pleased  to  honor  me 
with.  *  *  The  Provincials  have  been  so  scattered  ever  since  they  land- 
ed here  (till  lately)  that  it  was  with  infinite  difficulty  a  Muster  could  be 
obtained  at  all.  When  we  returned  from  Augusta  about  the  first  of 
M arch,  part  of  some  Corps  were  left  at  Briar  Creek,  some  at  Hudson  Ferry, 
Ebenezer,  Savannah  and  Sunbury.  I  then  endeavored  to  obtain  a  gen- 
eral Muster  of  the  whole  for  the  April  Returns  but  could  not  effect  it 
before  the  Army  marched  to  So7  Carolina.  In  May  I  followed  them  and 
joined  in  June  on  John's  Island  being  then  a  month  on  my  passage.  The 
Stono  affair  immediately  happened  &  the  Army  then  returned  to  Beau- 
fort &  Savannah.  Some  of  the  Provincials  remaining  at  Beaufort  &  on 
Lady's  Island,  I  stayed  there  some  time  to  Muster  them,  and  then  followed 
the  main  body  to  Savannah,  where  I  arrived  on  the  20th  August  very 
sick;  since  which  time  I  have  not  been  out  of  my  room,  nay  scarcely  out 
of  my  bed  till  within  these  five  days.  Am  now  recovering  fast  but  not 
able  to  finish  the  copies  for  this  conveyance. 


Ridgon  Brice  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Savannah,  25th  Feb'y.  1780. 

Sir, — I  herewith  transmit  you  returns  of  a  muster  of  all  the  Provin- 
cial Corps  in  this  Province,  taken  in  NoVr  &  Dec^r  last;  which  is  the  first 
compleat  muster  I  have  been  able  to  obtain  since  our  arrival  here,  but 

*Ridg-on  Brice  was  a  native  of  Georgia  and  a  Loyalist.  He  was  at  this  time 
Col.  Winslow's  deputy  muster-master.  He  went  to  Europe  at  the  peace  and 
died  there  in  1796. 


60  WINSLOW   PAPERS  [1780 

f    ' 

some  few  of  the  Corps  were  frequently  mustered,  tho'  I  made  no  return 
to  your  office  of  them,  thinking  I  should  be  able  to  make  a  general  return 
before  now;  but  as  the  movements  of  the  Army  during  the  summer  pre- 
vented it,  the  Siege,*  my  illness,  &  the  few  opportunities  of  conveyance 
during  the  fall  &  winter,  will  I  hope,  induce  you  to  excuse  this  long  delay. 
And  be  assured,  Sir,  that  I  will  use  my  utmost  endeavours  to  make  them 
at  the  regular  periods  hereafter.  I  am,  Sir,  Your  much  obliged 

and  very  H'ble  Serv't, 

Rigdon  Brice. 
List  of  the  Eeturns. 

New  York  Volunteers.     3d  Bat'n  New  Jersey  Volunteers. 

1st  Bat'n.  B.  G.  DeLanceys.     2  Bat'n  ditto. 

Kings  Rangers.     So'  Carolina  Royalists.} 

Royal  North  Carolina  Volunteers.}    Georgia  Loyalists. || 

2  Troops  Lt.  Dragoons. 

Jonathan  Sewall  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Trinity  Street,  (Bristol)  7th  May,  1780. 

Chip  enclosed  me  several  of  your  letters  to  him  during  your  depre- 
datory Excursion,  so  that  you  have  corresponded  with  me  unknown  to 
yourself.  I  should  have  wrote  you,  but  Chip,  in  his  Letter  after  your  last 
[A.  D.  1779]  advised  me  of  your  heroical  Expedition,  &  desired  me,  as 
your  locality  would  for  some  time  be  uncertain,  to  direct  no  more  Letters 
to  you  till  further  Advice — this  was  a  necessary  precaution,  as  from  tht 
nature  of  your  Service  your  Motion  must  be  as  eccentric,  &  your  perihelion 
more  uncertain  than  that  of  the  Comet  which  we  are  now  looking  out  for 
with  all  the  Eyes  in  our  heads;  this  apologizes  for  my  not  writing  to  you. 
Your  Shandean  description  of  your  meeting  with  your  good  old  Father  on 
Prudence  Island,  is  so  pathetic,  so  sentimental,  so  feeling,  so — so — so 
exactly  as  it  should  be,  that  I  have  read  it,  oftener  than  I  have  my  Bible, 
since  I  rec'd  it — I  never  read  it  but  every  fiddle  string  in  my  whole  Com- 
position vibrates  in  strict  Unison  with  yours  when  on  Prudence  Island — 
I  would  have  gone  as  far  to  be  an  Eye  witness  of  that  Scene  of  paternal 
&  filial  affection,  as  I  would  to  have  seen  Yorick's  Meeting  with  poor 
Maria  at  Moulines — "God/'  said  Maria,  "tempers  the  wind  to  the  shorn 
Lamb" — so  may  he  do  to  your  venerable  Father! — "shorn  indeed!" — mais, 
n'  import. 

"This  was  the  famous  siege  of  Savannah,   well  described   in  Judge  Jones' 
History  of  New  York. 

flhe  South  Carolina  Royalists  comprised  both  infantry  and  cavalry — raised 
by  Lieut.  Col.  Innes  in  1778. 

JThe   Royal    North    Carolina   Volunteers   were  raised    about   1779   and   were 
under  command  of  Lieut.  Col.  John  Hamilton. 

|| The  Georgia  Loyalists  were  raised  early  in  1779  and  were  commanded  by 
Major  James  Wright. 


1780-j  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  61 

I  lament  that  the  Evacuation  of  R.  Island  cut  you  short  in  your 
career  of  Glory — you  ask  what  I  think  of  it — why  faith,  there  is  so  much 
to  be  said,  pro  &  con  that  I  don't  know  what  to  think.  As  Ronchong  said 

about  dying,  it  was  a  d d  thing  to  be  sure  but  then  appearances  seemed 

to  require  It;  and  I  don't  know  whether  Sr.  H.  Clinton  could  prudently 
have  gone  with  so  great  a  force  to  Carolina  without  recalling  the  Troops 
from  R.  Island;  and  if  he  succeeds  against  Charlestown,  you  may  retake 
R.  I.  when  you  please — much  may  be  said  for  the  Measure,  tho'  on  your 
side  of  the  water,  much  is  said  against  it. 

I  thank  you  for  the  short  Account  of  your  incursions,  you  refer  me 
to  Gov'r  Hutchinson  for  particulars,  when  I  see  him,  but  I  am  sorry  to 
say  I  never  expect  to  see  him  again  in  this  world — he  has  lately  bury'd 
his  Son  Wm.  who  dy'd  of  a  Consumption,  &  my  friends  write  me  from 
London  that  he  is  going  in  the  same  way,  very  fast,  that  he  is  so  far  gone 
as  to  see  no  body  but  his  physician  &  his  Children,  and  that  his  Daughter 
Mrs.  Oliver  is  going  with  the  same  disorder.  Sic  transit  Gloria  Mundi — 
as  you  say.  I  have  wrote  Chip  in  two  Letters,  &  shall  triplicately  and 
quadruplicately,*  desiring  him  to  send  me  by  the  return  Bristol  Ships,  a 
few  Newtown  pippins,  Shagbarks  and  Cranberrys — do  spur  him  up.  You 
con't  conceive  what  a  regale  Newtown  pippins,  Shagbarks  &  Cranberrys 
would  be  to  us  Refugees.  I  have  nothing  new  to  tell  you  of  a  public  or 
private  nature,  we  are  in  hourly  Expectation  of  important  News  from  Sr. 
H.  Clinton — I  hope  when  it  comes  to  see  the  City  of  Bristol  again  bril- 
liantly illuminated,  as  it  was  lately  for  Sr.  G.  Rodney's  success.  Mrs. 
Sewall,  Mr.  Sam  Sewall,  my  Sister  &  my  two  Boys  are  all  in  good  health 
&  assure  you  of  their  best  wishes. 

When  you  have  nothing  else  to  do,  if  you  can  find  that  time,  write 
a  monstrous  Long  letter  to 

Your  faithful  Friend 

and,  whatever  else  you  wish, 

Jon.  Sewall. 


Robert  Hallowell  t  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Bristol,  May  9th,  1780. 
Notwithstanding  my  dear  Friend,  you  had  laid  a  prohibition  on  my 


*The  risk  of  letters  failing  to  reach  their  destination  was  so  great,  owing 
to  the  dangers  of  the  sea  and  the  number  of  hostile  cruisers,  that  not  only 
duplicates  but  triplicates,  etc.,  were  frequently  sent  as  opportunity  offered,  by 
succeeding  ships. 

f  Robert  Hallowell,  of  Boston,  was  comptroller  of  customs  at  that  port.  In 
1768  he  ordered  John  Hancock's  vessel,  the  "Liberty,"  to  be  seized  for  smug- 
gling wine  and  removed  under  the  guns  of  the  Romney  ship  of  war.  An  affray 
with  the  populace  ensued,  in  which  Hallowell  was  severely  wounded.  In  1778 
he  went  to  Bristol,  England.  In  1792  he  returned  to  Boston.  He  died  in  Gardi- 
ner, Maine,  April  1818,  in  his  79th  year. 


62  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1780 

• 

writing,  I  had  determined  to  break  through  it  even  before  I  got  your  letter 
by  Capt.  Murray  which  I  duly  received  about  ten  days  ago,  and  I  believe 
is  the  only  one  I  have  had  from  you  for  near  twelve  months. 

Murray  arrived  in  Ireland  some  time  in  January,  he  tarried  there 
near  three  months  and  came  to  this  place  on  his  way  to  Cowbridge  to  see 
his  father.*  He  returned  from  thence  last  Tuesday,  and  Thursday  even- 
ing set  off  for  his  first  visit  to  London. 

You  mentioned  having  an  interview  with  your  father.  I  am  sure 
it  must  have  made  you  both  exceedingly  happy.  I  wrote  him  some  time 
ago;  when  you  write  him  do  mention  it,  and  give  my  most  affectionate 
regards  to  all  your  family.  I  have  been  in  this  place  eight  months;  how 
much  longer  it  will  be  my  residence  I  cannot  tell,  for  unless  our  chest  is 
replenished  soon  I  must  go  into  Wales  or  somewhere  else.  I  got  some 
friends  to  apply  to  Colonel  Dalrymple  and  was  in  hopes  I  should  have 
been  able  to  have  gone  to  New  York  with  him — but  he  gave  me  no  encour- 
agement, and  I  can  assure  you  I  wanted  but  very  little,  to  embark.  He 
said  he  had  nothing  worth  my  acceptance,  but  I  believe  if  I  had  been  in 
London  at  the  time  I  should  have  stood  a  good  chance  of  going  out  with 
him. 

I  have  inclosed  you  some  letters  from  Boston,  I  will  be  exceedingly 
obliged  to  you  to  forward  them  by  some  careful  hand.  Mrs.  H.  begs  her 
best  Eegards,  &  I  am,  my  Dr.  Ned — 

Yours  aff  tly, 

Bob't  Hallowell. 


Colonel  Edmund  Fanning  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Smith  Street,  3d  Sept.  1780. 

Dear  Sir — It  is  impossible  for  me  to  say  how  happy  I  am  made  by  my 
friend  Winslow's  letter  to  me,  and  the  perusal  of  the  Colonel's  Letter  to 
Gov.  Wentworth.  His  Eepresentation  of  the  discouragements  under 
which  His  Majesty's  Amer.  Corps  have  been  raised,  &  Have  served,  merits 
the  Warmest  &  most  lasting  Acknowledgements  of  Gratitude  from  every 
person  connected  with  these  Corps,  as  well  as  from  all  others  who  wish 
well  to  the  Royal  Cause  &  the  Glory  of  the  British  Nation. 

I  am  so  pleased  with  the  whole  Letter,  and  so  deeply  interested  in 
some  parts  of  it,  that  if  I  had  time  I  should  possess  myself  of  a  Copy  of  it 
— but  I  must  not  detain  it  a  moment  lest  the  present  opportunity  of  con- 
veyance should  be  lost. 

Yours,  Dear  Chip, 

Very  sincerely, 

Ward  Chipman,  Esq.  Edm'd  Fanning. 

"Colonel  John  Murray  of  Rutland,  Massachusetts. 


1780]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  63 

Colonel  Edmund  Fanning  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York  22d.  Septr.,  1780. 
My  dear  Sir, 

Our  Chipman  made  me  supremely  happy  this  Morning  by  delivering 
me  your  Letter.  I  was  absolutely  bewildered  and  lost  for  a  Moment  under 
that  sudden  Revolution  of  Thoughts,  which  are  known  only  to  the  feeling 
&  Grateful  Few;  how  I  should  most  amply  enjoy,  &  fully  requite,  that 
Goodness  and  Friendship  which  You  so  eminently  possess,  &  I  so  happily 
experience.  At  first  I  determined,  &  so  requested  Mr.  Chipman  to  inform 
You,  that  You  should  be  Lieut.  Colo,  to  the  King's  Amer.  Regim't.  &  that 
to  effect  this  point  Geo.  Campbell*  should  be  aided  by  me  as  Lieut.  Colonel 
Commandant  in  raising  a  second  Batt'n,  but  I  shall  more  easily  succeed, 
&  at  the  same  time  more  effectually  promote  the  King's  Service  and  Our 
Country's  Good  by  placing  You  at  the  Head  of  this  second  Child  of  my 
Wishes  and  Ambition;  and  if  You  approve,  I  will  not  only  be  unto  Yon 
as  a  Captain  Plume  &  a  Serjeant  Kite,  but  in  my  Endeavors  to  promote 
your  success  in  raising  your  Corps,  You  shall  find  me  capable  of  the  most 
virtuous  &  manly  Friendship.  Think  on  these  Things,  &  the  Lord  give 
you  Understanding  to  chuse  that  which  is  right  &  best.  I  ever  am,  most 
sincerely  and  unalterably, 

Dea.r  Col. 
Your  affectionate  humble  Servant, 

Edm'd  Fanning. 

Joshua  Upham  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Dec.  8,  1780. 

Dear    Winslow,         *         *  Should    the    war   terminate   at 

this  moment  and  as  it  ought  I  shall  find  it  uphill  work  to  extricate  myself 
from  pecuniary  embarrassment,  and  before  over-taken  by  old  age,  to  pro- 
cure anything  sufficient  for  the  decent  education  of  my  children. 

All  military  employments  are  disposing  of  on  this  side  the 
water  to  a  few  of  our  Friends  and  to  all  Rebels  who  will  come  &  receive 
them — In    God's    name    where    shall    I    find    myself?         *         * 
Suppose  we  jointly  deliberate  on  this,  to  us  very  important  business. 

A  General  DeLancey  for  New  York,  a  General  Skinner  for  New  Jer- 
sey, a  General  Arnold  at  large,  have  and  are  raising  Brigades — &  why  not 
a  General  Buggies  for  Massachusetts-Bay  &c.;  Should  this  be  permitted 
by  the  Commander  in  Chief  why  may  not  you  &  I  be  the  very  men  to 
undertake  the  raising  a  Battalion  each  which,  with  the  Dragoons  to  be 

*Georgie  Campbell  was  lieutenant  colonel  of  the  King's  American  Regiment 
in  January,  1777. 


64  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1780 

raised  by  Buggies,  will  compleat  the  Brigade.  In  this  way  all  the  men  of 
influence  within  and  some  Friends  without  the  lines  from  the  East- 
ern Provinces  may  at  the  close  of  the  war  find  themselves  on  sure  ground 
of  provision;  you  &  I  shall  have  it  in  our  power  to  provide  for  our  Boys 
&c.  *  *  * 

Let  us  make  application  to  the  Commander  in  Chief,  subscribed  by 
a  number  of  Gentlemen  from  the  Eastern  Provinces,  requesting  that 
Ruggles  be  permitted  to  raise  a  ^Brigade  from  that  part  of  the  country. 
This  done  we  will  apply  for  warrants,  you  for  one  and  myself  for  the  other 
Battalion,  either  as  Colonels  or  Lt.  Colonels,  in  which  case  we  shall  with 
the  Regiment  of  Dragoons  employ  every  Gent'n  from  that  country  who 
would  wish  to  be  recommended,  by  which  means  we  shall  extend  an  Influ- 
ence to  all  parts  of  that  country.  We  shall  by  spirited  exertions  undoubt- 
edly recruit  many  even  in  the  present  situation  of  affairs.  We  shall,  being 
properly  organized,  be  in  a  situation  &  condition  to  avail  ourselves  of 
every  favorable  opening  while  Government  are  urging  their  operations  to 
the  Eastward  as  I  think  they  will  early  in  the  next  spring. 

*  In  this  way  I  communicate  my  sentiments  to  you, 

perhaps  you  will  convince  me  that  all  my  hopes  are  groundless  &  merely 
ideal.  I  have  not  hinted  my  intention  either  to  Ruggles  or  Murray,  I 
wish  them  to  get  fairly  on  their  Legs  before  their  attention  is  diverted  to 
anything  else.  I  really  think  my  plan  if  adopted  will  promote  theirs. 
*  *  *  &c. 

J.  Upham. 


Col.  Winslow^s  Strictures  on  Sir  H.  Clinton.* 

It  was  very  soon  evident  to  me  that  the  impediments  which  were 
thrown  in  the  way  of  my  friends  Murray  &  Upham  could  not  fail  to  check 
their  progress.  The  stupor  which  seemed  to  seize  his  Excellency  &  which 
nothing  short  of  a  super-natural  event  can  rouse  him  from,  effectually 
prevented  any  military  enterprises.  The  defensive  system  which  he 
adopted  was  so  complete  that  there  was  no  possibility  of  advancing  without 
the  lines  and  it  must  have  been  a  very  active  and  determined  deserter  that 
could  get  within  them.  'Tis  unnecessary  to  observe  that  a  campaign  in 
which  all  the  Grenadiers  of  the  Army  are  employed  in  digging,  and  half 
the  Dragoons  foraging  on  foot  among  peaceable  inhabitants,  could  not  be 
productive  of  capital  acquisitions.  I  leave  it  to  Upham  &  Murray  to  give 
you  a  detail  of  the  various  difficulties  which  they  have  encountered  &  of 
which  I  should  probably  have  had  my  share.  From  these  and  other  con- 
siderations I  have  at  times  rejoiced  that  my  offer  was  rejected. 

*The  letter  containing  these  strictures  may  have  been  addressed  to  Sir  John 
Wentworth,  but  there  is  nothing  in  the  rough  copy  filed  among  the  Winslow 
papers  to  enable  one  to  determine. 


1780]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  65 

The  prodigious  events  which  have  lately  taken  place  in  this  country 
Tender  our  conjectures  very  uncertain.  [Winslow  had  written  here  the 
following  through  which  he  afterwards  put  his  pen: — "  For  my  own  part 
•"  as  I  never  despond,  I  indulge  a  hope  that  I  shall  yet  have  a  chance  of 
""  seeing  a  General  that's  neither  a  Rebel  or  a  Histerical  Fool  at  the  Head 
"of  a  British  Army  in  America  &  when  that  happens  I  shall  have  no 
"  doubt  that  the  war  will  terminate  as  every  true  friend  to  the  constitu- 
"  tion  wishes."] 

I  do  not  despond  but  have  yet  hopes  that  every  man  of  spirit  in  the 
country  will  have  an  opportunity  to  show  it  to  advantage.  You  will  un- 
doubtedly have  the  earliest  information  of  what  may  be  intended  another 
year,  and  it  is  only  for  you  to  point  out  what  your  wishes  are  relative  to 
your  matters  here. 

I  do  not  relinquish  my  plan  but  will  catch  at  the  first  fair  chance. 
Murray  has  persevered  thro'  an  infinite  variety  of  difficulties  &  the  Corps 
is,  spite  of  all  opposition,  respectable  &  could  he  be  favored  with  a  chance 
to  operate  in  the  Country  I  have  no  doubt  it  would  be  distinguished. 

I  fear  Upham  will  fail. 


Edward  Winslow's  Memorial. 

In  a  memorial  to  Sir  H.  Clinton  dated  at  X.  Y.  Dec/  28,  1780,  Wins- 
law  states,  "That  on  the  15th  July,  1776,  he  was  appointed  Muster  Master 
General  of  his  Majesty's  Provincial  Forces  with  an  allowance  of  10  shil- 
lings per  day  and  that  he  at  the  same  time  was  Secretary  to  a  Board  of 
General  Officers  of  which  the  Right  Hon.  Earl  Percy  was  President,  for 
which  he  received  10  shillings  per  day.  That  afterwards  Col.  Innes  was 
appointed  Inspector  General  of  Provincial  Forces  with  20  shillings  per 
day  and  the  provincial  rank  of  Lieut.  Colonel,  and  that  he  was  assured  he 
would  obtain  like  rank  and  pay  for  himself  on  due  application."  He 
claims  that  having  anticipated  a  movement  of  the  army  towards  the  pro- 
vince from  which  he  came,  and  the  hor>e  of  enjoying  Lt.  Colonel's  rank 
and  pay  in  a  line  of  active  service,  he  did  not  solicit  honorary  rank. 
Winslow  urges  the  increase  of  his  pay  to  20  shillings  on  the  ground  of  the 
great  increase  in  the  Provincial  Forces  and  on  the  principle  of  justice  to 
himself  &  to  a  family  once  affluent  but  now  reduced  through  the  sacrifice 
of  their  possesssions. 

In  another  memorial  to  Sir  Henry  Clinton  asking  for  leave  of  absence, 
Winslow  mentions  that  he  was  formerly  Naval  Officer  for  the  Port  of  Ply- 
mouth, and  afterwards  Collector  of  Customs  for  the  Port  of  Boston  in 
New  England.  He  did  not  succeed  in  getting  his  memorial  attended  to, 
the  Commander  in  Chief  replying,  "It  can't  be  now." 


GG  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [17el 

Edward  Winslow  to  Major  DeLancey.* 

New  York,  Jan,  23,  1781. 
Sir- 

His  Excellency  the  Commander  in  Chiefs  answer  to  my  memorial  for 
leave  of  absence  has  been  communicated  to  me  by  the  Deputy  Inspector 
General,  nothing  short  of  the  consideration  that  I  am  thereby  reduced  to 
extreme  distress  could  induce  me  to  give  you  any  additional  trouble  on 
this  subject,  but  I  am  so  seriously  affected  by  this  decision  that  I  natter 
myself  I  should  be  forgiven  for  relating  the  following  circumstances. 

That  I  was  among  the  first  who  made  a  voluntary  sacrifice  of  property 
&  enjoyments  &  joined  the  British  Troops  after  the  commencement  of  the 
rebellion,  and  to  the  present  time  I  have  been  constantly  employed  with 
the  army.  When  I  was  appointed  Muster-Master-General  to  the  Provin- 
cial Forces  there  were  only  two  companies  raised,  and  even  then  I  received 
twenty  shillings  a  day  for  mustering  them  and  for  my  other  appointments 
They  are  now  increased  to  several  thousands.  All  the  returns  of  musters 
from  the  various  posts  on  this  continent  are  made  to  my  office,  and  (in 
addition  to  the  common  duty  of  a  muster-master)  I  am  obliged  to  examine 
all  the  subsistence  accounts,  &c,  to  certify  their  concurrence  with  the 
Muster  Eolls.  During  the  whole  of  my  services  in  this  department  I 
have  never  received  any  species  of  emolument  except  a  bare  allowance  for 
my  travelling  expences,  and  I  beg  leave  to  add  that  in  the  execution  of  my 
duty  T  have  never  in  any  instance  to  my  knowledge  given  just  cause  for 
complaint  or  censure. 

I  have  in  the  province  of  Massachusetts  an  infirm  father,  upwards  of 
seventy  years  old,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the  best  education  this 
country  could  afford,  and  for  innumerable  other  favors.  He  has  a  wife 
and  two  daughters  with  him  (my  mother  &  sisters.)  This  family  habitu- 
ated to  affluence  have  now  no  possible  resource  from  which  they  can  obtain 
even  the  necessaries  of  life  without  my  assistance,  and  I  have  hitherto  had 
it  in  my  power,  by  secluding  myself  almost  from  society  &  practising  a 
system  of  rigid  economy,  to  save  them  from  burthening  government  by 
adding  to  the  number  of  distress'd  supplicants.  But  by  the  circumstances 
mentioned  in  my  first  memorial  I  have  been  deprived,  of  one  half  the 
allowance  which  I  was  accustomed  to  receive  and  am  therebv  effectually 
prevented  from  performing  the  necessary  duty  to  my  family. 

Since  my  connection  with  the  British  Army  I  have  received  some 
very  flattering  assurances  of  friendship  from  some  very  respectable  per- 

*Oliver  DeLancey,  jr.,  son  of  Brig.  General  DeLancey.  He  was  at  this  time 
adjutant  general  to  the  commander  in  chief  in  succession  to  Major  Andre.  He 
died  unmarried  in  1820,  and  was  at  that  time  a  full  general  in  the  British  army. 


1781-j  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  67 

sons  in  England.  To  avail  myself  of  their  offer  was  my  only  motive  for 
asking  a  leave  of  absence  at  this  time,  having  no  other  possible  resort  to 
save  my  friends  from  wretchedness. 

I  should  quit  the  army  with  reluctance  even  for  a  few  months.  From 
Lexington  engagement  to  the  present  time  I  have  omitted  no  opportunity 
of  serving  as  a  Volunteer  when  I  had  it  in  my  power,  and  I  declare  that 
1  eagerly  anticipate  opportunities  of  exerting  myself  in  the  situation 
prayed  for  in  my  memorial  in  preference  to  an  application  in  England 
for  civil  offices,  or  the  gratuitous  bounty  of  government,  which  others 
have  obtained  whose  pretensions  were  by  no  means  superior  to  mine, 
unless  they  have  acquired  that  superiority  by  begging  instead  of  earning 
their  bread. 

These  facts,  so  peculiarly  interesting  to  myself  &  friends  must  apolo- 
gize for  the  confidence  in  your  humanity  again  to  represent  my  situation 
to  the  Commander  in  Chief,  satisfy'd  that  when  it  is  known  to  his  Excel- 
lency he  will  indulge  mean  improving  the  interest  of  my  friends  for  the 
purposes  mentioned. 

The  singular  advantage  which  would  attend  my  going  in  this  Fleet 
compels  me  to  be  thus  importunate.     I  have  the  honor  to  be, 
With  every  sentiment  of  respect, 

Your  most  obliged  &c,  &c, 

E.  Winslow. 
Major  Oliver  DeLancey, 

Acting  Adjutant  General. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Governor  John  Went  worth.* 

[1781] 

The  nature  of  the  present  war  in  America  is  so  peculiar,  so  different 
from  what  British  armies  have  been  formerly  accustomed  to,  that  experi- 
ence acquired  in  other  countries  avails  very  little  in  this.  Veterans  who 
served  campaigns  in  Germany  and  are  perfectly  acquainted  with  man- 
oeuvering  of  armies  in  regular  sieges  and  defences,  find  themselves  novices 
when  engaged  against  an  army  like  the  present,  and  bold  as  the  assertion 
may  appear  I  venture  to  affirm  that  the  British  have  gained  near  as  much 

*Sir  John  Wentwoith,  baronet,  the  last  Royal  Governor  of  New  Hampshire, 
and  surveyor  of  the  King's  woods  in  North  America.  Many  interesting  par- 
ticulars relating  to  him  will  be  found  in  these  pages.  A  pretty  full  account  of 
his  life  is  contained  in  Sabine's  Loyalists  of  the  American  Revolution.  Other 
particulars  are  to  be  found  in  Murdoch's  History  of  Nova  Scotia.  Sabine  says 
of  him:  "In  my  judgment  not  one  of  the  public  men  who  clung  to  the  royal 
cause  will  go  down  to  posterity  with  a  more  enviable  fame."  At  college  he  was 
a  classmate  and  friend  of  John  Adams.  Sir  John  was  ever  a  warm  friend  of 
Edward  Winslow,  whose  abilities  he  greatly  admired,  and  whose  welfare  he 
did  his  best  to  promote. 


6ff  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1781 

from  their  observations  of  the  Provincial  and  American  Troops  as  the 
latter  have  acquired  from  them.  I  will  only  mention  one  circumstance 
by  way  of  illustration,  which  does  not  in  any  degree  derogate  from  the 
honor  of  the  British  (God  forbid  that  I  should  say  or  write  anything  that 
did).  When  the  British  Light  Infantry  began  their  operations  in  this 
country  they  were  almost  compact  in  their  movements,  regular  in  their 
inarching  and  from  habit  and  general  instructions  they  appeared  averse 
to  every  attempt  to  screen  or  cover  themselves  from  danger  however  im- 
minent. Hence  many  of  them  were  picked  off  in  all  the  first  skirmishes. 
It  was  observed  that  on  all  snch  occasions  the  enemy  placed  themselves- 
behind  trees  and  walls,  etc.,  and  it  was  apparently  necessary  to  take  them 
in  their  own  way.  In  consequence  a  new  word  was  adopted  and  the  Flank 
Corps  were  on  subsequent  occasions  ordered  "To  Tree" — a  word  of  com- 
mand as  well  known  to  them  now  as  any  other. 

The  theoretical  part  of  military  business  is  not  so  particularly  intricate 
that  a  gentleman  may  not  acquire  a  competent  knowledge  of  it  in  a  short 
time;  much  of  the  necessary  knowledge  of  an  officer  is  not  what's  gener- 
ally understood  by  the  term  professional,  and  surely  an  acquaintance  with 
the  country  in  which  he  operates,  with  the  temper  of  its  inhabitants,  their 
manners,  &c.,  must  be  an  essential  qualification.     I  have  the  highest  idea 
of  the  necessity  of  discipline  and  subordination  myself  but  I  will  not  sub- 
scribe to  the  doctrine  that  it  requires  a  whole  life  spent  in  the  service  to 
give  an  officer  a  just  idea  of  it.     Many  Provincial  officers  and  very  many 
young  officers  of  the  Line  are  proofs  to  the  contrary.     I  know  that  experi- 
ence is  necessary  to  complete  a  military  character,  but  that  only  men  who 
have  rose  thro'  all  the  gradations  of  military  rank  are  fit  to  be  trusted 
with  military  commands  is  an  idea  which  I  would  hope  was  originally 
formed  in  the  head  of  Sir  Wm.  [Howe]  and  would  never  descend  farther 
than  to  his  immediate  successor.     I  would  not  detract  one  iota  from  the 
respect  due  to  veterans,  but  in  Heaven's  name  when  a  state  is  in  danger 
should  men  of  capability,  liberal  education  and  extensive  knowledge  re- 
main unemployed  until  all  the  Serjeants  of  the  army  are  provided  for? 
Surely  this  cannot  be  prudence  or  policy.     This  war  has  made  many  good 
soldiers  for  the  rebels  and  it  has  added  many  good  soldiers  to  the  British. 
The  discipline  of  the  Americans  is  indisputably  copied  from  the  British, 
but  the  British  in  turn  have  in  several  instances  profited  by  the  examples 
of  their  enemies. 

A  General  Burgoyne  may  contend  that  a  regiment  of  raw  recruits 
headed  by  inexperienced  leaders  cannot  carry  martial  enterprises  with 
success,  he  however  ought  to  acknowledge  that  substitutes  for  discipline 
and  experience  were  found  in  the  American  armies  encountered  by  him, 
which  more  than  compensated  for  the  want  of  those  qualities. 


1781]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  69 

Having  long  since  established  in  my  own  mind  by  this  kind  of  reason- 
ing the  propriety  and  expediency  of  employing  the  gentlemen  of  this 
country,  I  readily  declared  my  resolution  to  engage  in  the  provincial 
service.  Till  the  present  time  I  have  seen  no  fair  opening.  The  antici- 
pations of  impediments  in  the  recruiting  business,  had  it  not  been  for  the 
discouraging  partiality  shewn  to  particular  regiments,  would  never  have 
discouraged  me,  but  the  necessity  of  contact  with  men  whose  ideas  of 
service  were  different  from  my  own  was  the  obstacle  that  weighed  most 
in  my  mind;  for  till  very  lately  there  have  been  to  all  the  Provincial  regi- 
ments recommendations  of  officers  which  were  next  to  positive  orders 
from  the  Commander  in  Chief.  The  present  plan  of  Upham,  Murray  and 
myself  is  calculated  to  obviate  all  my  objections.  The  task  of  recruiting 
a  regiment  is  certainly  arduous  but  perseverance  in  it  will  always  ensure 
success.  The  progress  which  Murray  has  already  made  is  a  proof  of  this 
assertion,  altho'  he  has  had  difficulties  enough  to  encounter.  In  one  in- 
stance a  plan  as  well  digested  as  ever  a  recruiting  officer  formed  failed 
merely  from  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  a  pass  from  Head  Quarters  to  bring 
off  the  recruits,  and  18  men  who  would  have  been  doing  duty  as  dragoons 
in  the  service  are  now  suffering  punishment  in  Simsbury  mines.*  An- 
other attempt  of  less  consequence  has  failed  in  the  Jerseys  thro'  very 
extraordinary  delays — a  third  is  now  under  consideration  and  it  appears 
to  me  is  of  so  much  consequence  that  it  must  be  adopted.  There  are  a 
sort  of  men  here  who  with  small  pretensions  affect  a  knowledge  of  this 
country  that  indulge  themselves  in  very  free  observations  on  the  nature 
of  the  recruiting  business.  They  laugh  at  the  idea  of  raising  a  regiment 
in  the  present  situation  of  matters. 

We  are  anxious  to  exert  our  utmost  endeavors  to  form  a  Brigade  when 
we  receive  your  consent  to  command  it.  I  am  sensible  that  in  making 
this  request  we  raise  a  proportion  of  difficulties  for  you,  but  I  please  myself 
with  the  consideration  that  the  illiberal  observations  which  may  be  made 
on  giving  the  rank  of  Brigadier  General  may  with  equal  propriety  be  let 
loose  on  the  rank  of  Lieut.  Colonel.  I  venture  to 

assert  that  were  it  necessary  the  signature  of  almost  every  man  from  the 
Eastern  Provinces  might  be  obtained  to  a  request  that  you  should  com- 
mand the  proposed  corps.  I  am  sure.it  can  need  no  additional  motive  but 
the  public  service  to  ensure  your  exertions.  I  need  not  increase  this 
already  extravagant  epistle  to  convince  you  of  that.  I  observed  to  you 
that  I  had  not  as  yet  obtained  a  warrant.  I  am  in  no  hurry,  nor  have  I 
the  least  objection  to  waiting  until  Murray's  corps  is  completed  and 
Upham's  respectable.  My  situation  is  not  exactly  the  same  with  theirs. 

*Many   staunch    Loyalists   were    imprisoned   in   the   mines    at    Simsbury   in 
Connecticut. 


70  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1781 

Murray's  all  depends  on  the  success  of  this  business,  and  Upham  (whose 
character  must  be  given  you  by  others  less  partial  than  myself)  has  at 
present  little  else  to  depend  upon.  My  own  appointment  being  at  thb 
Head  of  a  Department  is  a  very  different  one,  and  although  the  present 
emoluments  of  it  have  been  screwed  down  to  the  last  peg1  by  the  Strainer 
of  Gnats  and  Swallower  of  camels  who  at  present  commands,  I  have  less 
to  complain  of  than  my  neighbors.  I  have  no  reason  to  suppose  that  I 
shall  fail  in  my  endeavors  to  secure  appointment  as  Lieut.  Colonel  only 
that  I  have  failed  in  every  attempt  that  I  have  made  since  Sir  Henry 
Clinton  commanded  here. 

It  was  not  till  every  mark  of  respect  was  shewn  our  first  patron  and 
every  argument  used  to  induce  him  to  exert  his  influence  that  Upham, 
Murray  and  myself  presumed  to  solicit  for  ourselves.  To  gratify  that 
worthy  man  [Gen.  Timothy  Ruggles]  and  to  facilitate  a  plan  which  was 
concerted  by  General  Vaughan  and  himself,  and  which  was  afterwards 
objected  to  at  Head  Quarters,  we  cheerfully  engaged  with  a  party  of 
Refugees  from  Rhode  Island,  with  whom  we  every  day  risqued  our  repu- 
tation as  well  as  our  lives,  presuming  that  the  end  of  our  toils  would  be 
an  appointment  to  gratify  our  ambitions  by  raising  the  long  talked  of 
brigade.  Although  cur  successes  were  much  beyond  our  most  sanguine 
expectations,  we  found  ourselves  in  the  same  predicament  as  before.  In 
short  it  was  evident  that  the  General  (Ruggles)  had  from  the  unpardon- 
able inattention  to  him  and  from  other  causes  contracted  such  a  disgust 
to  present  men  and  measures  here,  that  he  could  neither  negotiate  with 
confidence  or  serve  with  alacrity,  and  there  was  such  a  mixture  of  virtue 
even  with  his  obstinacy  that  while  we  deprecated  it  as  unfortunate  for  our- 
selves we  dared  not  oppose  it.  *  *  * 


Rigdon  Brice,  Deputy  Muster  Master  in  the  South,  to 
Edward  Winslow. 

Charlestown  24  An.,  1781. 
Sir,— 

From  the  nature  of  the  service  in  this  Country  it  has  not  been  in  my 
power  to  transmit  Returns  to  your  office  so  regularly  as  I  ought  to  have 
done.  Lord  Cornwallis  has  been  pleased  to  allow  me  an  assistant,  which 
will  enable  me  to  perform  this  duty  in  future.  He  is  just  returned  from 
mustering  the  Troops  in  Georgia. 

I  have  now  sent  copies  of  the  Muster  Rolls  &  the  strength  &  distribu- 
tion of  all  the  Provincial  Forces  in  this  Quarter  to  the  24  June  (except 
the  N.  York  Volunteers,  3d  Batt.  K  Jersey  VoFrs  &  South  Carolina 
Royalists,  which  have  not  been  mustered  since  April).  The  British 


1781]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  71 

Legion*  met  with  very  considerable  loss  on  the  17th  Jan.,  since  which 
time  they  have  not  been  mustered  &  are  now  in  Virginia  so  that  they  are 
not  included. 

I  am  ordered  immediately  to  Wilmington,  where  are  the  Royal  North 
Carolina  Regt.,  a  new  corps  called  North  Carolina  Highland  Reg%t  and 
a  new  Troop  recruiting;  returns  of  which  I  will  send  as  soon  as  possible. 

Every  necessary  of  life  is  so  extremely  dear  that  I  find  it  impossible 
to  live  upon  the  pay  I  have  hitherto  received,  and  this  obliges  me  to  beg 
you  will  be  pleased  to  make  some  addition  to  it.  Major  Prevost  has 
honored  me  with  his  leave  to  request  that  you  will  please  to  write  to  him 
on  this  head,  and  Col.  Innes  I  am  sure  will  do  me  the  favor  to  promote  it, 
as  I  have  received  only  five  shillings  a  day  since  Col.  Campbell  left  Georgia. 

During  my  long  sicknes  in  Georgia  Mr.  Donald  Frazer  did  my  busi- 
ness for  above  six  months,  as  I  cannot  obtain  any  pay  for  him  without 
your  order,  I  beg  you  will  please  grant  him  something  for  that  service. 
He  was  very  attentive  to  the  business  and  has  suffered  much  by  the  Re- 
bellion. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c.  &c., 

Rigdon  Brice,  D.  M'r.  M'r.  Prov.  Forces. 


Mrs.  Sheaffe  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Boston  3d  Feb'ry,  1781. 

I  thank  you  my  dear  friend  for  your  kind  attention.  Capt.  Folget 
called  on  me  by  your  desire  and  told  me  you  had  lately  heard  from  Hale.| 
Why  does  he  not  write  me?  If  he  knew  the  pain  his  omission  gives  me 
he  would,  he  must — or  he  does  not  deserve  the  character  I  hear  of  him  in 
various  ways.  I  know  not  what  to  think;  do  my  friend  explain  this 
mystery,  it  hangs  heavy  upon  my  heart. 

*The  British  Legion  was  a  celebrated  Loyalist  corps,  consisting  both  of 
cavalry  and  infantry.  It  was  organized  early  in  1778,  and  during  the  southern 
campaign  was  commanded  by  Lieut.  Col.  Banistre  Tarleton,  a  dashing  cavalry 
officer.  At  the  peace  in  1783  the  corps  was  sent  to  Port  Matoon,  N.  S.,  to  be  dis- 
banded. Few,  however,  remained  there. 

fThe  North  Carolina  Highlanders  were  organized  by  the  McDonald  clan, 
who  had  lately  emigrated  from  Scotland.  The  husband  of  the  celebrated  Flora 
McDonald  was  one  of  their  number.  "The  corps  saw  hard  service  during  the 
war. 

JThe  reference  is  to  her  son,  Roger  Hale  Sheaffe.  He  had  the  good  for- 
tune to  attract  the  attention  of  Lord  Percy  (afterwards  Duke  of  Northumber- 
land), by  whose  assistance  he  was  advanced  rapidly  in  the  military  line.  He 
became  colonel  of  the  49th  Regiment,  and  took  a  leading  part  in  the  war  of 
1812.  He  was  knighted  and  made  a  baronet,  and  became  a  lieutenant  general 
in  the  army.  A  biography  of  nine  pages  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists  tells 
of  his  romantic  career.  See  Edward  Winslow's  reference  to  him  in  this  book 
in  a  letter  written  in  September,  1810. 


72  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1781-2 

I  wrote  you  by  Mr.  Ludlow;  under  the  same  cover  was  a  letter  from 
your  sister  P[enelope]  who  is  surprised  at  your  mention  of  not  having 
rec'd  a  line  from  her  since  May  last.  No  my  friend  no  place,  time,  or 
circumstance  can  make  her  unmindful  of  you.  She  is  too  good  a  creature 
to  neglect  so  justly  beloved  a  Brother.  I  own  I  was  mortified  when  I 
found  Capt.  Folger  did  not  bring  me  a  letter.  Have  again  wrote  to  Mr. 
Geyer  (which  letter  beg  you  to  see)  about  the  same  matter  the  rent.  I 
am  sure  you  my  dear  friend  will  assist  me  in  getting  it  all  in  your  power. 
Gen'l  Eobinson  hired  it  of  me  himself  in  person;  indeed  I  want  it,  did  you 
know  how  much,  it  would  pain  your  feeling  heart. 

My  family  join  in  kind  regards.  I  am  my  dear  friend,  with  the 
sincerest  attachment. 

Yours, 

Sus'a  Sheaffe. 

Edward  Winslow  to  J.  Banister. 

June  9,  1781. 

I  desire  that  neither  Mrs.  B.  nor  yourself  would  suffer  the  amuse- 
ments or  company  of  England  to  wean  you  from  your  attachments  to  this 
country.  Eemember  that  nothing  can  recompense  me  for  the  tears  I  shed 
— I  am  not  ashamed  to  recollect  them  tho'  a  soldier — at  leaving  our  once 
happy  town  of  Boston  but  the  pleasure  of  attending  some  of  its  best  in- 
habitants to  their  old  agreeable  situations. 

My  best  regards  to  Mrs.  B.,  assure  her  that  no  vicissitudes  can  make 
me  forget  the  many  instances  of  her  attention  and  kindness. 

I  have  been  one  whole  year  soliciting  leave  from  my  superiors  to  visit 
Great  Britain.  Perhaps  by  another  year  I  may  obtain  it." 


Capt.  Eobert  Bethel*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

East  Battery,  Halifax  April  20,  1782. 
My  dear  Friend, — 

Not  any  circumstance  since  my  memory  ever  gave  me  more  satisfac- 
tion than  the  receipt  of  your,  your  good  father's  and  your  virtuous  and 
amiable  sister's  letters  by  Major  Brace  [of  the  Eoyal  Fencibles.]  I  can- 
not well  express  the  joy  I  felt  that  that  good  man  is  at  last  free  from  the 

brutish  insults  of  an  ignorant  set  of  D Is  where  he  last  resided,  and 

that  the  joy  will  be  still  more  compleat  the  moment  I  hear  of  the  arrival 
of  your  dear  mother  and  sister  Penelope.     Your  father's  letter  convinces 

*Robert  Bethel  was  a  captain  in  the  King's  Orange  Rangers.  He  had  form- 
erly served  as  quarter  master  of  the  corps,  and  his  promotion  was  largely  owing 
to  Col.  Wlnslow's  efforts. 


1782]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  73 

me  he  has  a  great  share  of  the  same  flow  of  spirits  that  used  to  enliven 
the  little  Plymouthian  society  when  you  were  all  happy  together. 
*  *  I  most  sincerely  thank  you  for  all  your  congratulations  and 
the  trouble  you  took  in  my  favor  and  I  hope  I  shall  always  entertain  a 
lively  sense  of  gratitude  to  you  for  the  honor  of  the  commission  I  now 
bear  [as  Captain  in  the  King's  Orange  Rangers]  as  you  have  been  the 
immediate  cause  of  my  procuring  it.  I  should  have 

been  extremely  happy  to  have  sent  you  some  Salmon  and  Lobsters  but 
they  are  not  yet  in  season.  Have  been  trying  to  get  some  potatoes  that 
are  good  but  without  success,  but  I  promise  you  by  the  first  conveyance 
not  to  omit  any  article  in  my  power  to  send  you. 

I  am  your  much  obliged  &  sincere  friend, 

Eob.  Bethel. 


Rigdon  Brice  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Charleston,  25th  Jan'y,  1782. 

Sir, — On  my  return  in  June  from  the  long  march  thro'  1ST.  Carolina, 
I  immediately  began  to  prepare  Returns  of  the  Provincial  forces  in  this 
District  for  your  office,  and  sent  them  in  his  Majesty's  Ship  the  Hope,  a 
copy  of  my  letter  is  inclosed.  I  proceded  to  Wilmington  &  on  my  return 
here  in  Dec'r,  the  Hope  being  lost,  we  have  made  up  another  sett  to  June, 
compleat,  which  I  hope  may  come  safe  to  hand. 

We  have  mustered  all  the  Corps  in  this  province  to  24th  Dec'r.  I  am 
going  immediately  to  Georgia  and  on  seeing  the  Regiments  there,  will 
transmit  returns  of  the  whole  to  that  period.  When  these  returns  were 
closed  I  was  very  sick,  and  desired  Mr.  Jenkins,  my  assistant,  to  write  you. 
Absolute  necessity  obliges  me  to  beg  you  will  be  pleased  to  make  some 
addition  to  my  pay. 

I  have  the  Honor  to  be  Sir, 
Your  most  obedient 

and  very  humble  Serv't, 

Rigdon  Brice. 

Joshua  Upham  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Fort  Franklin,*  Lloyd's  Neck, 
Dear  Winslow, —  June  27,  1782. 

The  bearers  Serg't  Joslin  and  Serg't  Carr  have  applied  to  me  for  leave 
to  go  to  you  and  if  you  permit  to  K  York.  Mr.  Chace  has  recommended 

*Fort  Franklin  was  no  doubt  named  in  honor  of  William  Franklin,  the  last 
Royal  Governor  of  New  Jersey.  He  was  a  natural  son  of  Benjamin  Franklin. 
A  full  biography  of  him  will  be  found  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists.  Lloyd's 
Neck  lies  west  of  Huntington,  on  the  north  shore  of  Long  Island.  Major  Joshua 
Upham  commanded  the  Loyalists  here,  many  of  whom  supported  themselves  by 
cutting  wood  for  the  army  at  New  York.  Many  of  the  Kingston,  N.  B.  Loyalist 
settlers  were  living  here  at  this  time. 


74  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1782 

them  in  such  a  manner  as  to  convince  me  I  am  safe  in  granting  their  re- 
quest. They  will  if  you  do  not  indulge  them  further  return  immediately 
to  this  place,  on  which  condition  they  go.  There  are  some  few  Privates 
lately  of  the  Loyal  New  Englanders*  who  suppose  you  intended  their  dis- 
charge, but  do  not  know  whether  they  are  discharged  or  not;  these  men 
wished  to  be  passed  from  the  Neck,  to  which  purpose  you  will  be  so  good 
as  to  send  me  a  list  of  such  names  as  I  may  properly  permit  to  leave  the 
Neck.  I  am  in  great  haste,  you  will  therefore  excuse  that  list  of  Particu- 
lars which  I  wish  to  communicate  for  your  amusement;  but  as  you  will, 
as  I  hope,  in  a  short  time  do  us  the  honor  to  visit  this  Post  in  Company 
with  Governor  Franklin  and  Major  Murray,  I  will  save  my  budget  for 
that  time.  I  have  the  Honor  to  be  Sir, 

Your  Friend  &  humble  servant, 

J.  Upham. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

[Shortly  after  the  surrender  of  Lord  Cornwallis  there  appeared  an 
ironical  advertisement  in  the  New  York  Gazette  from  which  the  following- 
extracts  are  taken.] 

The  late  surrender  of  Lord  Cornwallis  and  his  Army,  must  undoubt- 
edly produce  the  most  happy  effects  to  the  British  Nation  by  accelerating 
the  ^termination  of  the  war  and  promoting  the  views  of  the  Ministry 
with  respect  to  America.  It  will  unavoidably  interest  Foreign  Powers  in 
behalf  of  the  English  and  has  taken  off  a  man  who  was  inimical  to  the 
Glory  of  Sir  Henry  Clinton  and  perpetually  counteracting  his  manoeuvres. 
In  a  word  no  one  can  tell  or  foresee  the  happy  consequences  of  this  im- 
portant event.  Nevertheless  the  subscriber  finds  it  convenient  for  various 
reasons  to  remove  to  Europe.  All  persons  therefore  who  have  any  de- 
mands against  or  are  indebted  to  him  are  requested  to  make  a  speedy 
settlement. 

The  Subscriber  will  dispose  of  his  stock  in  trade  by  public  auction. 
Compleat  catalogues  will  be  given  at  the  Sale.  The  following  are  a  few 
of  the  articles  to  be  disposed  of. 

BOOKS. 

The  History  of  the  American  war,  or  the  glorious  exploits  of  Generals 
Gage,  Howe,  Burgoyne,  Cornwallis  &  Clinton. 

The  Royal  Pocket  Companion,  being  a  system  of  Policy  whereby  a 
Prince  may  in  a  short  time  render  himself  abhorred  by  his  subjects  and 
detested  by  all  good  men. 

*The  Loyal  New  Englanders  were  a  small  military  organization  raised  and 
commanded,  early  in  1777,  by  Lieut.  Colonel  George  Wightman.  In  June,  17S1, 
the  members  were  distributed  amongst  the  larger  corps. 


1782]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  75 

The  Kiglit  of  Great  Britain  to  the  dominion  of  the  sea,  a  poetical 
fiction. 

The  state  of  Great  Britain  in  October  1760  &  1781  compared  and 
contrasted. 

A  Geographical,  Historical  &  Political  account  of  the  British  Posses- 
sions in  North  America;  this  valuable  work  formerly  consisted  of  13  Vols. 
in  folio  but  is  abridged  by  a  royal  hand  into  a  single  pocket  duodecimo, 
for  greater  convenience  of  himself  and  his  subjects. 

PLAYS. 

West  Point  preserved — or  the  Plot  discovered — Tragi-Comedy. 
Miss  McCrea,  a  Tragedy. 
The  Meschianza,*  a  Pantomine. 

The  Sleeveless  errend,  or  the  Commissioners  of  Peace. 
The  Amorous  Hero  and  Contented  Cuckold,  by  Gen7!  Howe.t 
The  battle  of  the  kegs — a  Farce. 

'^Who'd  have  thought  it" — or  the  introduction  of  24  British  Stand- 
ards to  the  Rebel  Congress. 

MAPS    AND   PRINTS. 

An  elegant  map  of  the  British  Empire  in  America  on  a  very  small 
scale. 

A  plan  of  Cornwallis  Route  through  the  Southern  Colonies  begin- 
r.ing  at  Charlestown  and  terminating  at  Yorktown  in  Virginia. 

A  very  distant  prospect  of  North  America. 

View  of  the  battle  of  Saratoga  with  Companion  piece  the  Siege  of 
York-Town. 

British  representations  of  the  principal  operations  of  the  present  war, 
highly  colored  by  eminent  hands. 

The  Times;  a  satirical  print  representing  the  British  Lion  as  blind 
in  both  eyes,  thirteen  of  his  teeth  drawn,  and  his  claws  pared  off,  with 
Lord  North  in  the  character  of  a  farrier  bleeding  him  in  the  tail  for  his 
recovery. 

PHILOSOPHICAL   APPARATUS. 

Magic  Lantern,  constructed  by  an  able  artist  under  Lord  North's 
direction,  for  the  entertainment  of  the  good  people  of  England;  objects 
presented  carefully  selected. 

Multiplying  Glasses  whereby  the  number  of  the  enemy  may  be  greatly 
increased  to  cover  disgrace  of  defeat  or  enhance  the  glory  of  victory. 

A  compleat  Electrical  apparatus  for  the  use  of  the  King  and  his 

*See  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York,  vol.  1,  pp.  241,  261,  716. 
fSee  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York,  vol.  1,  p.  351. 


76  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1782 

Ministers;  this  machine  should  be  used  with  great  caution,  for  as  unhappy 
experience  hath  shewn,  the  Operator  may  unexpectedly  receive  the  shock 
he  intended  to  give. 

Pocket  Glasses  for  near  sighted  Politicians. 

PATENT     MEDICINES. 

Aurum  Potabile.  This  medicine  was  formerly  deemed  a  never  failing 
medicine  in  all  cases,  hut  was  thought  not  so  well  adapted  to  the  American 
Climate,  having  been  frequently  tried  without  effect;  but  its  reputation 
is  now  restored  having  been  administered  with  great  success  in  the  case 
of  General  Arnold. 

Vivifying  Balsam,  excellent  for  weak  nerves,  palpitations  of  the  heart, 
over  bashfulness  and  diffidence:  recommended  to  Army  Commanders. 

Sp.  Mend. — or  the  true  spirit  of  lying,  extracted  by  a  distillation  of 
some  hundreds  of  the  Eoyal  Gazette  of  New  York.  Other  papers  have 
been  tried  but  experience  shows  that  the  paper  and  ink  of  the  Royal 
Gazette  alone  can  produce  this  spirit  in  true  perfection.  By  administer- 
ing due  proportions  of  this  medicine  lies  may  be  produced  which  are  to 
operate  for  a  day,  a  week,  or  for  months. 

Cordial  Drops  for  low  spirits — prepared  for  the  use  of  the  Board  of 
Loyal  Refugees  at  New  York. 

Jonathan  Sewell,*  Sr.,  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Bristol  [England]  April  22,  1782. 

Dear  Chip, — Your  letters  of  28th  July  &  18th  August  have  astonished 
me — you  say  you  have  not  received  a  line  from  me  for  twelve  months,  in 
which  time  I  wrote  you  I  think  five.  *  *  *  I  have  been 
told  that  out  of  seven  or  eight  ships  which  sailed  from  this  port,  five  were 
captured  and  one  foundered,  among  these  six  were  I  suppose  my  letters. 
In  one  of  them  I  wrote  to  the  two  Neddys — Winslow  and  Tyng,  tho'  the 
former  did  not  deserve  it  and  the  latter  but  by  courtesy.  *  * 

You  tell  me  your  income  is  near  £500  per  annum  and  yet  you  lay  up 
nothing — permit  my  friendship  to  suggest  that  at  your  time  of  life  you 
ought  out  of  that  sum  to  be  laying  up  something.  I  know  the  unbounded 
generosity  of  your  disposition,  but  believe  me  the  most  generous  when  at 
the  top  of  the  hill  of  life  do  not  always  look  back  with  complacency  and 
self  approbation.  Prudent  economy  is  a  virtue  which  takes  rank  above 
profuse  generosity.  Upon  looking  back  on  my  past  life  I  often  lament 
that  I  had  not  a,  friend  to  point  my  attention  to  a  future  period  in  this 
world.  Not  that  I  repent  of  the  few  acts  of  friendship  and  humanity 
Avhich  I  have  to  reflect  upon,  and  I  think  I  should  have  had  more  and 
*See  biographical  note  under  date  30th  July,  1776. 


1782-3]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  77 

yet  have  been  in  better  circumstances  had  I  retrenched  those  foolish  ex- 
penses in  living  which  benefitted  no  mortal  &  which  had  perhaps  their 
origin  in  emulation  and  false  pride  rather  than  in  any  virtuous  principle. 

*  *  *  Look  around  us  as  far  as  your  acquaintance  with 
mankind  extends  and  you  will  find  estates  have  been  saved  rather  than 
gotten.  *  *  * 

There  Chip,  I  don't  know  h'ow  you'll  relish  my  sermonizing,  but  like 
it  or  not,  you  know  it  comes  from  an  old  friend — perhaps  you'll  say  an 
old  fool.  However  you  may  read  it  to  my  friend  Ned  (Winslow)  the  first 
Sunday  after  you  receive  it  if  you  meet  him.  I  know  he  will  laugh,  but 
tell  him  I  love  him  with  all  my  heart  and  soul,  and  therefore  I  wish  him 
to  give  it  his  serious  and  devout  attention.  I  wish  you  would  persuade 
Ned  to  write  me  his  opinion  upon  matters  and  things,  aye — apropos 
again,  tell  him  I  wish  he  would  be  more  niggardly  of  his  money  and  less 
of  his  letters. 

•  My  two  dear  sons  have  both  promised  to  write  you  by  this  opportunity 
but  their  time  is  so  entirely  filled  up  at  their  different  schools  that  I 
question  whether  they  will  be  able.     I  have  the  most  pleasing  accounts 
of  them  from  their  masters.         *         *         * 

But  enough  of  my  boys,  it  serves  to  fill  up  the  sheet  and  indulge 
parental  fondness. 

Write  me  soon — en  attendant,  adieu, 

Yours  invariably, 

Jon.  Sewell. 

EXPLORATION  COMMITTEE. 

Instructions  for  Messrs.  Amos  Botsford,  Samuel  Cummings*  and 
Frederick  Hauserf  Agents  for  the  Loyalists  who  purpose  to  settle  in  Nova 
Scotia  as  well  those  ,who  go  this  Autumn  [1782]  as  those  who  are  to  follow 
in  the  Spring. 

That  on  their  arrival  in  Nova  Scotia  they  apply  themselves  to  dis- 
cover whether  a  Tract  or  Tracts  of  Land  free  from  all  disputed  Titles, 
either  with  the  Indians  or  former  Grantees,  can  be  found  sufficient  to 
accommodate  the  Loyalists  and  their  Families  who  shall  remove  thither. 

They  will  examine  the  soil,  timber,  game,  limestone,  rivers,  bays, 

*  Samuel  Cummings  of  New  Hampshire.      He  was  proscribed  and  banished 
in  1778.      He  came   to  Annapolis  with   his   wife  and  two   children   in  company 
with  Amos  Botsford,  Frederick  Hauser  and  some  500  Loyalists  in  October,  1782. 
Some  account  of  the  circumstances  connected  with  the  voyage  and  arrival  at 
Annapolis   will    be    found   in   Miss    F.    E.    Murray's    interesting    Memoir    of    Dr. 
Le  Baron  Botsford,  p.  14. 

fFrederick  Hauser  was  a  surveyor,  and  with  Amos  Botsford  and  Samuel 
Cummings,  explored  St.  Mary's  Bay  and  the  lower  part  of  the  St.  John  River. 
See  biographical  note  under  letter  of  June  19,  1784. 


78  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

creeks,  harbors,  streams  and  ponds  of  water  with,  regard  to  mills,  fishing 
trade,  etc.  They  will  examine  the  face  of  the  country  whether  it  be  hilly, 
stoney,  sandy,  clayey,  etc. 

They  will  enquire  what  lands  in  the  neighbourhood  are  granted  and 
to  whom,  whether  the  grants  be  forfeited,  or  whether  they  may  be  pur- 
chased and  at  what  rate;  and  whether  advantageous  terms  may  not  be 
made  with  the  present  proprietors. 

Th°.y  will  endeavor  to  ascertain  as  near  as  they  can  what  will  be  the 
difficulties  and  obstructions  in  forming  new  settlements,  and  what  will 
be  the  probable  advantages. 

That  they  keep  a  journal  of  their  proceedings  and  register  their  ob- 
servations, noting  well  the  distances  from  the  principal  settlements  already 
made,  and  from  noted  rivers  and  harbors,  as  well  as  the  obstructions  in 
travelling  and  transporting. 

That  such  lands  as  may  be  obtained  be  distributed  and  divided  among 
the  proposed  adventurers  in  as  just  and  equitable  a  manner  as  the  nature 
of  the  case  will  admit  of;  and  that  they  make  Eeports  of  their  proceedings 
from  time  to  time  as  early  as  may  be  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Agency  in 
New  York. 

List  of  Agents  for  the  Settlers  in  Nova  Scotia. 

For  Lloyds  Neck — Lieut.  Col.  Thompson,  Col.  Edward  Winslow, 
Sampson  S.  Blowers,  ReVd  John  Sayre,  Capt.  Moseley,  Amos  Botsford 
Esquire. 

Bergin — Rev.  Dr.  Seabury,  Major  Thomas  Ward,  Capt.  George  Hard- 
ing, Capt.  Frederick  Hauser,  Win.  Harding,  Joshua  Pell. 

Queens  County — Joshua  Chandler,  Esquire,  Samuel  Cummings, 
Esquire. 

The  Reverend  Dr.  Seabury  was  appointed  President  and  Sampson  S. 
Blowers,  Esquire,  Secretary. 


Sarah  Winslow  to  Benjamin  Marston. 

New  York,  April  10,  1783. 

Six  weeks  ago  I  wrote  you,  my  worthy  cousin,  but  was  disappointed 
in  the  opportunity  I  expected  to  have  sent  it  by;  am  sorry  I  did  not  send 
it  by  some  other,  being  sure  it  would  have  afforded  you  pleasure,  as  it  was 
expressive  of  the  real  happiness  we  then  enjoyed.  At  that  time  we  were 
favored  with  a  large  share.  My  Father  under  the  care  of  our  very  atten- 
tive friend  Doctor  Bayley  recovered  his  health.  We  were  comfortable 
settled,  blessed  with  having  my  brother  with  us,  and  constantly  surrounded 
by  a  pleasing  circle  of  chearful  Friends — all  entertaining  agreeable  ex- 
pectations that  Spring  would  open  with  enlivening  prospects.  Alas  they 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  79 

are  now  at  an  end — Sad  is  the  reverse,  our  fate  seems  now  decreed,  and 
we  left  to  mourn  out  our  days  in  wretchedness.  No  other  resource  for 
millions  but  to  submit  to  the  tyranny  of  exulting  enemys  or  settle  a  new 
country.  I  am  one  of  the  number  that  gladly  would  embark  for  Nova 
Scotia  was  it  either  prudent  or  proper,  but  I  am  told  it  will  not  do  for  me 
at  present.  What  is  to  become  of  us,  God  only  can  tell.  In  all  our 
former  sufferings  we  had  hope  to  support  us — being  deprived  of  that  is  too 
much. 

Was  there  ever  an  instance,  my  dear  Cousin,  can  any  history  produce 
one,  where  such  a  number  of  the  best  of  human  beings  were  deserted  by 
the  government  they  have  sacrificed  their  all  for? 

The  open  enemys  of  Great  Britain  have  gained  their  point,  and  more 
than  ever  they  could  have  had  impudence  to  have  asked  for — while  their 
brave,  persevering  Noble  Friends,  who  have  suffered  and  toiled  for  years, 
and  whom  they  were  bound  by  every  tie  of  honour  and  gratitude  to  assist, 
are  left  without  friends,  without  fortune,  without  prospect  of  support  but 
from  that  Being  who  has  hitherto  supported  us,  and  upon  whom  we  must 
rely  for  further  protection.  This  "peace"  brings  none  to  my  heart,  my 
Brother,  my  darling  Edward,  who  I  wish  never  again  to  be  separated 
from,  is  now  hasting  away — may  he  meet  you  upon  his  arrival  in  Halifax. 
You  my  cousin  I -hope  will  be  much  with  him.  He  has  a  most  tender 
affection  for  you.  As  his  employ  will  lead  him  to  various  parts,  you  prob- 
ably will  have  more  frequent  opportunity  of  writing  to  us  here  than  he 
will.  *  Do  my  friend,  as  you  value  the  peace  of  this 

family,  caution  him  to  take  care  of  himself.  He  has  been  very  well,  but 
I  am  fearfull  his  fatigue  now  will  injure  him.  The  happiness  he  has 
afforded  us  is  beyond  my  pen  to  tell  you.  Since  my  Father's  recovery  I 
have  had  no  alloy  to  my  felicity  except  my  Mother's  absence.  Poor  Lady 
she  will  now  come  jest  as  her  son  is  gone.  Here  it's  thought  best  for  us 
to  continue  for  some  months — or  until  it  is  known  what  better  we  can  do. 
Severe  are  the  struggles  I  must  now  have  with  myself.  We  are  parting 
with  numbers  who  have  formed  a  most  delighted  society,  and  when  they 
have  all  taken  their  departure,  new  scenes  will  there  be  to  hurt  my  feel- 
ings every  hour.  My  Sister,  happy  girl,  is  entirely  reconciled  to  staying; 
if  she  cannot  enjoy  one  set  is  determined  to  another,  my  sensibility  is  too 
great  for  it.  I  wish  to  retire  entirely  to  my  own  family  and  endeavor  to 
remain  unmolested.  My  Brother  is  now  seeking  a  house  for  us  out  of  the 
City,  he  has  great  consolation  in  leaving  us  in  charge  of  so  good  a  man  as 
Doctor  Bayley.*  It  is  out  of  my  power,  my  Cousin,  to  do  justice  to  the 

*Richard  Bayley  of  New  York  was  an  eminent  physician.  He  was  born 
in  Connecticut  in  1745,  and  studied  in  London,  England.  In  1776  he  was  a 
surgeon  in  the  army,  but  retired  shortly  afterwards  to  private  life.  His  wife 
to  whom  he  was  devotedly  attached,  died  in  1777.  He  occupied  the  chairs  of 
anatomy  and  surgery  in  Columbia  College,  and  was  a  leading  writer  in  medical 
publications. 


80  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

benevolence  &  kindness  of  this  gentleman.  From  our  first  landing  here 
to  this  hour  he  has  been  the  most  attentive  and  extraordinary  friend  that 
perhaps  a  family  ever  met  with.  Under  his  care  my  Father  now  enjoys 
better  health  than  he  has  done  for  ten  years.  His  study  is  not  only  to 
relieve  our  "pains"  but  to  make  us  happy. 

This  scrawl  will  make  you  a  partaker  of  our  sufferings;  but  it  will 
also  I  hope  make  you  keep  in  remembrance  that  it  is  in  your  power  to 
alleviate  them  by  writing  a  line  by  every  conveyance.  You  are  a  Chris- 
tian and  Phylosopher,  teach  me  so  to  be. 

My  Father,  Brother  and  Sister  joyn  in  love  to  you.  Do  remember 
me  kindly  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Deblois  and  Polly  Little  when  you  see  them. 
Adieu.  Happiness  attend  you,  will  ever  pray 

Your  affectionate  cousin 


George  Leonard  to  Major  DeLancey,  Adjt.  Gen'l. 

Brooklyn,  April  15,  1783. 
Dear  Sir, — 

The  enormous  expense  I  am  of  necessity  put  to  in  removing  my 
family  to  Nova  Scotia,  the  asylum  pointed  out  for  the  King's  friends, 
compels  me  to  request  his  Excellency  the  Commander  in  Chief  to  grant 
me  6  months  advance  of  my  annual  allowance.  I  am  dear  Sir, 

Yours  sincerely, 

Geo.  Leonard. 

P.  S.  My  family  goes  on  board  Thursday  next  consisting  of  15  in- 
cluding servants.  

Lt.  Col.  J.  H.  Cruger  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York  April  18th,  1783. 

Sir, — The  officers  &  soldiers  of  Gen'l  De  Lancey's  1st  Batt.  request 
you  will  be  pleased  to  undertake  to  locate  for  them  a  Tract  of  Land  in 
Nova  Scotia  agreeably  to  the  annexed  Eeturn. 

In  full  confidence  Sir  of  your  friendship  they  trust  to  your  care, 
attention  &  good  judgment  to  procure  their  Grant  of  land  in  the  most 
eligible  and  advantageous  situation,  paying  strict  regard  to  the  quality; 
and  in  their  behalf  I  thank  you  for  that  friendly  service  on  which  their 
future  happiness  so  much  depends. 
I  am  Sir 

Y'r  obed't  humble  Serv't 

J.  H.  Cruger. 

A  Eeturn  of  the  Officers  and  Soldiers  of  Brig'r  General  De  Lancey's 
1st  Batt'n  who  mean  to  accept  of  his  Majesty's  bounty  in  Nova  Scotia,  14th 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  81 

April,  1783.  1  Lt.  Colonel,  1  Major,  8  Captains,  9  Lieuts,  6  Ensigns, 
1  Chaplain,  1  Adjt,  1  Quarter  Master,  1  Surgeon,  20  Sergeants,  12  Cor- 
porals, 5  Drummers,  115  Privates,  36  Women,  70  Children.  [Total  287.] 


CIKCULAR. 

New  York,  April,  1783. 

Sir, — A  number  of  the  commanding  officers  of  the  Provincial  Forces 
now  in  New  York  having  thought  it  expedient  that  Agents  should  be  sent 
forward  to  Nova  Scotia  as  soon  as  possible  for  the  purpose  of  soliciting  & 
securing  grants  of  land  for  the  Provincial  Corps,  and  Lieut.  Col.  Allen,  2d 
New  Jersey  Vols.;  Major  Millidge,*  1st  New  Jersey  Vols.;  &  Mr.  Winslow, 
Muster  Master  General  having  been  proposed  for  that  service,  they  beg 
leave  to  know  if  the  measure  is  approved  of  by  the  Corps  under  your  com- 
mand and  if  the  Persons  named  meet  your  approbation. 

I  am  to  request  you  will  favor  me  with  your  answer  immediately  as 
no  time  is  to  be  lost. 

We  have  the  Honor  to  be  Sir, 
Your  most  ob't  humble  servants, 

Bev.  Kobinson,  Col.  L.  A.  Regt. 

J.  H.  Cruger,  Lt.  Col.  1st  Batt.  DeLancey's  Br. 

Officer  commanding 
Kings  American  Dragoons. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Annapolis  Royalt  15th  May,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip — St.  Paul  in  all  his  travels  never  experienced  one 
hundredth  part  of  the  difficulties  which  I've  encountered  since  I  left  you. 
I  am  notwithstanding  in  perfect  health  and  in  high  spirits,  nor  shall  any 
rascally  vicissitudes  which  happen  in  this  blackguard  world  lower  'em. 

When  I  arrived  here  those  unfortunate  little  ones  that  God  had  been 


*Major  Thomas  Millidge.  His  commission  in  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers  is 
dated  December  11,  1776.  Prior  to  the  Revolution  he  was  surveyor  general  of 
New  Jersey.  At  the  time  of  the  international  boundary  arbitration  he  made  a 
survey  of  the  River  St.  Croix  (A.  D.  1797).  He  settled  at  Granvllle,  Annapolis 
Co.,  N.  S.,  where  he  died  in  1816,  aged  81  years.  His  son  Thomas  lived  at  St. 
John,  N.  B. 

•f-The  exact  date  of  Edward  Winslow's  arrival  with  his  family  at  Annapolis 
is  uncertain,  but  it  was  about  the  20th  April,  1783;  possibly  a  few  days  earlier. 
See  the  date  in  Jacob  Troop's  receipt  for  rent  under  date  23rd  May,  1785,  in  this 
book. 


82  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

so  civil  as  to  consign  to  my  care  were  all  sick  with  the  measles— I  hope  I 
have  convinced  Him  that  he  could  not  have  put  them  in  better  hands. 
There  was  not  a  place  to  put  their  heads  in — Col.  Small*  upon  hearing 
that  I  had  embarked  for  this  place  and  knowing  the  difficulty  of  obtaining 
quarters)  had  sent  an  express  from  Halifax  and  had  procured  two  rooms 
for  me,  but  it  was  in  a  family  where  I  could  not  mix;  I  therefore  instantly 
hired  a  place  on  the  other  side  the  river  for  £17  currency  a  year— a  very 
tolerable  farm  with  a  house  almost  as  large  as  my  log  house,  divided  into 
two  rooms, t  where  we  are  snug  as  pokers.— Peter  Ryerson  will  give  you  a 
description  of  the  whole  business.  He  returns  to  [New]  York  to  settle 
his  own  affairs.  I've  told  him  to  apply  to  yon  and  if  you  do  anything  for 
him  give  me  an  order  for  the  fees  as  I  have  had  a  number  of  things  of  him. 
He  has  been  very  useful  to  us.  What  shall  1  say  to  you  my  friend — When 
I  recollect  the  enormous  obligations  which  I  am  under  to  Tom  Coffin  and 
yourself  I  am  overwhelmed — they  make  me  cry  By  Heaven. 

When  I  arrive  at  Halifax  I  shall  write  you  very  particularly,  at  pre- 
sent I  have  no  time.  Adieu  my  dear  Chip  and  Coffin,  may  God  Almighty 
prosper  you  more  than  he  has  done. 

Your  most  grateful  &  affect. 

Ed.  Winslow. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Thomas  A.  Coffin  and  Ward  Chipman. 

[First  part  missing;  written  probably  in  May,  1783]. 

*  *  *  I  intended  to  write  to  you  Tom  Coffin  particularly 
but  I  really  am  unable  to  the  task.  I  however  must  tell  somebody  that 
the  Capt.  of  the  ship  Peggy  I  is  the  most  extraordinary  character  in  the 
world — 'tis  impossible  to  give  an  idea  of  his  attention,  uncommon  gener- 
osity and  kindness  to  the  unfortunate  who  came  with  us.  Tell  this  to 
Mr.  Watson,  because  he  loves  to  hear  of  benevolent  actions. 

*The  reference  is  to  Col.  John  Small  commanding  the  Young  Royal  High- 
land Emigrants,  or  84th  regiment,  then  in  garrison  at  Halifax.  He  is  frequently 
mentioned  in  Murdoch's  History  of  Nova  Scotia.  Some  account  of  the  corps 
will  be  found  in  Patterson's  History  of  Pictou,  N.  S.,  pp.  120-122.  Colonel  Small 
was  appointed  lieutenant  governor  and  commander  in  chief  of  the  Island  of 
Guernsey  in  1793.  See  this  book  under  date  Jan.  2,  1794. 

•f-The  house  was  enlarged  and  improved  by  Colonel  Winslow;  he  gives  a 
humorous  description  of  it  under  date  29th  April,  1785,  in  this  book.  It  was 
situated  in  Granville,  directly  opposite  Annapolis. 

J  Captain  Jacob  Wilson.  See  letter  under  date  7th  July,  1783,  in  this  book. 
The  ship  Peggy  evidently  brought  a  number  of  distressed  Loyalists  to  Annap- 
olis. Brook  Watson,  as  commissary  at  New  York,  received  the  applications  of 
those  desirous  of  going  to  Nova  Scotia  and  made  arrangements  for  provision- 
ing them  on  the  voyage  and  after  their  arrival.  In  a  letter  to  Rev.  Dr.  Brown, 
written  in  July,  1791,  Watson  observes:  "In  1783,  as  commissary  general  to  the 
army  serving  in  North  America,  it  became  my  duty,  under  the  command  of  Sir 
Guy  Carleton,  now  Lord  Dorchester,  to  embark  35,000  Loyalists  at  New  York 
to  take  shelter  in  Nova  Scotia." 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  83 

[To]  Chip  again; — If  Ryerson*  returns  to  this  place  do  contrive  to 
send  by  him  a  little  brown  sugar,  molasses  &  Indigo,  which  I  cannot  buy 
here  at  any  rate.  Pop,  who  has  had  a  terrible  time  of  it  and  has  dis- 
covered more  fortitude  than  ever  any  women  possessed,  begs  to  be  re- 
membered to  you  both.  Tell  Mr.  Townsend  that  if  he'll  send  me  his  seine 
he'll  make  my  fortune  &  I'll  pay  for  it  in  fish  &  cranberries.  To  him, 
Chew,  Brinley,  the  Coffins  and  everybody  else  say  all  that's  affectionate. 
Should  Ryerson  be  puzzled  about  the  settlement  of  his  affairs  speak  to 
Upham  for  him.  Do  Chip,  if  anything  is  to  be  issued  from  the  public 
stores — such  as  tools,  blankets,  or  any  other  kind  of  thing,  receive  'em  for 
me  &  send  'em  here.  We  are  monstrous  poor.  I  have  not  a  spade,  hoe, 
axe  or  any  article  of  any  kind.  I've  borrowed  for  the  present.  A  waggon 
would  be  of  immense  consequence.  Gilfillan  offered  one  to  Col.  De- 
Lancey*  and  he  omitted  bringing  it.  Blankets  are  so  dear  that  I  can't 
think  of  purchasing  &  we  are  badly  off.  If  I'd  a  boat  I  would  not  envy 
the  Great  Mogul.  I  live  directly  opposite  the  town  of  Annapolis.  The 
river  not  half  a  mile  wide  &  the  ferriage  is  8  pence;  I  can't  afford  it.  I 
won't  bore  you.  If  anything  can  be  got  I'm  sure  you'll  send  it.  *  * 


Joshua  Loring  |  to  Col.  E.  Winslow. 

London,  Chidley  Court,  Pall  Mall, 

29th  May,  1783. 

Dear  Winslow — I  take  the  chance  of  this  meeting  you  in  New  York 
to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  yours  of  the  16th  March.  I  most  sincerely 
participate  in  your  anxiety  for  the  fate  of  the  Loyalists  going  to  Nova 
Scotia,  of  which  number  you  think  of  making  one.  I  well  know  your 
enterprising  spirit  and  ability  to  effect  anything  you  undertake,  but  I 
wish  your  views  had  in  the  first  instance  been  directed  to  the  fountain 
head,  for  I  fear  in  that  remote  part  merit  will  be  lost;  I  should  therefore 

*Probably  Peter  Ryerson  is  here  meant.  He  is  mentioned  in  Winslow's  let- 
ter to  Ward  Chipman  under  date  15th  May,  1783,  in  this  book.  I  find,  however, 
in  the  muster  roll  of  DeLancey's  3rd  battalion  of  August  24,  1783,  that  one  Mar- 
tin Ryerson,  of  Capt.  Allison's  company,  is  marked  as  being  "With  Colonel 
Winslow  in  Nova  Scotia."— W.  O.  R. 

t  Joshua  Loring  of  Boston.  He  was  born  in  1737;  bred  a  merchant,  married 
a  Miss  Lloyd,  a  very  handsome  woman,  but  very  gay  and  reckless.  A  British 
officer  stated  that  she  Host  300  guineas  at  cards  at  a  single  sitting.  Her  name 
is  unpleasantly  associated  with  that  of  Sir  William  Howe.  See  Jones'  Loyalist 
History  of  New  York.  On  the  evacuation  of  Boston,  Joshua  Loring  accom- 
panied the  army  to  Halifax  and  thence  to  New  York.  He  was  appointed  com- 
missary of  prisoners  by  Sir  William  Howe,  and  is  believed  to  have  been  humane 
in  the  transaction  of  his  office,  although  some  American  writers  have  asserted 
the  contrary.  He  was  a  friend  of  Edward  Winslow  and  of  Sir  John  Went- 
worth.  He  had  by  his  wife  two  sons,  John  Wentworth  and  Henry  Lloyd  Loring. 
The  latter  was  a  Church  of  England  clergyman,  who  became  Archdeacon  of 
Calcutta.  Joshua  Loring  died  in  England  in  1789. 


84:  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

recommend  a  personal  application  here  in  preference  to  that  retirement. 
You  have  pretentions  and  you  have  Friends,  but  they  will  not  stir  without 
being  pushed  on;  of  this  number  I  can  assure  you  Sir  Wm.  Howe  is  one, 
and  asked  me  after  you  the  first  moment  I  saw  him,  but  with  the  present 
ministry  he  has  not  interest  to  do  the  most  trifling  thing  on  earth  for  any 
friend,  but  on  the  contrary  I  expect  every  hour  to  hear  of  his  losing  his 
own  appointment  as  Lt.  Gen'l  of  the  Ordnance.  I  have  conferred  with 
McKenzie  &  Balfour*  &  they  both  think  with  me  that  you  should  come 
as  early  as  possible;  they  are  as  much  as  ever  your  friends,  &  altho'  pos- 
sessed of  no  great  interest,  yet  they  mav  assist  you  with  their  advice. 
Gen'l  Gage  has  no  interest,  altho7  Lord  Percy  has,  and  I  think  that  you 
will  hear  ere  long  of  his  having  some  appointment  in  the  administration 
and  I  am  well  informed  by  a  gentleman,  who  dined  with  him  a  few  days 
ago,  that  he  mentioned  you  in  handsome  terms,  therefore  I  think  the 
sooner  you  could  attend  the  better.  Surely  you  can  get  a  passage  on 
board  some  Man  of  War  or  Transport  without  any  expense,  and  if  I  dare 
recommend,  it  would  be  to  come  disincumbered.  Chipman  I  know  to  be 
your  warm  friend  &  I  think  would  take  care  of  your  family  till  you  could 
see  what  was  likely  to  be  done  for  you,  but  of  this  and  every  other  matter 
you  must  be  the  best  judge,  I  can  only  offer  my  opinion,  having  no  in- 
terest whatever  and  I  fear  little  prospect  of  getting  half  pay.  However 
there  is  a  prospect  of  some  Compensation  being  made  to  the  Loyalists, 
which  at  present  is  my  only  hope.  Give  my  best  regards  to  Chipman  & 
any  other  friends  with  you,  being  with  real  regard. 

Your  faithful  &  affectionate  friend, 

Jos'a  Loring. 

P.  S.  By  all  means  keep  well  with  Watson  f  &  Sir  Guy  Carleton  and 
get  their  recommendations  which  will  be  of  the  greatest  consequence  to 
you,  &  if  you  can  think  of  any  appointment  at  Nova  Scotia,  get  appointed 
by  Sir  Guy  Carleton  &  recommended  for  it  here,  which  I  have  not  the 
least  doubt  would  be  immediately  confirmed. 

*Major  McKenzie  was  deputy  adjutant  general  of  the  forces.  Captain  Wil- 
liam Balfour  held  a  commission  in  the  51st  regiment;  he  afterwards  rose  to  the 
rank  of  major  general,  and  in  1811  was  administrator  of  the  government  of  New 
Brunswick. 

fBrook  Watson,  whose  romantic  career  is  well  known,  was  born  at  Ply- 
mouth, in  England,  in  1735.  His  parents  died  when  he  was  not  more  than  ten 
years  of  age,  and  he  was  sent  out  to  Boston  to  a  Mr.  Levens.  He  was  sent  to 
sea  and  at  Savannah  had  a  leg  bitten  off  by  a  shark  while  bathing  in  the  har- 
bor. In  1750  he  came  to  Cumberland  County,  N.  S.,  where  he  was  employed  in 
military  service  under  Col.  John  Winslow.  During  the  Revolutionary  war  he 
was  commissary  at  New  York  (1781-1783).  At  the  peace  he  retired  to  England, 
where  he  was,  not  long  afterwards,  elected  to  parliament  as  a  member  for 
Poole.  He  was  knighted  and  became  lord  mayor  of  London.  He  was  a  warm 
friend  of  the  elder  Edward  Winslow  and  of  his  family.  For  further  account  of 
Brook  Watson  see  New  Brunswick  Magazine  for  August,  1898,  p.  96. 


1783]  WiNSLOW  PAPERS.  86 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ben.  Marston.* 

Halifax  30th  May,  1783. 

Dear  Marston — I  was  really  distress'*  d  at  not  finding  you  here  on  my 
arrival,  having  a  monstrous  deal  to  say  to  you. 

The  Governor,  by  whom  this  letter  will  be  delivered — has  (from  some 
cause  or  other)  been  pleased  to  honor  me  with  very  particular  marks  of 
attention.  He  appears  to  be  particularly  anxious  to  contribute  everything 
in  his  power  to  the  assistance  of  the  settlers  of  Port  Koseway.t  &  he  seems 
to  regret  that  there  is  not  a  sufficient  proportion  of  men  of  education  & 
abilities  among  the  present  adventurers.  It  was  his  request  that  I  would 
point  out  some  man  on  whom  he  could  confide  for  information  &  who 
would  candidly  &  ingenuously  communicate  such  circumstances  as  were 
important.  I  did  not  hesitate  a  moment  at  making  the  inclos'd  memo- 
randa. 

Now  my  dear  friend  I  know  how  you  hate  all  mere  matters  of  cere- 
mony— so  do  I — but  'tis  my  maxim  that  when  I  can  serve  my  country  or 
my  friends  to  make  little  sacrifices  of  my  own  feelings. 

When  the  Governor  arrives  wait  on  him — offer  your  services — tell 
him  everything  which  His  necessary  for  him  to  know — ask  anything  for 
yourself  that  you  may  want,  &e.  &c  &c.  He  is  certainly  a  most  frank, 
honest,  worthy  man. 

Pardon  me  Marston  for  presuming  to  dictate  in  any  instance  to  you 
— In  this  haste  I  can't  say  enough.  The  Gov'r  will  tell  you  what  our 
plan  of  operations  is. 

Most  sincerely  &  cordially, 

Yours.  Ed.   Winslow. 

[Inclosed  Memoranda.]  Mr.  Winslow  presents  his  most  respectful 
compliments  to  His  Excellency  Governor  Parr,  and  begs  leave  to  recom- 
mend to  his  notice  Benj.  Marston,  Esq.,  (now  residing  at  Port  Koseway.) 

Mr.  Marston  is  a  gentleman  of  liberal  education,  was  formerly  an 
eminent  merchant  at  Marblehead  in  the  province  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
and  was  employed  in  various  public  offices  there. 

He  was  distinguished  as  a  magistrate  for  his  zealous  &  spirited  exer- 
tions, and  always  supported  the  character  of  a  man  of  integrity. 


*Benjamin  Marston  was  a  merchant  and  leading  magistrate  at  Marble- 
head.  He  was  a  cousin  of  Edward  Winslow,  and  is  frequently  mentioned  in 
these  pages.  Full  particulars  of  his  chequered  and  adventurous  career  are 
contained  in  the  paper  read  by  the  writer  of  these  notes  before  the  Nova  Scotia 
Historical  Society,  shortly  to  be  printed.  See  also  under  date  May  13th,  1794, 
and  elsewhere  in  this  book. 

fPort  Roseway  was  the  old  name  of  Shelburne,  N.  S. 


86  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Ward  Chipman  to  Hodgson,  &  Co. 

New  York,  31st  May,  1783. 
Gentlemen, —         *         * 

It  is  now  thought  to  be  impossible  to  evacuate  this  place  sooner  than 
the  latter  end  of  September.  I  shall  remain  till  the  last  embarkation, 
when  I  shall  probably  sail  for  England  unless  there  is  a  great  change  in 
the  temper  and  conduct  of  the  Americans  who  are  at  present  very  violent 
&  threaten  proscription  &  exile  to  every  man  who  has  adhered  to  the 
King's  cause.  In  the  mean  time  you  may  rest  assured  of  every  attention 
in  my  power  to  your  interest  and  that  I  am,  Gentlemen, 
Your  most  obedient 

&  faithful  humble  servant^ 

Ward  Chipman. 

Lt.  Col.  Isaac  Allen*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Dr.  Sir, — George  Black  a  free  man  his  wife  &  two  children  came  with 
me  to  this  place:  he  has  long  been  free  and  was  one  of  the  brave  fellows 
who  served  under  the  gallant  Col.  Tye;  I  think  he  deserves  Provision  as 
well  as  other  Refugees.  If  you  should  be  of  the  same  opinion  pray  be  so 
good  as  to  say  a  word  for  him.  I  am  now  obliged  to  write  surrounded  by 
my  work  people.  I  wish  much  to  see  our  friend  Murray  I  fear  they  will  all 
starve  before  Spring;  my  people  consume  two  rations  a  day — for  Heaven's 
sake  think  of  that  matter  &  endeavor  to  prevent  so  great  a  calamity. 
There  should  be  something  done  to  assist  those  who  are  not  able  to  pur- 
chase— You  may  depend  upon  it  that  the  soldiers  Rations  will  not  do 
where  a  man  can  procure  no  assistance  from  Labor  or  Plundering. 

Yours, 

I.  Allen. 

[The  above  is  endorsed  in  Winslow's  hand  writing,  "Col.  Allen,  June 
1783" — It  was  filed  along  with  other  letters  and  endorsed  "Private  letters 
from  June  1st  to  Dec.  31st,  1783."] 

Lt.  Col.  Benjamin  Thompson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Pall  Mall  Court,  6th  June,  1783. 

My  dear  Winslow — I  have  this  moment  received  your  letter  of  the 
27th  April.  Be  sure  my  good  friend  I  will  not  forget  you.  I  shall  deliver 

*Lieut.  Colonel  Isaac  Allen  of  Pennsylvania  commanded  the  third  battalion 
of  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers.  He  served  with  much  credit  during  the  war, 
and  came  to  St.  John  in  1783  as  one  of  the  agents  for  settling  the  Loyalist  regi- 
ments on  the  St.  John  river.  He  himself  at  first  settled  at  Wilmo't,  N.  S.,  but 
afterwards  removed  to  Kingsclear,  above  Fredericton,  where  many  of  his  regi- 
ment also  settled.  He  was  appointed  in  the  year  1784  one  of  the  first  judges  of 
the  supreme  court  of  New  Brunswick.  The  late  Sir  John  C.  Allen,  chief  justice 
of  the  province,  was  his  grandson. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  87 

your  memorial  to  Gen.  Conway*  and  have  no  doubt  but  it  will -be  attend- 
ed to.  It  is  the  general  opinion  that  all  the  Provincial  officers  will  get 
half -pay.  The  matter  is  to  be  moved  in  the  House  of  Commons  next  week 
and  Ministers  will  support  the  measure,  General  Conway  I  hear  is  to  take 
the  lead — He  is  perfectly  disposed  to  serve  us.  The  Loyalists  residing  in 
this  Country  have  presented  a  petition  to  Parliament  wherein  the  Provin- 
cials t  are  mentioned — I  thought  the  Provincials  had  better  stand  upon 
their  own  bottom  and  accordingly  waited  upon  Lord  North  and  requested 
that  our  memorial,  recommended  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  might  be  taken 
into  consideration  before  the  Petition  of  the  Loyalists  should  be  brought 
forward  or  at  least  at  the  same  time. 

9th  June.  I  have  made  out  copies  of  yours  and  Chipman's  memorials 
and  addressed  them  to  Lord  North,  which  I  shall  deliver  tomorrow — 
This  will  not  prevent  my  delivering  the  originals  to  Gen'l  Conway  the 
moment  he  comes  to  Town  which  will  be  Thursday  next — this  is  Mon- 
day. I  have  no  doubt  but  we  shall  get  half-pay  and  Permanent  Kank 
for  all  the  Provincial  Officers  and  it  is  impossible  but  you  must  be  included 
with  your  Deputies.  Your  friends  here  wish  you  would  take  a  trip  to 
England.  I  had  a  long  conversation  with  Balfour  about  you  and  he  is 
fully  of  that. opinion.  Lord  Percy  is  your  friend,  he  has  great  influence 
with  ministers  and  if  you  were  on  the  spot  I  am  confident  he  would  push 
you  into  some  comfortable  office  either  civil  or  military.  They  talk  of  new 
arrangements  respecting  Nova  Scotia.  I  wish  you  were  here  to  take  ad- 
vantage of  any  favorable  circumstance  that  may  turn  up.  It  shall  cost 
you  nothing  for  a  Lodging;  half  of  mine  is  perfectly  at  your  service,  and 
it  is  the  pleasantest  and  best  situated  in  London.  |  My  servant  shall 
attend  you  and  we  can  contrive  to  live  for  a  little  money.  Adieu,  I  begin 
a  new  Letter  for  reasons  you  will  divine. 

Yours,  &c,  &c, 
B.  Thompson. 

*General  Henry  S.  Conway,  at  this  time  the  secretary  of  state. 

fThe  term  "Provincials"  is  synonymous  with  "British  American  Regi- 
ments" or  "Loyalist  Troops." 

JEdward  Winslow's  devotion  to  the  welfare  of  the  Loyalists  led  him  to  re- 
main at  this  time  in  Nova  Scotia,  where  he  materially  assisted  in  their  settle- 
ment. It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  had  he  gone  to  England  he  would  with 
his  natural  address  and  capacity  to  please,  aided  by  the  assistance  of  influential 
friends,  have  secured  some  appointment  by  which  he  would  have  been  spared 
many  of  his  subsequent  difficulties. 


88  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Col.  Benjamin  Thompson*  to  Lord  North. 

Pall  Mall  Court  8th  June,  1783. 

My  -Lord, — Having  assisted  in  drawing  up  the  Representation  and 
Petition  of  the  Commanding  Officers  of  His  Majesty's  Provincial  Regi- 
ments in  North  America,  and  having  heen  desired  by  them  to  solicit  for 
them  in  this  Country  that  the  Prayer  of  their  Petition  be  granted,  I  take 
the  liberty  of  troubling  your  Lordship  upon  that  Subject. 

The  situations  of  the  Provincial  Officers,  particularly  such  of  them 
as  are  Natives,  or  were  formerly  Inhabitants  of  the  American  Colonies,  is 
truly  distressing.  Having  sacrificed  their  Property,  and  all  their  expec- 
tations from  their  Rank  and  Connections  in  civil  Society;  and  being  cut 
off  from  all  hope  of  returning  to  their  former  homes,  by  the  Articles  of 
the  Peace;  they  have  no  hope  left  but  in  the  justice  and  humanity  of  the 
British  Nation. 

I  will  not  trouble  your  Lordship  with  an  account  either  of  their  ser- 
vices or  sufferings;  their  merit  as  well  as  their  misfortunes  are  known  to 
the  whole  world;  and  I  believe  their  claim  upon  the  humanity,  and  upon 
the  justice  of  this  Country  will  not  be  disputed. 

They  have  stated  their  situation  in  a  strong,  but  at  the  same  time  in 
a  most  respectful  manner  in  their  Representation,  which  I  am  informed 
has  been  transmitted  to  His  Majesty's  Secretary  of  State  by  Sir  Guy 
Carleton,  and  strongly  recommended. 

As  they  are  extremely  anxious  to  know  their  fate,  I  am  to  request  of 
Your  Lordship,  that  I  may  be  informed  whether  any,  and  what  resolu- 
tions have  been  taken  relative  to  their  Petition,  and  whether  their  Claims 
of  permanent  Rank  in  America,  and  half-pay  upon  the  reduction  of  their 
Regiments,  will  meet  with  the  countenance  and  support  of  His  Majesty's 
Ministers. 

I  know  Your  Lordship  will  excuse  the  liberty  I  take  in  troubling  You 
upon  this  occasion,  particularly  as  you  will  see  by  the  inclosed  Extract  of 
a  Letter  I  have  just  received  from  New  York,  how  anxious  the  Provincial 
Officers  are,  and  how  much  they  expect  that  I  should  exert  mvself  in  their 
behalf. 

If  Your  Lordship  should  wish  for  any  further  information  respecting 

"The  romantic  career  of  SirBenjamin  Thompson  is  well  known,  and  frequent 
references  to  him  will  be  found  in  the  pages  that  follow.  He  was  born  in 
Massachusetts  in  1753,  went  to  England  during  the  war  and  became  a  protege 
of  Lord  George  Germaine.  He  returned  to  New  York  early  in  1781  and  raised 
a  regiment  known  as  the  King's  American  Dragoons,  of  which  he  was  gazetted 
colonel  and  in  which  many  Massachusetts  men  held  commissions.  At  the  close 
of  the  war  he  was  knighted.  He  became  a  favorite  with  the  Duke  of  Bavaria, 
who  bestowed  on  him  high  rank  and  the  title  of  Count  Rumford.  He  became 
one  of  the  leading  European  scientists,  and  at  his  death  bequeathed  a  handsome 
sum  to  Harvard  College,  where  a  professorship  now  bears  his  name.  See  re- 
ferences to  him  in  this  book  under  date  17th  May,  1800. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  89 

the  Provincial  Troops,  I  will  do  myself  the  honor  of  attending  You  at  any 
time  you  may  appoint. 

Inclosed  I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  to  your  Lordshin  two  Mem- 
orials, one  from  the  Muster-Master-General  of  His  Majesty's  Provincial 
Forces  in  North  America,  the  other  from  his  Deputy.  I  know  them  both 
to  be  very  deserving  of  the  favor  and  protection  of  Government — The 
former,  Colonel  Winslow,  signed  the  general  Eepresentation  in  behalf  of 
the  Provincial  Line,  and  of  course  was  included  in  Sir  Guy  Carleton's  re- 
commendation. As  his  is  a  military  Appointment  by  Commission  from 
the  Commander  in  Chief  in  America,  as  well  as  that  of  the  Inspector 
General  of  the  Provincial  Forces,  I  should  suppose  they  would  both  be 
included,  with  their  Deputies,  should  half-pay  be  given  to  the  Provincial 
Officers  in  general. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  the  greatest  Eespect  My  Lord, 
Your  Lordships  most  obedient  and  most  humble  Servant 

B.  Thompson,  Lt.  Col. 
Commandant  King's  A.  Drag's. 

The  Eight  Honorable  Lord  North, 
One  of  His  Majesty's  Principal 
Secretarys  of  State  Ac,  &c,  &c. 


Lt.  Col.  B.  Thompson  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Pall  Mall  Court,  9th  June,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip — I  have  received  your  letter  and  shall  attend  to  your 
wishes.  I  shall  deliver  your  memorial  with  my  own  hands  to  General 
Conway  and  I  have  made  out  a  copy  of  it  addressed  to  Lord  North  which 
I  mean  to  present  to  his  Lordship  this  day.  I  have  done  the  same  with 
Winslow's.  I  have  no  doubt  of  your  success.  Indeed  it  is  my  firm  belief 
that  all  the  Provincial  officers  will  get  half -pay  and  of  course  you  among 
the  rest.  I  have  wrote  a  letter  to  Lord  North  upon  this  subject,  a  copy  of 
which  I  inclose,  you  may  make  any  use  of  it  amongst  the  Provincial  Offi- 
cers you  may  think  proper — If  they  Would  write  to  me  frequently  &  in 
strong  language  upon  the  subject  I  could  and  would  make  a  very  good 
use  of  their  letters — I  will  not  be  idle  nor  rest  satisfied  so  long  as  my 
services  can  be  of  any  use  to  my  deserving  Countrymen.  My  own  Eegi- 
mental  affairs  were  settled  by  the  late  Administration.  We  are  upon  the 
American  Establishment.* 

*  Meaning  that  his  regiment,  the  King's  American  Dragoons,  had  been  gazet- 
ted for  half  pay. 


90  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Make  my  best  compliments  to  Colonels  Ludlow,  Robinson,  Cruger*- 
if  he  is  at  New  York,  and  to  all  my  old  friends.     Believe  me  ever  my 

dear  Chip — 

Most  sincerely  and  most  affectionately  yours, 

B.  Thompson. 

Edward  Winslow,  Sr.,  to  Edward  Winslow,  Jun. 

Bowery,  20th  June,  1783. 

My  dear  Son, — The  Commissary  General  t  called  upon  me  last  even- 
ing and  informed  me  a  vessel  would  sail  this  day  for  St.  John's.  He  also 
tells  me  you  wrote  to  him  in  good  health  and  spirits  which  affords  me  great 
pleasure.  This  is  my  third  letter  since  you  left  us — the  other  two  were 
sent  to  Halifax  to  care  of  Dr.  Prince;  I  have  two  from  you,  leaving  one 
due  to  me  which  I  hope  you  will  pay  very  soon.  Our  family  are  in  the 
enjoyment  of  health  and  much  happier  at  the  Bowery  than  at  the  City, 
I  have  a  very  good  garden,  quantities  of  best  of  cherries — your  cow  gives 
us  plenty  of  milk.  Your  horse  very  good  in  a  carriage  but  very  wicked  out 
of  it.  Your  chair  answers  all  the  purposes  of  visiting  the  City  in,  the 
chairs  you  left  were  never  in  my  possession,  Capt.  Fred  Phillips  having 
delivered  them  to  a  man  whose  name  I  have  forgotten  and  who  he  said 
had  a  right  to  them. 

I  hope  this  will  find  you.  at  St.  John's.  The  violence  and  malice  of 
the  Rebel  Government  against  the  Loyalists  render  it  impossible  ever  to 
think  of  joining  them  again. 

I  hope  it  will  be  in  your  power  to  provide  for  us  some  place  where 
we  may  enjoy  the  society  of  a  few  friends,  I  expect  your  mother  next 
week  with  Hester  and  Daphne,  t  she  will  come  via  Rhode  Island  attended 
by  Capt.  Horsfield  &  Lady.  We  have  a  round  of  afternon  and  evening 
visitors,  I  seldom  go  to  the  city.  The  Commander  in  Chief  and  Commis- 
sary General  are  now  neighbors — the  first  where  Governor  Robinson  lived 
and  the  latter  where  Major  Coffin  lived  last  summer.  They  frequently 
call  and  never  fail  to  speak  in  your  praise.  Old  friends  are  leaving  us, 
Judge  Ludlow  sailed  for  Great  Britain  yesterday.  I  am  told  Col.  Robin- 
son and  Col.  Ludlow  are  soon  to  follow.  May  Heaven  bless  prosper  & 
preserve  my  Son  is  the  Prayer  of  your  Father, 
Ed'wd  Winslow. 

"The  officers  here  named  are  Col.  Gabriel  G.  Ludlow,  commanding  the  3rd 
battalion  of  DeLancey's  brigade;  Colonel  Beverly  Robinson,  of  the  Loyal  Am- 
erican Regiment;  and  Lieut.  Colonel  John  Harris  Cruger,  of  the  1st  battalion 
of  DeLancey's  brigade. 

tBrook  Watson. 

I  Colonel  Winslow's  mother  seems  to  have  remained  in  Massachusetts  for  a 
little  while,  or  to  have  been  there  at  this  time.  No  doubt  Hester  and  Daphne 
were  black  servants  in  the  family. 


1783J  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  91 

James  Cruden  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  June  23rd,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — Permit  me  to  introduce  to  your  acquaintance  mv  friend 
Mr.  George  McCree,  who  will  adorn  the  number  of  those  who  from  prin- 
ciples of  virtuous  Loyalty  fly  from  a  set  of  miscreants — who  have  substi- 
tuted anarchy  and  misrule  in  the  place  of  good  Government. 

As  your  influence  is  extensive  (as  it  of  right  ought)  you  may  be  of 
service  to  the  Bearer.  He  is  by  profession  a  Merchant,  and  in  as  much  as 
your  goodness  shall  induce  you  to  forward  His  views,  will  much  oblige 
me.  Hoping  soon  to  see  you  in  England  I  shall  only  add,  God  bless  you, 
and  beg  that  you  will  allow  me  ever  to  remain — with  exalted  esteem  and 
perfect  respect. 

Dear  Sir, 

Your  very  obedient 

and  faithful  servant, 

J.  A.  Cruden. 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  25th  June,  1783. 

Dear  Winslow, — We  have  perhaps  done  wrong  but  your  friend  Judge 
Ludlow  &  myself  have  committed  you  in  a  very  important  instance. 
To  prevent  any  suspense  I  will  in  a  few  words  tell  you  that  B.  Gen'l  Fox* 
is  to  be  Commander  in  Chief  at  Halifax  which  is  now  become  a  post  of 
the  first  consequence  in  the  military  line,  and  you  are  engaged  as  Secre- 
tary to  the  command.  Ludlow,  both  indeed  the  Judge  and  Colonel,!  pro- 
posed the  matter  to  Me — not  thinking  your  engagements  would  admit  of 
your  accepting  it;  it  appeared  to  me  an  object  sufficient  to  induce  me  to 
relinquish  all  my  present  pursuits,  and  I  was  advised  &  determined  to 
accept  it  and  could  I  have  managed  the  matter  without  resigning  my 
appointment  as  Deputy  Muster  Master  I  certainly  should  have  gone — But 
Mr.  Watson  told  me  he  was  satisfied  the  Gen'l  would  not  appoint  any  one 
here  to  do  the  duty  but  upon  my  resignation.  Mr.  Finucane,  J  the  former 
Secretary,  petitioned  the  Com.  in  Chief  for  a  continuance,  but  could  not 
obtain  it  as  Sir  Guy  left  the  choice  altogether  with  Gen.  Fox;  applications 

*Brigadier  General  Henry  E.  Fox  was  a  brother  of  the  well  known  states- 
man, Charles  James  Fox.  He  was  a  warm  personal  friend  of  Edward  Winslow. 

fThe  reference  is  to  George  Duncan  Ludlow  and  his  brother  Colonel  Gabriel 
G.  Ludlow.  The  former  became  the  first  chief  justice  of  New  Brunswick,  the 
latter  was  first  mayor  of  the  city  of  St.  John,  and  for  many  years  administrator 
of  the  government  while  Lieut.  Gov.  Carleton  was  absent  in  England.  See 
Lawrence's  Foot  Prints  at  pp.  10-12  and  100. 

JA.ndrew  Finucane,  a  trother  of  Chief  Justice  Bryan  Finucane,  of  Halifax, 

N.  S. 


92  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

&  solicitations  from  officers  in  the  army  were  making  to  Fox  from  all 
quarters.  I  requested  the  Judge  to  mention  you  to  Gen.  Fox,  who  most 
readily  acceded  if  the  Judge  could  engage  for  your  undertaking  it,  as  he 
could  then  give  a  decisive  answer  to  any  further  applications.  I  without 
hesitation  told  the  Judge  I  would  pledge  myself  for  your  accepting  it,  he 
has  accordingly  committed  you  with  Gen'l  Fox,  and  you  must  at  least  for 
some  time  comply  with  our  engagements.  Fox  knows  yon  are  a  man  of 
business,  and  matters  in  the  Secretary's  office  there  are  not  a  little  de- 
ranged- he  finds  that  he  is  to  be  in  a  responsible  situation  and  wants  a 
capable  confidential  Friend  to  assist  him.  I  think  you  will  have  it  in  your 
power  to  bind  him  to  you,  &  his  interest  is  and  will  be  the  first  in  the 
nation.  It  will  save  you  every  expence  of  living  in  Halifax,  will  give  you 
10s.  per  day  and  will  put  it  in  your  power  to  serve  all  your  friends,  then  he 
knows  all  about  your  domestic  connections,  so  that  they  will  not  occasion 
any  difficulty  or  objection.  I  do  not  know  my  dear  Ned  what  your  plans 
or  prospects  are,  I  really  thought  this  a  most  eligible  opportunity  to  serve 
you;  Fox  is  a  man  capable  of  the  warmest  attachments,  and  a  very  aspiring 
ambitious  character,  and  if  he  chooses  it,  can  no  doubt  by  his  Brother's* 
interest  keep  the  command  at  Halifax — at  any  rate  he  does  not  mean  to 
go  home. 

Think  of  the  matter  once  &  again  and  if  you  feel  yourself  inclined  to 
refuse  it — Be  at  least  plausible  and  save  the  credit  of  your  friends  here 
in  going  so  far  in  the  bus:' ness.  If  you  undertake  it,  convince  him  you  are 
everything  he  wants  or  wishos;  humor  the  rage  of  public  economy,  be  a 
man  of  business,  indulge  your  convivial  penchant  with  caution: — Excuse 
me  my  dear  Fellow,  if  these  hints  are  not  necessary,  they  are  well  intend- 
ed. Fox  I  believe  only  awaits  the  arrival  of  another  Packet  from  Eng- 
land before  he  goes.  I  shall  call  on  him  when  he  comes  to  town  and  will 
keep  you  acquainted  with  everything  that  takes  place. 

Col.  Eobinsont  and  his  family  are  sailed  for  England  in  the  Lion, 
Judge  Ludlow  in  the  Packet,  Col.  Morris J  and  family  and  Col.  Cruger 
are  gone.  Several  empty  transports  arriving  yesterday  from  England  give 
us  strong  reason  to  suspect  we  shall  all  be  off  this  fall.  Everything  here 
remains  just  as  when  you  left  us,  the  People  in  the  Country  growing  more 
violent  every  day. 

*Charles  James  Fox  of  parliamentary  fame. 

fColonel  Beverley  Robinson,  of  New  York,  by  his  marriage  with  Susannah 
Philipse  came  into  possession  of  a  large  landed  estate  on  the  Hudson  river. 
He  raised  the  Loyal  American  Regiment  at  the  time  of  the  Revolution,  in  which 
corps  his  son  Beverley  was  lieutenant  colonel  and  Thomas  Barclay  were  major. 
Colonel  Robinson's  commission  is  dated  March  28,  1777.  There  is  a  pretty  full 
biography  of  him  in  Sabine's  Loyalists  of  the  American  Revolution.  His  wife 
Susannah  was  one  of  the  three  women  included  in  the  New  York  confiscation 
act.  The  British  government  granted  a  sum  equivalent  to  more  than  $80,000 
as  a  partial  compensation  for  his  losses  in  consequence  of  his  loyalty. 

JColonel  John  Morris  is  here  referred  to.  He  commanded  the  second  bat- 
talion of  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers.  His  commission  is  dated  November,  1776. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  93 

Ryerson  could  not  get  his  business  done  to  go  in  the  Ranger  but  will 
follow  soon  with  the  articles  I  advised  you  of  by  that  vessel. 

Major  Prevost*  and  myself  set  off  on  Monday  upon  a  general  muster. 
He  desires  me  to  tell  you  all  the  appointments  you  recommended  in  Bay- 
ard's corps  have  taken  place  yesterday  except  the  Major's  son,  objected  to 
by  the  Com'r  in  Chief  on  account  of  his  age. 

The  Folks  in  the  Bowery  [Father's  family]  are  all  well  and  in  very 
good  spirits. 

Plow  do  your  little  Folks  &  Pop! — remember  me  to  them  most  affec- 
tionately. Write  to  me  very  particularly  all  about  matters  and  things. 
I  know  not  where  to  forward  letters  to  you,  whether  to  Annapolis,  St. 
John's,  or  Halifax,  but  the  latter  I  believe  will  be  the  most  likely  place 
for  them  to  find  you.  I  shall  direct  to  the  care  of  Johnson  till  I  hear 
from  you. 

Adieu — 

Yours  most  sincerely  and  affectionately, 

Chip. 

Major  Aug.  Prevost  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  25th  June,  1783. 

My  dear  Sir, — I  was  favoured  with  your  letter  by  Mr.  Buskirk,  whose 
promotion  is  still  pending — I  reported  on  Major  Bayard's  memo,  and  have 
hopes  it  will  succeed. 

[  am  happy  to  find  you  have  such  flattering  encouragement  respect- 
ing your  settlement  on  the  River  St.  John — Your  good  offices  in  my  favor 
will  ever  be  gratefully  acknowledged.  I  am  determined  on  fulfilling  the 
conditions  of  the  Grant  should  you  succeed  in  locating  a  tract  worth  im- 
proving, and  to  be  guided  by  ycur  friendly  advice  respecting  the  same — 
any  expences  attending  your  obtaining,  dividing,  &c,  &c,  I  pray  you  to 
draw  on  Ed.  Goold  Esq.  at  this  place  who  has  my  instructions  to  pay  the 
same  at  five  days  sight. 

You  will  be  pleased  to  observe,  should  you  find  it  necessary,  that  the 
lands  granted  me  by  Government  at  the  close  of  the  last  War  cost  me 
nearly  eighty  five  guineas — that  the  same  are  now  made  over  by  this 
infamous  treaty  and  given  away  to  the  Spaniards  by  the  loss  of  the 
Florid  as.  I  only  mention  this  to  show  I  have  some  pretensions  which  I 
wish  you  to  avail  yourself  of.  My  very  worthy  friend  the  Lt.  Governor 
will  if  arrived  enforce  in  my  behalf  any  memor'l  that  may  be  necessary 
to  give  in. 

*Major  Augustin  Prevost  of  .the  3rd  battalion  of  the  Royal  American  (or 
60th)  Regiment.  He  was  deputy  inspector  general  of  the  Loyalist  troops  during 
the  war. 

fThe  reference  is  to  Winslow's  wife  Polly  or  Mary. 


94  WINS  LOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

I  now  beg  to  apologise  for  the  liberty  I  take  in  giving  you,  my  Dear 
Sir.  so  much  trouble:  be  assured  I  will  be  happy  in  every  opportunity  of 
giving  yon  assurance  of  my  respectful  gratitude  having  the  honor  to  be 

most  i'aithfnlly 

Your  most  obliged  servant, 

Aug.  Prevost. 

Memorial  of  Colonel  Winslow  &  Major  Murray. 

To  His  Excellency  John  Parr,  Esquire,  Captain  General,  Governor  and 
Comander  in  Chief  in  and  over  His  Majesty's  Province  of  Nova  Scotia 
and  its  Dependencies,  Chancellor  &  Vice  Admiral  of  the  same,  &c, 
&c,  &c. 

Edward  Winslow  Jun'r,  Esq.,  late  Commissary  General  of  Musters  for 
His  Majesty's  British  American  Forces,  and  Daniel  Murray,  Major,  and 
late  Commanding  the  King's  American  Dragoons — beg  leave  to  represent: 
That  during  the  War  in  America  they  have  served  their  Sovereign 
with  fidelity  and  have  been  honored  with  the  repeated  approbation  of  their 
superiors;  that  they  are  now  deprived  of  fortunes  acquired  by  their  an- 
cestors and  are  dismissed  from  their  military  employments;  that  governed 
by  the  same  attachment  to  the  British  constitution  which  excited  them  to 
sacrifice  their  property  and  expose  their  lives  they  are  anxious  to  obtain  a 
settlement  in  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia  under  your  Excellency's  direc- 
tion, for  which  purpose  they  have  personally  explored  a  country  125  miles 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river  St.  John's,  the  boundaries  of  which  are  de- 
scribed in  the  inclosed  paper.  They  hope  for  your  Excellency's  permis- 
sion to  form  this  tract  into  a  township  and  to  dignify  it  with  the  name  of 
Prince- William.*  In  the  list  of  their  Associates  they  are  permitted  to 
insert  the  names  of  the  Honorable  Brig.  Gen.  Fox,  Brig.  Gen.  Clarke,  and 
Brig.  Gen.  Musgrave.  The  other  persons  named  have  served  in  various 
capacities,  have  lost  their  all,  and  are  determined  to  make  the  most  zealous 
exertions  to  forward  the  settlement.  The  land  for  which  they  solicit  your 
Excellency's  grant  was  never  located;  it  is  nearly  in  the  centre  of  that 
country  which  your  Excellency  has  been  pleased  to  point  out  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  His  Majesty's  Provincial  corps,  and  your  memorialists 
presume  that  by  commencing  spirited  operations  there  they  shall  give  a 
spring  to  the  general  settlement  and  essentially  serve  the  public.  They 
are  ready  to  stipulate  with  your  Excellency  in  the  first  place  to  provide 
with  lots  in  proportion  to  their  rank  all  the  officers  and  men  of  the 

*The  parish  of  Prince  William  derived  its  name  from  the  township  here 
mentioned.  The  royal  patron  of  the  King's  American  Dragoons  was  Prince 
William,  afterwards  William  the  IV.  of  England.  The  King's  American  Dra- 
goons came  to  the  St.  John  river  under  the  command  of  Major  Daniel  Murray, 
and  many  of  their  descendants  are  living  today  in  the  parish  of  Prince  William. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  95 

King's  American  Dragoons,,  who  may  be  found  actually  resident  there  in 
the  month  of  May  next,  and  to  procure  within  any  reasonable  time  such 
a  number  of  settlers  in  addition  as  your  Excellency  may  think  necessary 
after  obtaining  particular  information  of  the  quality  of  the  soil  and  other 
circumstances,  and  to  comply  with  other  customary  terms  of  settlement. 

Your  memorialists  therefore  request  that  your  Excellency  will  be 
pleased  to  grant  them  and  their  associates  on  the  conditions  herein  men- 
tioned, the  tract  of  land  described  by  John  Davidson,*  Esq.,  Deputy  Sur- 
veyor, and  that  your  Excellency  would  be  pleased  to  send  some  judicious 
public  officer  of  your  province  as  early  as  the  season  will  admit  to  join  with 
your  memorialists,  or  such  others  of  the  associates  as  your  Excellency  may 
prefer,  in  making  an  impartial  distribution  of  the  land  among  such  per- 
sons as  your  Excellency  may  think  are  entitled  thereto  and  in  such  propor- 
tions as  to  your  Excellency  may  seem  just. 

[The  foregoing  in  the  original  is  a  rough  draft  with  some  erasures 
and  interlineations.  It  is  undated  but  was  written  in  the  year  1783.] 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

River  St.  John's  7th  July,  1783. 

My  dear  fellow, — I  find  that  the  Brig  Ranger  is  detained  by  a  con- 
trary wind,  I  therefore  make  this  small  addition  to  my  last. 

If  the  ship  Peggy,  Capt.  Jacob  Wilson,  returns  to  this  place  or  An- 
napolis, the  honest  man  who  commands  her  will  readily  receive  anything 
that  is  intended  for  me.  I  have  a  considerable  stock  of  pigs  and  poultry 
which  are  my  principal  dependence  for  the  winter,  and  grain  of  all  kinds 
is  so  scarce  and  dear  here  that  I  fear  they  will  suffer.  Should  it  be  prac- 
ticable to  buy  for  me  a  few  Hhds  of  Indian  corn,  pease  or  anything  else 
that's  eatable  for  them,  it  will  relieve  me.  If  accident  throws  that  same 
Wilson  in  your  way,  tell  him  how  grateful  I  feel,  for  the  most  uncommon 
attention  that  ever  so  rough  a  fellow  exhibited. 

Should  you  see  my  friend  Major  Hanger,!  I'll  thank  you  to  acquaint 
him  that  the  respectable  gentleman  who  once  attended  him  in  quality  of 
a  Groom  by  the  name  of  Newton,  has  formed  a  very  advantageous  con- 
nection in  this  province  with  the  widow  of  a  half  pay  officer  by  the  name 

*John  Davidson  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  King's  American  Dragoons.  He 
was  a  native  of  New  Hampshire  and  educated  as  a  surveyor.  He  settled  in 
Dumfries,  York  County,  near  Colonel  Jacob  Ellegood.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
house  of  assembly  for  York  County  in  1802,  and  in  his  day  a  very  active  and 
useful  citizen. 

tHon.  George  Hanger,  an  English  officer,  was  appointed  major  in  the  Brit- 
ish Legion  May  24,  1780.  He  went  with  the  corps  to  Port  Matoon,  in  Nova 
Scotia,  but  the  place  proved  \ery  unsuitable  for  a  settlement  and  the  majority 
removed  elsewhere  in  1784. 


96  \VINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

of  Munroe,  by  which  he  is  in  possession  of  a  very  excellent  house  hand- 
somely furnished,  good  stables  and  the  most  delightfully  situated  farms 
on  the  Annapolis  River.  He  introduced  himself  to  the  lady  by  affirming 
"that  he  was  particularly  connected  with  the  hono'ble  Major  Hanger — 
that  his  circumstances  were  rather  affluent,  having  served  in  a  money 
making  department,  and  that  he  had  left  a  very  considerable  property 
behind  him" — for  all  which  particulars  he  did  me  the  honor  to  refer  to 
me.  As  I  was  not  intimately  acquainted  with  Mr.  Newton,  but  had  only 
casually  heard  anecdotes  of  him,  I  could  not  vouch  for  every  circumstance, 
I  however  assured  the  lady's  messenger  that  he  really  had  been  connected 
with  Major  Hanger,  that  he  had  made  money,  and  that  he  had  left  a  large 
property  behind  him. 

The  nuptials  were  immediately  celebrated  with  great  pomp  and  Mr. 
Newton  is  at  present  a  gentleman  of  consideration  in  Nova  Scotia  and 
apparently  a  very  happy  man,  and  should  his  honorable  friend  the  Major 
be  under  a  necessity  of  visiting  this  country  I  have  no  doubt  that  he  would 
experience  every  mark  of  attention  from  him  and  his  lady  (who  is  by  no 
means  a  bad  piece.) 

A  violent  cold  has  hindered  me  from  accompanying  Barclay*  and 
Murray  on  a  cruize  by  water.  I  am  nursing  myself  and  shall  be  ready 
to  move  up  the  river  in  a  few  days.  I  never  saw  a  set  of  men  more  per- 
fectly satisfy'd  than  those  of  Thompson's  regt.,t  not  a  murmur  is  heard 
among  them  and  they  received  me  in  a  kind  of  stile  that  afforded  me  in- 
finite pleasure. 

Yesterday  I  had  the  honor  of  being  introduced  to  three  Indian 
Chiefs,  a  high  priest,  squaws  and  attendants,  it  really  was  ridiculous 
enough.  A  relation  of  the  particulars  may  afford  fun  at  some  future  day. 
I  would  have  given  a  year's  lease  of  my  life  that  Nat.  Coffin,  Fred  Philips 
and  yourself  had  been  spectators  of  the  business.  I  could  write  eternally 
to  you.  E  w 

P.  S.  If  a  small  stove  for  a  room  can  be  obtained,  send  it  to  me  to 
Annapolis. 

*Major  Thomas  Barclay  was  a  son  of  Rev.  Henry  Barclay,  D.  D.,  rector  of 
Trinity  church,  New  York.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Columbia  College  and  a  law 
student  of  the  celebrated  John  Jay.  He  was  gazetted  captain  in  the  Loyal  Am- 
erican Regiment  April  10,  1777,  and  promoted  major  October  7,  1777.  Later  he 
commanded  the  Provincial  Light  Infantry,  a  corps  formed  by  taking  from  each 
Loyalist  battalion  its  light  infantry  company,  and  combining  them  into  one  or- 
ganization. This  corps  saw  much  service  in  Georgia  and  the  Carolinas.  He 
settled  at  Annapolis  in  1783,  and  at  once  began  to  fill  a  prominent  place  in  poli- 
tical life  and  in  public  affairs.  He  was  for  many  years  speaker  of  the  house  of 
assembly  and  adjutant  general  of  militia.  He  was  British  commissioner  at  the 
time  of  the  adjustment  of  the  international  boundary  dispute  in  1796.  For  fur- 
ther particulars  of  Colonel  Barclay  see  Sabine's  Loyalists,  Murdoch's  History 
of  Nova  Scotia  and  Calnek  and  Savary's  History  of  Annapolis. 

fColonel  Benjamin  Thompson's  corps  was  known  as  the  King's  American 
Dragoons. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  97 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

River  St.  John's  7th  July,  1783. 

That's  a  good  fellow  Chip,  a  long  letter  from  an  old  friend  received 
in  this  desert  is  like  a  glimpse  of  glory.  I  know  Tom  Coffin  would  write 
if  he  could.  I  am  sorry  you'd  so  much  trouble  in  effecting  the  business  I 
wrote  you  about  by  Ryerson.  I  did  not  intend  it. 

You  have  gratified  me  much  by  the  account  given  me  of  my  father's 
situation  and  the  state  of  the  family — would  to  God  the  comfort  they  now 
enjoy  could  be  continued  to  them.  Is  there  any  chance  my  dear  Chip 
that  recompence  will  be  made  to  the  Loyalists  by  Government?  Will  it 
be  possible  for  my  poor  father  to  obtain  only  a  sufficiency  to  support  him 
in  England  for  a  little  time?  If  so  will  it  not  be  best  for  him  to  go  there? 
What  can  I  do  for  them,  Chip  ?  I  should  merit  the  curse  of  all  of  'em  were 
1  to  give  the  least  encouragement  for  them  to  come  here.  The  mortifi- 
cations which  E  experience  and  laugh  at  would  be  insupportable  to  them; 
the  whole  country  is  crowded,  the  towns  are  expensive  beyond  belief,  they 
can't  live  on  rations,  nor  in  sodded  huts.  If  it  is  fashionable  or  necessary 
to  make  representations  of  sufferings  I  am  sure  you  will  do  it  for  him. 
Suppose  he  obtains  any  part  of  a  single  thousand  pounds  it  will  be  enough. 
He  can  get  nothing  here;  it  will  be  half  an  eternity  before  any  man  will 
be  worth  a  third  of  that  money.  Perhaps  in  a  few  years  the  present 
savage  appearance  of  this  country  may  in  some  degree  be  changed  and  I 
may  offer  them  an  asylum.  Penny's  good  sense  enables  her  to  see  this 
business  in  a  proper  light.  You  must  settle  it  among  you;  they  all  know 
that  if  anything  is  done  for  me  in  England  it  will  be  for  their  benefit, — 
I'll  have  done  with  this  subject.  * 

I  saw  your  new  appointment  with  pleasure.  May  your  consequence 
be  increased  until  your  ambition  is  satisfy'd  and  then  I  think  you'll  be  a 
pretty  consequential  fellow.  I  like  your  scheme  of  going  to  England. 
I'll  not  be  too  sanguine  in  my  opinions — I  do  think  this  province  ere 
long  will  be  a  good  stage  for  abilities  like  yours  to  exhibit  upon.  The 
present  Att.  Gen.*  here  is  an  ignorant  harmless  nincompoop  and  the  Sol. 
Gen.  is  a  great  lubberly  insolent  irish  rebel,!  indeed  I  do  not  find  that 
there's  a  man  of  any  consequence  in  the  profession.  Sterns  is  the  most  so 
(really)  at  Halifax.  When  the  variety  of  people  who  compose  your  garri- 
son have  scattered  about  in  different  parts  of  this  province,  I  think  a 
gentleman  may  find  an  eligible  situation  and  in  a  good  society  but  this  is 

*The  attorney  general  here  referred  to  was  Richard  Gibbons.  He  was  ap- 
pointed chief  justice  of  Cape  Breton  December  24,  1784,  and  Sampson  Salter 
Blowers  succeeded  him  as  attorney  general  of  Nova  Scotia. 

fThe  reference  is  to  Richard  John  Uniacke.  See  collections  of  the  Nova 
Scotia  Historical  Sociey,  vol.  ix.,  p.  83. 


98  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

a  subject  that  shall  be  treated  on  largely  and  deliberately — at  present  I 
am  in  a  camp  where  one  man  is  laying  out  roads,  another  building  boats. 

&c. 

You  wish  to  know  what  are  my  views,  plans  and  prospects.  In  a 
few  words  my  faithful  friend,  In  the  situation  I  left,  my  views  were  at  an 
end,  I  had  no  plans  and  my  prospects  were  blacker  than  hell.  I  knew 
that  the  appointment  of  agent  to  the  Provincials  would  give  me  conse- 
quence here  and  furnish  employment  for  my  mind.  Hitherto  everything 
has  happened  as  I  could  have  wished,  the  reception  I  met  with  from  the 
General,  Governor,  and  all  the  great  people  in  the  country  was  beyond 
my  most  sanguine  expectations,  it  has  revived  all  my  old  spirits  and  I  have 
adopted  a  style  that  would  astonish  you.  There's  not  a  man  from  this 
quarter  that  presumes  to  solicit  from  head  Quarters  without  my  recom- 
mendation and  I  have  effected  some  business  for  meritorious  characters 
which  has  afforded  me  vast  pleasure.  Our  old  friend  Marston  has  felt  the 
benefit  of  a  pointed  application  to  the  Governor  without  his  knowledge. 
He  is  appointed  a  chief  Magistrate,  or  a  kind  of  Governor-General,  at 
Port  Eoseway  and  is  a  confidential  man  with  Governor  Parr.  I  am  par- 
ticularly gratify'd  at  this  circumstance  for  various  reasons. 

We  have  just  begun  our  operations  in  the  land  way,  the  people  who 
have  arrived  here  are  prodigiously  pleased  with  the  country  and  I  shall 
certainly  soon  be  possessed  of  a  good  farm,  and  if  we've  our  half  pay  I  will 
be  more  than  comfortable.  I  have  left  those  sweet  little  ones  in  as  com- 
fortable a  place  as  is  in  this  province,  made  so  by  own  exertions.  I  found 
a  house  and  hired  it  for  £6  a  year  and  I've  taken  a  lease  for  two  years. 
I  added  two  rooms  and  a  chimney  and  have  now  a  spare  bed  room  at 
your  service,  'tis  just  on  the  bank  of  a  most  beautiful  river  immediately 
opposite  the  town  of  Annapolis.  I  have  left  Thomson's  William*  (now 
Qr.  Mr.)  to  superintend,  and  mother  Silkt  &  little  George.  We  have 
plenty  of  poultry,  a  good  garden  and  such  a  variety  of  fish  as  you  never 
saw,  and  I  have  built  a  tolerable  boat.  So  much  for  the  family. 

On  this  side  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy  I  am  speculating  pretty  largely. 
I  have  taken  three  town  lots  on  the  West  side  of  the  river,  I  in  the  most 
delightful  situations  I  ever  saw,  for  myself,  Major  Coffin  and  Col.  Ludlow, 
on  condition  to  build  a  tenantable  house  on  each  within  six  months. 
Coffin's  is  already  in  some  forwardness  and  my  own  and  Major  Murray's 
will  soon  make  a  figure.  Should  our  farms  in  the  general  division  fall 
at  a  distance  from  this,  we  cannot  lose  by  the  exertion;  the  houses  will 
cost  but  a  very  trifle,  and  those  who  are  obliged  to  come  without  such 

*Lieut.    Colonel   Benjamin   Thompson's  servant  or  groom.    See  letter   under 
date  2nd  August,  1783,  in  this  book. 

I  Evidently  a  black  servant,  probably  a  slave. 
++ These  lots  were  on 'the  west  side  of  St.  John  harbor,  in  Carleton. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  99 

covering  prepared  will  be  glad  to  pay  the  expense.  I  am  at  present  at 
Murray's  Quarters  in  a  township  which  we  shall  lay  out  for  the  provin- 
cials and  we  have  already,  cut  -a  rc-ad . from  his  camp  to  the  rive?  about 
three  miles/ 

I -will  not  aim  at  a  description,. of; , this  business.  .We  cut  je'stejaclay 
with  about M'S 0  men  more. than  a  mile  thro':  a,  forest:  hitherto ; itemed 
impenetrable.  'When  we  ernerged,  from:_it,  ,;tliere,,- opened '  a  prospect 
superior  to  anything  in  the  world ,'  I  V;b'elieve.  -  A /.perfect  view::  of  the 
immense.  Bay  of  ;Fundy  -on  one"  side;  a  .very  extensive  ,vie^'  of  ffie  river 
St.  Jo&nVwith \the-"  Ealls,'  grand.'Lake  f  or  ;Bay]  and  Islands  »on;  the  other — 
in  front1 -thfe  ;For-ty'  whicli'<is'.a,  beautifulr  object  o^n-  a-.high-  hill., ,  and  all 
settlements '  about  the  'town,  with  the,  sh'ipSj.  boats; ;  &c,  in  the  ; harbour  — 
'twas  •'positively ;  the  most.', magnifreent'  an'd  ..romantic'  scene  ,1  have  ever 
beheld.-  !  Our  town  is  to;be;:6n.  t-h.e  :»lo.pe  of  this  Mil  and  :yqu>  snail  have 
a  house j in  it  whether  your  ever' see 'it : or  not  , by  Jupiter.;  ."I  shall  look 
in  future  with  ••  extreme  contempt  'mr-ygtir  •  poeticaL  descriptions  ,'of  your 
pussy,  meandering,  serpentine,  purlin g  rills;  t &c,—  any  man,  woman  or 
child  that -has  not  a.,  stranguary.  can  makeL  s#ch  in .  a  minute  —  but  on 
viewing  a  prospect  'like  this  an  infidel- would  acknowledge  that  only  God . 
could- effect  it.  '.'..' ?•:/<..  i. .r \ .  '.  .  :  /  ;.  .  .  r 

Thank  you  for  the1  articles  -you  sent'  me.  I  am,  infinitely .  obliged  to 
Tom  Coffin  for  the  encouragement -about  the  .seine  and-boatj  and  to 
Gilfillan;  you  cannot  iniagine  .of  how;  much  cohsequence  &uch  things  are. 
Should  the  post  be  abandoned  this -fall  I  am  sure.I;shall  nqt  oe  forgotten. 
Send^me  anything 'in -the  .world  that  you:  eiin  procure,  without  •  expense. 
With  respect  -to  cash  .Chip,  I  have  donev  monstrously  well;'—  the  Vtour  to 
Halifax  was  d— ^-d  e:xpensivs,  .but,  I  am  "determined , to,  "be  repaid.  The 
30  Guineas  I  received  of  you  and  25  out  .of  :-the. -..abstract  has  hitherto 
answered .  my "  purpose,  for  building  houses? .  Jioaftsy.  supporting  family  and 
travelling  expenses,  and  as  I  am  now  in*  a  wilderness  \E  shall  make  out  till 
my  ow;n  subsistence  is'due.  •  ;".';  l-vl<is?iiv+;  ;:;  .f-^/v  •".'• 

T  have  received  a  letter  from- Feed  vEHiiips;  of  an' 'old,-, date,  I  cannot 
find  by  that  or  yours  whether  he  is"  Absolutely,  determined;  to.  go  ..to  Eng- 
land or  not.  ;':I  p-romised  him  letters-,  he  knows  how -inteye;ste4 -'I  am  in 
everything  which"  .coiicerns  him.  I  have  postponed  sendin"gvtheiifi:  because 
it  is  my.  intention,  as  we  survey ^^  the  different  town-ships  .and  .cruise  in  the 
different  rivers  to-  form-  as  •  elegant  a-  description  , of  them-  as-  isf. possible 
with  the  assistance  of  a;  most  able  hand ! who  is ^retaitied.  in. -^ny;  Service  for 
that  purpose,  these  -I •shall -transmit- to:  (rr-eat:' Britain  to  njy  l^ord  Percy 
by  him,  and/I  am  determined  at  all  events  to  distinguish  myself  by  pro- 
posing a  plan  which  affords  the  grandest  field  for  speculation  that  ever 
offered.  Take  the  general  map  of  this  province  (even  as  it  is  now 


100  WINSLOW  PAPERS, 

bounded),  observe  how  detached  this  part  is  from  the  rest,  how  vastly 
extensive  it  is,  notice  the  rivers,  harbours,  &c.,  Consider  the  numberless 
inconveniences  that  must  arise  from  its  remoteness  from  the  metropolis 
and  the  difficulty  of  communication.  Think  what  multitudes  have  and 
will  come  here,  and  then  judge  whether  it  must  not  from  the  nature  of 
things  immediately  become  a  separate  government,*  and  if  it  does  it  shall 
be  the  most  Gentlemanlike  one  on  earth.  Suppose  you  and  he  go  to 
England  after  being  provided  with  the  necessary  facts,  can  you  be  better 
employed  than  in  a  solicitation  of  this  kind  properly  authorized.  You 
know  how  Industrious  I  can  be  if  I  please  and  you  may  rest  assured  I 
will  pursue  this  project  with  unremitted  attention./ '  The  people  on  the 
other  side  [the  Bay]  are  already  jealous,  even  the  (jfov'r  fears  it  evidently, 
we  have  therefore  been  perfectly  snug  yet.  Tell  him  (Fred)  that  the 
want  of  subjects  to  render  my  letters  acceptable  and  of  consequence  was 
the  only  cause  of  my  not  forwarding  them  before.  Fanning  is  expected  every 
hour  here  and  I  could  have  wrote  only  to  Innes  a  formal  letter  of  recom- 
mendation which  would  not  have  satisfy' d  my  mind.  I  wish  to  be  more 
serviceable  to  a  man  I  love  like  him,  I  intended  to  have  wrote  him,  I 
can't  —  do  you  give  him  a  share  of  this.  Acquaint  him  that  White 
Stocking's  colt  is  very  ugly  —  to  make  up  for  it  she  has  been  maneuvred 
by  Tartar  —  of  course  she  will  have  an  elegant  one  next  time,  this  has 
been  performed  by  consent  of  Council.  She  has  never  been  saddled 
since  she  landed  at  Nova  Scotia  and  is  fatter  than  he  ever  saw  her.  The 
other  is  a  very  good  horse. 

Tell  Tom  Coffin  that  Miss  Fanny  was  safely  delivered  of  sixteen 
puppies  —  twelve  of  which  were  so  handsome  that  a  court  martial  that 
sat  the  day  I  left  Annapolis,  at  which  Lt.  Col.  DeLancey  presided,  could 
not  agree  to  destroy  any  of  'em. 

I  wrote  my  father  and  sisters  from  Annapolis  so  lately  that  they  must 
excuse  me  now. 

Coffin,  Brinley,  Townsend,  Chew,  'tother  Fred,|  everybody,  will  be- 
lieve that  I  remember  them  affectionately. 

I  had  a  letter  prepared  for  Mr.  Watson  which,  from  a  circumstance 
that  has  lately  taken  place,  I  must  defer  sending  by  this  conveyance. 
Say  everything  to  him  for  me  that  gratitude  can  suggest  and  "to  that 

*  Anticipating  the  formation  of  a  new  province  on  the  north  side  of  the  Bay 
of  Fundy.  The  idea  seems  to  have  originated  with  Edward  Winslow  who  sug- 
gested it  to  Colonel  Fox.  This  letter  contains  the  first  known  direct  reference 
to  the  subject. 

fThe  names  of  these  officers  will  be  found  among  the  correspondence  of 
Edward  Winslow.  "T'other  Fred"  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  there  were  two 
captains  named  Frederick  Phillips,  one  of  them  in  the  Loyal  American  Regi- 
ment and  another  in  the  King's  American  Dragoons.  Both  were  Winslow's 
intimate  friends  and  associates  during  the  war. 


1783]  WINSLOW  TAPERS.  101 

best  of  friends  Dr.  Bailey,  they  will  readily  believe  that  I  have  little  time 
10  spare.  I  shall  write  Col.  Ludlow  a  few  lines — there  is  no  Providence 
if  he  suffers. 

Next  time  you  write  me  inclose  a  short  note  to  Pop  —  it  will  gratify 
her.  If  you  had  ever  an  esteem  for  her  it  will  increase  when  you  know 
with  what  perfect  propriety  she  has  conducted.  Adieu,  my  friend  — 

brother  — 

everything, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

This  letter  is  a  monster  in  every  respect. 
My  Boy  is  not  dead,  thank  Heaven,  &  Paddock*  has  gone  to  see  him. 


Letter  of  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  John,  July,  1783. 

We  shall  tomorrow  reconnoitre  the  township  of  Conway,  which  lies 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  St.  John's  bounded  on  that  side  by  the 
river  and  running  near  west  on  the  Bay  of  Fundy  about  10  or  11  miles. 
Within  it  is  a  good  Harbor  called  Musquash  Cove  where  is  a  valuable 
tract  of  salt  marsh,  said  to  be  2,500  acres,  and  which  in  the  opinion  of 
many  judicious  persons  may  be  easily  dyked.  At  the  head  of  the  harbor 
is  a  river  navigable  for  small  vessels  6  or  7  miles  and  perfectly  well 
calculated  for  mills.  With  these  advantages  we  apprehend  that  this  town- 
ship may  accommodate  a  considerable  number  of  families,  altho'  it  is 
generally  supposed  that  the  upland  is  not  very  good.  Some  of  the  best 
part  of  it  on  peninsula  nearest  to  St.  John's  has  been  formerly  granted 
and  settlements  have  been  made.  I  shall  however  be  better  able  to  give 
you  an  opinion  on  my  return  which  I  suppose  will  be  in  about  5  days. 
Murray  is  industriously  employed  with  his  whole  regiment  in  cutting  a 
road  from  hence  to  the  old  Fort  on  the  Harbor  of  St.  John's,  which  will 
be  a  prodigious  service  to  the  settlers  at  Musquash  Cove.  He  intends 
extending  it  to  the  Cove  by  degrees.  When  we  have  completed  the  busi- 
ness in  this  quarter  we  shall  *  [Remainder  wanting.] 

*Doctor  Adino  Paddock  was  formerly  of  Boston.  He  was  a  son  of  Major 
Adino  Paddock,  who  planted  the  Paddock  elms  in  Tremont  street,  Boston.  In 
1779  'he  went  to  England  and  studied  medicine  and  surgery.  Returning  to  Am- 
erica he  became  surgeon  in  the  King's  American  Dragoons.  He  settled  after 
the  war  at  St.  John,  N.  B.,  but  later  went  to  St.  Mary's,  York  Co.,  where  he 
died.  A  son  and  grandson  bore  the  name  of  "Adino;"  both  were  physicians. 
The  grandson,  Dr.  Adino  Paddock,  died  at  Kingston,  N.  B.,  in  August,  1893. 
There  was  consequently  a  continuous  practice  of  110  years  by  the  three  Adino's, 
father,  son,  and  grandson. 


102  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Edward  Winslow  to  Joshua  Upham. 

[St.  John's  River  July  (?)  1783.] 

[First  part  missing.]  *  *  when  we  have  ascertained  its  bound- 
aries and  estimated  what  proportion  of  it  is  worth  cultivating,  we  mean 
immediately  to  divide  it  into  as  many  farms  as  it  will  admit  of  —  to 
have  them  numbered  and  to  settle  them  with  as  much  expedition  as 
possible,  and  we  shall  pursue  this  method  in  the  other  tracts.  The  system 
we  have  adopted  may  be  liable  to  some  exceptions,  but  we  are  convinced 
of  the  necessity  of  being  prepared  to  point  out  to  the  Provincial  Regi- 
ments as  they  arrive  here  the  tracts  of  Land  on  which  they  may  settle. 
An  inattention,  or  want  of  exertion  in  the  Agents  of  the  Refugees  has 
been  the  cause  of  extreme  distress  to  those  who  have  already  landed  here. 
They  are  at  present  crowded  into  one  spot  without  covering,  and  totally 
ignorant  where  they  are  eventually  to  settle,  altho'  two  townships  con- 
taining near  300,000  acres  of  the  best  land  on  the  River  St.  John's  has 
been  long  ago  escheated  at  their  application.  Why,  Upham,  was  not 
some  man  or  men  of  consideration  and  spirit  appointed  to  take  the 
direction  of  these  people  ?  The  Reverend  Gentleman*  who  is  the  osten- 
sible person,  is  certainly  unequal  to  the  task,  and  those  who  are  doing 
the  duty  here  are  not  the  right  kind  of  men  —  but  this  is  a  subject  on 
which  I  have  not  time  to  speculate.  I  fear  no  difficulties  in  the  business 
which  I  am  engaged  in.  It  is  the  source  of  infinite  satisfaction  that 
I  am  connected  with  two  gentlemen  whose  sentiments  in  all  important 
instances  correspond  with  my  own.  Hitherto  our  matters  have  been  con- 
ducted with  great  harmony  of  spirit,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  in  a  few 
weeks  we  shall  be  able  to  effect  the  grand  object  of  our  errand.  I  am 
gratified  excessively  at  the  situation  and  behaviour  of  your  Regiment.! 
I  never  saw  more  cheerfulness  and  good  humor  than  appears  among  the 
men.  They  are  encamped  on  one  of  the  pleasantest  spots  I  ever  beheld, 
and  they  are  enjoying  a  great  variety  of  what  you  Yorkers  call  luxuries  — 
such  as  partridges,  Salmon,  Bass,  Trout,  Pigeons,  &c.  The  whole  reqi- 
ment  are  this  day  employed  in  cutting  and  clearing  a  road  to  the  river 
and  Murray  and  I  intend  to  ride  tomorrow  where  never  man  rode  before. 
Before  you  arrive  I  expect  to  have  a  town-Hut  and  country  Hut,  with 
a  fine  road  from  one  to  'tother,  and  I  shall  be  very  happy  to  see  you. 
The  great  Bell  is  alreadv  mounted.  We  are  in  some  danger  of  losing  it. 

*The  reference  is  to  the  Reverend  John  Sayre,  who  was  an  agent  for  set- 
tling the  Loyalists  at  St.  John.  He  died  at  Maugerville  the  following  year. 
Prior  to  the  Revolution  he  \vas  rector  of  Fairfleld,  Connecticut.  This  town  was 
destroyed  by  Gen.  Tryon  in  July,  1779,  and  Mr.  Sayre  retired  with  the  army. 
He  went  to  Long  Island,  where  he  occasionally  officiated  to  the  loyal  refugees. 
A  pretty  full  account  of  Mr.  Sayre  will  be  found  in  Eaton's  "Tory  Clergy  of  the 
Revolution,"  and  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists. 

fThe  King's  American  Dragoons,  in  which  corps  Joshua  Upham  was  a 
major. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  103 

The  Parson  Agent  for  the  Kefugees  has  purchased  Loosely's*  Organ  and 
intends  rigging  it  in  a  church  on  their  side  the  River.  Murray  means 
to  challenge  him  to  play  all  fours  who  shall  have  both.  If  we  win,  our 
friend  OdelFs  church  will  be  complete;  if  we  lose  —  why  we'll  have  no 
church  at  all. 

In  your  turn  answer  me  —  do  you  really  intend  coming  to  this 
country  ?  If  so,  why  not  employ  your  regimental  friends  to  build  you 
a  house  ?  Will  none  of  you  believe  that  to  save  you  from  perdition,  you 
can't  find  a  house  to  put  your  heads  in  ?  Several  of  my  friends 
have  suggested  that  they  wait  my  opinion  of  the  country  to  enable 
them  to  decide,  but  it  is  a  subject  on  which  I  will  never  give  advice. 
'Tis  rather  too  important.  I  will  say  that  personally  nothing  has  hap- 
pened to  discourage  my  settling  here,  but  on  the  contrary  I  am  pleased, 
and  was  it  not  for  the  distress  I  feel  for  my  parents  and  their  family,  I 
should  be  happy.  That  good  old  man  &  woman  are  too  old  and  infirm 
to  combat  the  difficulties  which  they  must  necessarily  encounter  in  coming 
here,  and  my  sisters  I  fear  are  unequal  to  the  business.  If  they  must 
remove  I  am  clear  they  should  go  to  England,  government  will  not  let 
them  suffer,  they  have  many  valuable  friends  there  and  the  difference  of 
passage  is  inconsiderable.  I  depend  on  my  friends  to  advise  them  for 
the  best,  it  is  a  long  time  since  I  have  ranked  you  in  the  number  and  on 
this  occasion  I  am  sure  of  your  assistance.  In  anything  command  me, 
Upham;  give  me  any  opportunity  and  you  shall  have  new  proofs  with 
what  sincerity  and  truth  I  am 

Your  affect't  Friend, 

Edward  Winslow. 

Col.  Thompson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Pall  Mall  Court,  8th  July,  1783. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  congratulate  you  most  sincerely  upon  the  Grant 
of  Parliament  of  half -pay  to  all  the  provincial  officers.  You  and  your 
Deputies  and  Mr.  Bridgham,  Colonel  Innes's  Deputy,  are  included.  I 
formed  the  Estimate  myself  which  was  laid  before  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, and  neither  Lord  North,  General  Conway,  or  any  body  else  made 
the  smallest  objection  to  your  claim.  The  business  is  not  intirely 
finished,  owing  to  the  want  of  authentic  Lists  of  the  Officers  of  the 
different  Regiments,  but  as  the  sum  voted  is  "on  account  of  Half-pay  for 

*Charles  Loosely  was  an  innkeeper  at  New  York  and  Brooklyn  during  the 
war.  He  pursued  the  same  calling-  on  his  arrival  in  St.  John.  He  was  a  queer 
character — advertised  in  doggerel  rhymes,  etc.,  etc.  Winslow's  pleasantry,  in 
the  letter  above,  assumes  that  the  Rev.  John  Sayre  would  have  a  church  on  the 
east  side  of  the  harbor,  while  he  and  his  friends  would  strive  for  one  on  the  op- 
posite side,  with  Rev.  Jonathan  Odell,  late  chaplain  of  the  King's  American  Dra- 
goons, as  their  minister. 


104  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

"the  Officers  of  certain  Provincial  Corps  which  have  served  with  His 
"  Majesty's  Troops  in  North  America  in  the  late  War,"  the  claim  for  half- 
pay  is  not  only  admitted  but  substantiated,  and  Sir  Guy  Carleton  is 
directed  to  furnish  proper  lists  as  soon  as  possible  that  estimates  of  the 
different  Corps  may  be  laid  before  Parliament  at  their  next  meeting  that 
they  may  be  voted  specifically. 

I  have  written  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton  very  fully  upon  the  subject  and 
have  desired  him  not  to  forget  to  return  yon  and  your  Deputies  upon  his 
Lists.  I  informed  him  that  you  were  included  in  the  Estimates  I  had  the 
honor  to  lay  before  His  Majesty's  Ministers,  and  that  no  objection  was 
made  to  it.  So  my  good  friend  I  think  I  have  fixed  the  matter  for  you. 

You  will  receive  a  great  many  letters  from  me  by  this  conveyance, 
and  among  the  rest  one  urging  you  to  come  to  England.  I  am  still  of 
the  same  opinion  with  respect  to  the  propriety  of  that  measure;  and  the 
sooner  you  come  the  better.  You  have  friends  here  who  will  exert  them- 
selves to  serve  you,  and  among  all  the  arrangements  that  must  necessarily 
be  made  now  upon  settling  the  Government  of  Nova  Scotia  I  think  they 
cannot  want  an  opportunity  to  provide  for  you.  Your  voyage  need  not 
cost  much,  unless  you  choose  it;  and  I  will  be  answerable  that  you  may 
live  as  cheap  in  London  as  in  Halifax.  Come  soon  and  you  will  find  a 
pleasant  Lodging  in  Pall  Mall  Court,  and  Servants  at  your  service.  You 
know  how  happy  I  will  be  to  see  you. 

With  respect  to  myself  personally,  I  cannot  say  I  have  been  fortunate 
in  my  negotiations.  I  have  not  succeeded  in  my  endeavors  to  get  my 
Eegiment  put  upon  the  British  Establishment,  nor  have  I  any  prospect 
at  present  of  being  employed.  The  East  India  Company  so  far  from 
wanting  troops  are  applying  to  Government  to  recall  the  British  Reg'ts 
now  in  their  service;  and  they  are  so  overstocked  with  Officers  of  their 
own  that  they  cannot  find  employment  for  one  half  of  those  they  are 
obliged  to  Pay. 

My  views  are  now  turned  another  way.  You  will  soon  hear  of  my 
making  a  dash  that  will  surprise  you  all.  There  is  no  doubt  but  the 
Russians  and  Turks  are  upon  the  Eve  of  a  very  serious  War,  and  on  one 
side  or  other  I  am  determined  to  have  a  hand  in  it. 

Tho'  T  have  not  succeeded  in  my  wishes  respecting  the  Establishment 
of  my  Reg*t.  with  British  Rank,  we  are  put  upon  the  American  Estab- 
lishment by  a  formal  order  from  the  King;  and  His  Majesty  has  been 
Graciously  pleased  to  honor  me  with  a  very  flattering  mark  of  his  Royal 
approbation  by  recommending  me  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton  that  I  may  be 
appointed  "Colonel"  of  the  Kings  American  Dragoons,  and  by  consenting 
that  Major  Murray  should  be  promoted  to  the  Rank  of  Lieut.  Colonel. 
But  this  you  will  keep  to  yourself  till  you  hear  it  from  some  other  quarter. 
It  is  not  public  even  here. 


1783]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  105 

July  12th.— 

Fanning*  not  gone  yet.  By  the  bye  you  cannot  conceive  what  a 
noise  the  Establishment  of  his,  and  the  other  Provincial  Regiments  has 
made  here.  Those  who  had  any  hand  in  it  are  so  sore  with  abuse  that 
they  cannot  bear  to  hear  it  mentioned.  Had  those  Corps  not  been  Estab- 
lished mine  would  certainly  have  been.  This  will  appear  odd  to  you 
but  it  is  nevertheless  true. 

I  have  a  letter  from  Chipman  of  the  1st  June.  He  is  coming  to 
England.  I  hope  we  shall  all  three  meet  there.  He  says  you  have  taken 
the  trouble  of  acting  as  paymaster  to  my  Regt.  You  know  how  my 
accounts  stand  with  Mr.  Leechmere  and  Doctor  Paddock.  May  I  beg 
of  you  to  remember  me.  But  I  know  you  will  without  my  asking  it. 

Pray  remember  my  Compliments  to  all  near  you  to  whom  you.  think 
they  will  be  acceptable;  Particularly  to  Polly  and  the  little  ones. 

I  write  to  Murray  by  this  Opportunity.     Adieu,  my  Dear  Win  slow. 
I  am  ever  most  sincerely 

and  affectionately  Yours, 

B.  T. 

"  Lt.  Col.  Delancey,  Respecting  the  Govr's  Orders  about  Lands  on  St. 

John's." 

Annapolis,  July  llth,  1783. 
My  dear  Brother  Agents, — 

I  arrived  here  last  night,  and  tomorrow,  wind  and  weather  auspicious, 
shall  sail  for  Halifax,  though  if  what  I  am  informed  at  this  Place  is  true, 
we  might  better  be  all  of  us  in  New  York.  It  is  that  Conway,  Burton,  t 
&e.  are  to  be  given  to  the  Refugees  and  that  the  lands  to  be  given  to  the 
Provincials  are  to  commence  at  Sunbury  t  and  go  northwest  to  Canada 
or  elsewhere.  This  I  at  first  esteemed  an  Idle  Report  but  upon  enquiring 
of  Mr.  Botsford,  ||  he  corroborates  the  whole  of  it  and  for  his  authority 

*Colonel  Edmund  Fanning  of  the  King's  American  Regiment. 

f  Townships  had  been  granted  on  the  St.  John  river  as  early  as  the  year 
1765,  including  Maugerville,  Gagetown,  Burton,  etc.,  but  much  of  the  land  in 
these  townships  had  never  been  improved  and  was  now  liable  to  escheat  or 
forfeiture.  The  township  of  "Conway,"  mentioned  in  letter  above,  included 
Carleton  and  the  parish  of  Lancaster  on  the  west  side  of  St.  John  harbor. 
"Burton"  included  the  parishes  of  Burton  and  Lincoln  in  Sunbury  County. 

JThe  reference  is  to  the  township  (not  the  county)  of  Sunbury.  It  began  a 
little  below  Fredericton  and  extended  up  the  St.  John  river  about  as  far  as 
Long's  Creek,  or  the  upper  line  of  the  parish  of  Kings  clear. 

||Amos  Botsford,  formerly  of  Newton,  Connecticut,  was  a  graduate  of  Tale 
College.  In  1782  he  was  appointed  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton  an  agent  for  the  Loy- 
alists embarking  at  New  Tork  for  Annapolis  Royal.  They  arrived  there  late  in 
the  fall.  Mr.  Botsford,  with  Frederick  Hauser  and  others,  made  a  careful  ex- 
ploration of  the  St.  John  river.  See  Murdoch's  History  of  Nova  Scotia,  vol.  iii., 
pp.  13-15.  They  sent  a  full  report  of  their  proceedings  to  their  friends  in  Ne\v 
York.  Amos  Botsford  settled  in  the  county  of  Westmorland.  He  was  the  first 
speaker  of  the  house  of  assembly,  and  continued  to  hold  the  position  until  his 
death,  in  1812,  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age. 


106  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

has  a  letter  from  Mr.  Buckley  [Bulkley].*  The  Intelligence  coming  in 
this  way  (unless  Mr.  Botsford  is  an  execrable  Liar)  cannot  be  doubted; 
if  it  is  true  I  believe  you  will  join  with  me  in  fixing  immediately  a  Period 
to  our  Agency,  which  I  shall  do  instantly  on  my  arrival  at  Halifax  and 
shall  not  be  very  delicate  in  assigning  my  reasons.  This  is  so  notorious 
a  forfeiture  of  the  faith  of  Government  that  it  appears  to  me  almost 
incredible,  and  yet  I  fear  it  is  not  to  be  doubted.  Could  we  have  known 
this  a  little  earlier  it  would  have  saved  you  the  trouble  of  exploring  the 
Country  for  the  benefit  of  a  People  you  are  not  connected  with.  In  short 
it  is  a  subject  too  disagreeable  to  say  more  upon.  In  letters  to  me  send 
a  duplicate  one  to  Halifax,  the  other  to  this  place. 
Compliments  to  Allen.  God  bless  you  both. 

St.  DeLancey.  t 

General  Timothy  Ruggles  to  Edward  Winslow,   Sr. 

Annapolis  17th  July,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — By  a  ship  bound  to  New  York  I  am  to  acknowledge  your 
kind  favor  of  the  30th  of  May  last,  which  I  received  last  night.  Nothing 
could  add  more  to  my  felicity  than  hearing  of  your  enjoying  your  health, 
without  which  you  could  have  little  pleasure  at  the  Bowery  even  in  your 
pretty  Box,  with  the  adjacent  two  acres  of  land,  which  I  make  no  doubt 
you  are  improving  to  the  best  advantage  for  the  benefit  of  those  happy 
branches  of  your  family  with  you,  to  whom  I  beg  you  will  be  pleased  to 
make  my  best  compliments,  which  at  present  is  the  only  tribute  of  grati- 
tude in  my  power  to  make  them  for  the  many  excellent  Indian  puddings, 
&c,  &c,  that  I  have  so  often  partook  of  in  their  presence  at  your  well 
supply'd  table. 

Your  fruit  trees,  when  compared  with  those  here,  I  mean  apples,  are 
hardly  worth  noticing.  About  ten  days  ago,  I  had  a  present  of  well 
toward  a  bushel  of  as  fine,  fair,  sound,  high  flavored  apples  as  you  ever 
saw  at  New  York  in  the  month  of  January.  Colo.  Allen  of  [New]  Jersey 
told  me  he  had  drank  the  best  cider  here,  he  ever  drank  in  his  life;  the 
same  account  I  had  from  Doctor  Prince  who  came  to  this  Province  from 

*Richard  Bulkley  came  to  Nova  Scotia  with  Governor  Cornwallis  in  1749, 
and  was  secretary  of  that  province  from  1759  to  1793.  He  died  Dec.  7,  1800,  aged 
83  years. 

•[•Lieutenant  Colonel  Stephen  DeLancey  was  a  son  of  Brigadier  General 
Oliver  DeLancey,  and  was  lieutenant  colonel  in  the  2nd  battalion  of  his  father's 
brigade  in  August,  1776.  He  was  transferred  to  the  Prince  of  Wales  American 
Regiment  in  September,  1781,  and  again  to  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers  in  Febru- 
ary, 1782.  He  was  one  of  the  agents  for  effecting  the  settlement  of  the  provin- 
cial regiments  in  Nova  Scotia.  He  afterward  filled  the  positions  of  chief  justice 
of  the  Bahamas  and  governor  of  Tobago.  He  married  Cornelia  Barclay,  and  his 
family  became  quite  distinguished.  See  Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York, 
vol.  i.,  p.  62. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  107 

Salem,  &  from  many  other  Gentlemen,  all  being  the  produce  of  this 
Province.  Vegetables  of  all  kinds  of  the  very  best  quality,  but  not  so 
early  as  at  New  York.  Fin,  scale  &  shell  fish  of  all  kinds  except  oysters, 
the  want  of  which  is  richly  compensated  by  scallops  in  plenty  about  the 
bigness  of  a  common  tea  saucer  &  of  excellent  flavor.  The  land,  very 
natural  to  grass  of  all  kinds,  with  some  of  our  New  England  husbandry 
often  produces  forty  bushels  of  Indian  corn  per  acre;  but  am  apprehensive 
from  the  scantiness  of  heat  and  much  wet  weather  it  is  not  the  proper 
grain  for  this  climate,  and  indeed  if  less  attention  was  paid  to  it  in  many 
parts  of  New  England  &  more  to  other  kinds  of  grain  I  think  the  people 
would  find  their  account  in  it.  Wheat,  barley,  oats  and  flax  thrive  well 
here  upon  uplands,  &  peas  any  where,  no  bugs  were  known  in  the  place. 

The  people  begin  to  clear  upland  which  turns  off  good  crops;  the 
growth  of  timber  in  general  near  the  marshes  is  ever-green,  such  as  white 
spruce,  red  spruce,  black  spruce,  fir  &  hemlock.  The  upland  back 
from  the  river  is  rock  maple,  yellow  &  Black  birch,  beech  &  white 
ash,  some  red  oak,  no  white  oak.  There  is  one  hiccory  tree  here, 
produced  from  what  in  our  country  [New  England]  we  call  shagbark 
walnut — planted  by  Major  Winnie t  about  23  years  ago,  an  exceedingly 
fine  thrifty  tree,  about  as  thick  as  Col.  Gilberts  body  at  the  bottom,  bids 
fair  to  have  at  least  a  bushel  of  nuts  this  year  if  no  accident  befalls  them. 
In  the  same  gentleman's  garden  is  a  filbert  tree  of  some  bigness,  with 
plenty  of  fruit  growing  on  it.  In  the  next  garden  there  is  a  madeira  nut 
tree  of  considerable  bigness — by  its  appearance  has  been  sometimes  nipt 
by  the  frost,  but  not  more  than  I  have  seen  the  same  sort  nipt  on  Long 
Island. 

Upon  the  whole  I  think  the  climate  good  &  the  soil  capable  of  be- 
coming the  granary  of  any  part  of  the  continent  to  the  eastward  of  New 
York:  whether  so  happy  an  event  may  take  place  in  the  life  time  of  you 
or  me  depends  much  upon  the  conduct  of  those  who  have  it  in  their 
power  at  this  crisis  to  encourage  and  accomplish  the  complete  settlement 
of  the  country,  according  to  the  expectations  of  General  Carleton.  How 
it  fares  with  other  parts  of  this  Province  I  am  not  able  to  say,  but  with 
respect  to  this  part  I  hear  every  day  lamentations  making  by  people  that 
came  last  fall,  that  this  year's  provision,  which  they  then  received  and 
which  is  all  they  have  to  depend  upon,  will  be  exhausted  before  they  can 
get  the  lands  they  have  been  long  expecting  to  settle  upon.  As  they 
have  not  yet  obtained  their  patents  for  it,  and  the  season  is  so  far  ad- 
vanced you  may  clearly  discover  that  for  husbandmen  the  year  is  lost. 
What  effect  it  may  have  upon  others  coming  into  the  Province  to  settle, 
you  Sir  can  more  easily  conceive  than  I  can  tell. 

Thus  I  have  attempted  to  comply  with  your  requisition  &  at  the 


108  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1782-3 

same  time  to  mention  what  I  much  fear  may  obstruct  the  settlement  of 
as  fine  a  country  as  I  ever  saw  in  my  life,  capable  of  vast  improvement, 
replete  with  natural  advantages  &  nothing  wanting  but  numbers  of 
industrious  Inhabitants  to  make  a  most  flourishing  Province,  which  at 
this  time  might  certainly  be  had  with  prudent  management. 

My  apology  for  this  long  scrawl  is  to  convince  you  of  my  being  all 
attention  to  your  commands  notwithstanding  my  great  aversion  to  writing 
of  which  I  find  you  are  very  sensible.  I  have  only  to  add  that  I  am 
upon  all  occasions,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  &  very  humble  servant, 
Edward  Winslow,  Esq'r.  Timo.  Ruggles. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton  to  Brigadier  General  Fox. 

New  York  18th  July  1783. 

Sir, — Major  General  Paterson  having  obtained  my  permission  to  go 
to  England  for  the  recovery  of  his  health,  and  Brigadier  General  Camp- 
bell on  his  private  business,  I  have  thought  proper  to  appoint  you  to  the 
Command  of  His  Majesty's  troops  in  the  District  of  Nova  Scotia;  You 
will  therefore  proceed  by  the  first  opportunity  to  Halifax  in  Nova  Scotia, 
and  on  the  Departure  of  Major  General  Paterson,  will  take  upon  you  the 
Command  of  His  Majesty's  Troops  in  that  District  until  further  orders 
from  me. 

You  will  receive  herewith,  Instructions  for  your  Conduct  in  that 
Command,  and  will  apply  to  Major  General  Paterson  for  copies  of  all  such 
letters  and  orders  as  relate  thereto. 

I  have  directed  Alexander  Thompson  Esqr.  Deputy  Pay  Master 
General  at  Halifax,  to  receive  and  pay  your  Warrants  for  the  subsistence 
and  Extraordinary  Expenses  of  the  troops  under  your  command,  which 
You  are  hereby  empowered  to  grant,  observing  that  no  uncesessary  ex- 
penses are  incurred. 

I  am.  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  and 

most  humble  servant 

Guy  Carleton. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton  to  Brig.  Gen.  Fox. 

New  York  18th  July,  1783. 

Sir, — As  the  situation  of  the  Refugees  who  have  gone  to  Nova  Scotia, 
may  require  that  they  should  have  a  further  allowance  of  Provisions  to 
carry  them  thro'  the  Winter,  I  have  directed  provisions  to  the  1st  of  May 
next,  to  be  furnished  to  those  whose  necessities  may  require  it;  which 
you  will  be  pleased  to  have  carried  into  execution. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  109 

Should  you  find  it  an  advantage  to  the  Inhabitants,  and  that  it  can 
be  done  without  detriment  to  the  troops,  you  will  send  a  Battalion  to 
Port-Roseway,  but  I  would  wish  you  in  all  such  cases,  where  the  province 
is  concerned,  to  consult  with  the  Governor.  What  I  have  said  of  Port- 
Roseway  may  be  applied  to  any  other  of  the  new  settlements  where  you 
may  judge  it  advisable. 

As  it  may  hereafter  be  necessary  to  erect  works  for  the  defence  of 
some  of  the  new  settlements  now  forming  in  Nova  Scotia,  I  recommend 
it  to  you  to  make  application  to  the  Governor  for  a  reservation  of  such 
lands  as  may  be  judged  proper  for  that  purpose,  for  the  security  of  the 
province  in  general,  as  well  as  for  the  erection  of  such  buildings  and 
Store  houses,  as  are  necessary  thereto. 

You  will  please  to  order  the  usual  bounty  of  Two  hundred  days  Bate, 
Baggage,  and  Forage  money,  to  be  issued  to  such  of  the  German  troops 
as  are  embarked,  and  to  such  of  them  as  may  hereafter  embark  from  yoiyr 
districts.  I  am,  Sir, 

your  most  obedient  and 

most  humble  servant 

Guy  Carleton. 

Fort  Howe,  River  St.  John's,  23rd  July,  1783. 

Sir, — Please  to  pay  William  Hazen  Esq.  or  his  order  six  pounds  ten 
shillings  Nova  Scotia  Currency,  it  being  for  thirteen  days  hire  of  the 
Schooner  Sea-Flaw  for  the  purpose  of  conveying  the  Agents  for  His 
Majesty's  Provincial  Regiments  up  the  River  St.  John's  thirteen  days  at 
ten  shillings  per  day. 

Edward  Winslow,  for  himself  &  the  other  Agents. 
Roger  Johnson,  Esq., 

Commissary  &c.,  Halifax. 

Halifax  27  August  1783. 

Rec'd  the  above  sum  of  Edward  Winslow  Esq. 

£6,  10,—  Wm.  Hazen. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Fort  Howe,  River  St.  John's,  23rd  July,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip, — I  yesterday  evening  arrived  at  this  place  after  the 
most  agreeable  tour  I  ever  had  in  my  life.  Barclay,  Allen  and  a  number 
of  young  Bucks  and  myself  have  explored  this  grand  river  one  hundred 
and  twenty  miles  from  its  mouth  and  we  have  returned  delighted  beyond 
expression.  I  must  defer  a  minute  description  until  I  have  rested  myself 
and  have  more  leisure.  Your  letter  which  I  have  this  moment  received 


110  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

has  caused  a  kind  of  agitation  which  I  cannot  describe.  Had  I  received 
a  message  from  the  Great  Kuler  of  the  World  allowing  me  to  chuse  an 
employment  (at  this  critical  time)  I  should  have  pointed  out  the  very 
cne  my  friends  have  so  kindly  provided  for  me.*  I  am  now  preparing 
to  embark  in  a  Boat  to  cross  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  where  horses  are  ready 
for  me  to  proceed  immediately  to  Halifax.  Assure  yourself  my  dear 
Chip  that  I  will  exert  myself  most  capitally  on  this  occasion.  From 
Halifax  you  shall  hear  particularly.  I  am  forever  indebted  to  Judge 
Ludlow  and  those  other  of  my  friends  who  have  interested  themselves  so 
materially  for  me.  I  cannot  tell  you  in  this  haste  how  important  I  con- 
sider it.  Thank  Townsend  for  the  service  and  accept  my  best  acknow- 
ledgements for  the  things  sent  by  Ryerson.  I  shall  be  obliged  to  leave 

P and  the  little  ones  at  Annapolis,  'tis  a  consolation  indeed  that  I 

can  leave  'em  comfortable. 

What  millions  of  things  crowd  on  my  mind  to  say  to  you.  Suspend 
your  curiosity  till  I  arrive  at  Halifax. 

Most  fervently  &  affect'ly,  Yours, 

Ned. 

P.  S.  Left  your  letter  to  write  my  Dad,  but  am  summoned  to  em- 
bark this  minute.  Say  all  that  is  necessary. 

Governor  Parr  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

Shelburne,  25th  July,  1783. 

Shy — I  have  the  honor  to  inform  your  Excellency  of  my  arrival  here 
(late  Port  Roseway)  in  the  Sophia  Frigate  and  that  I  have  named  the 
town  and  district,  Shelburne.  From  every  appearance  I  have  not  a  doubt 
but  that  it  will  in  a  short  time  become  the  most  flourishing  Town  for 
trade  of  any  in  this  part  of  the  World,  and  the  country  will  for  agri- 
culture. For  any  particulars  that  your  Excellency  may  wish  to  know 
I  refer  you  to  the  bearer  Mr.  Robertson. 

I  did  myself  the  honor  to  write  to  you  by  the  "Lucerne"  expressing 
my  sentiments  relative  to  the  number  of  Loyalists  intending  to  go  to 
the  River  St.  Johns.  I  greatly  fear  the  soil  and  fertility  of  that  part 
of  this  province  is  overrated  by  people  who  have  explored  it  partially.  I 
wish  it  may  turn  out  otherwise,  but  have  my  fears  that  there  is  scarce 
good  land  enough  for  them  already  sent  there.  If  all  the  Provincial 
Corps  go,  am  certain  there  will  not,  which  was  the  reason  for  my  recom- 
mending the  eastern  side  of  the  St.  Croix  River  to  your  Excellency. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  great  esteem 

Your  Excellency's  most  obedient 
humble  servant, 
His  Excellency,  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  J.  Parr. 

*As  military  secretary  to  General  Fox,  the  newly  appointed  commander  in 
chief  of  the  forces  in  Nova  Scotia. 


1783]  WINSLOW  TAPERS.  Ill 

Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

July  29th,  1783. 

Dear  Ned, — I  this  moment  learn  that  Colonel  Morse*  embarks  in 
an  hour  for  Halifax,  and  as  it  is  now  within  half  an  hour  of  dinner  time, 
I  shall  only  be  able  to  write  a  few  lines.  I  am  anxious  beyond  measure 
to  know  if  my  letters  relative  to  your  connection  with  General  Fox  as 
his  Secretary  arrived  in  season.  The  evening  before  he  sailed  he  wrote 
me  a  note  to  know  if  I  had  received  an  answer  to  my  letter  to  you  on 
that  subject.  I  told  him  I  had  written  fully  to  you  but  had  received  no 
answer  as  there  had  been  no  arrivals  from  that  part  of  the  country 
where  you  was  since  my  letter  could  have  reached  you.  Dont  fail  to  let 
me  know  by  the  first  opportunity  how  the  matter  terminates,  I  told  the 
General  I  did  not  doubt  the  proposal  would  be  agreeable  to  you. 

It's  now  next  to  a  certainty  almost  that  we  shall  be  all  away  from 
here  this  fall:  I  cannot  yet  determine  which  way  to  steer,  much  will 
depend  upon  the  intelligence  I  receive  from  you  and  your  advice.  Should 
Sir  Guy  go  to  Nova  Scotia  I  shall  inevitably  go  there  too,  or  if  I  am 
like  to  forfeit  any  considerable  advantage  £>y  not  being  there  this  winter 
I  certainly  will  go.  Few,  very  few,  will  remain  here,  Nova  Scotia  is  the 
rage,  petitions  are  daily  going  in  from  very  respectable  people  to  the 
Commander  in  Chief  for  lands,  &c.  Blowers  with  his  family  mean  to 
embark  in  the  course  of  the  next  month  for  Halifax,  and  I  think  it  very 
probable  your  father  and  family  will  go  with  him.  Your  mother  is  arrived 
and  in  health  and  spirits  as  indeed  they  all  are. 

Keep  a  look  out  for  nie  with  respect  to  lands  if  you  can  and  let 
me  know  what  is  to  be  done  on  my  part.  To  have  as  many  strings  to 
my  Bow  as  I  could  I  have  signed  a  petition  with  Col.  Willard  and  others 
to  the  Corner  in  Chief,  t  My  anxiety  increases  every  day,  all  business 
being  at  an  end,  I  find  myself  running  behind  hand  very  fast  every  day, 

*  Colonel  Robert  Morse  of  the  Royal  Engineers  is  here  referred  to.  His  well 
known  report  on  Nova  Scotia  in  1783  is  printed  in  the  Canadian  Archives  for 
the  year  1884. 

t  Ward  Chipman  thus  became  one  of  the  celebrated  "Fifty-five"  petitioners 
for  lands  in  Nova  Scotia.  (See  Sabine's  Loyalists  under  name  of  Abijah  Will- 
ard; also  an  anonymous  political  tract,  of  which  a  few  copies  are  extant,  print- 
ed at  London,  1784).  Chipman  soon  afterwards  disassociated  himself  from  the 
company.  See  his  letter  under  date  3rd  August,  1783,  in  this  book.  Colonel 
Abijah  Willard  was  of  Lancaster,  Mass.  He  settled  near  Carleton  and  gave 
the  name  of  Lancaster  to  the  parish  in  which  he  resided.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  first  council  of  the  province.  He  died  in  1789  at  the  age  of  67  years,  and  his 
family  returned  to  Massachusetts.  The  "Fifty-five"  claimed  that  they  were 
Justly  entitled  to  the  same  allowance  as  field  officers,  viz.,  5,000  acres  each,  in 
consideration  of  their  special  services  and  the  dignity  or  importance  of  their 
former  positions  in  society.  The  other  Loyalists  at  New  Tork  strongly  resented 
the  claim  for  special  consideration  advanced  by  the  "Fifty-five,"  and  considered 
their  action  both  ungenerous  and  unfair,  and  in  consequence  of  their  protests 
the  scheme  fell  'through. 


112  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

for  my  d d  mode  of  living  is  as  expensive  as  ever.      You  distressed 

me  very  much  by  the  account  you  gave  me  of  my  dear  boy  Chip — God 
grant  your  fears  may  have  proved  groundless.  Let  me  know  how  it  has 
fared  with  him  and  how  Pop  with  the  other  dear  little  ones  makes  out. 
Kiss  them  all  for  me. 

We  have  no  news,  no  definitive  treaty  yet.  I  shall  write  you  tomor- 
row via  St.  John's. ' 

Adieu,     Yours  most  affectionately, 

Chip. 

Brigadier  General  Fox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Sir, — I  suppose  you  have  received  Mr.  Chippeham's  [Chipman's] 
Letter  from  N.  York  on  the  subject  I  take  the  Liberty  of  writing  to  you 
upon.  I  should  be  happy  to  hear  by  the  first  opportunity  if  the  proposal 
is  agreeable  to  you,  as  I  most  sincerely  wish  it  may  suit  your  views. 

I  should  not  have  taken  the  Liberty  of  proposing  such  a  thing  to 
you  had  not  your  acquaintance,  Judge  Ludlow,  assured  me  you  would  not 
be  offended  at  the  Liberty  I  have  taken  in  making  the  offer  of  the  ap- 
pointment of  Secretary  to  me  as  Commanding  Officer  of  the  Troops  in 
N.  Scotia.  Col.  De  Lancey  has  promised  to  forward  this  by  the  first 
opportunity. 

I  am  Sir 

Your  most  obedient  Humble  Servant, 

H.  E.  Fox. 
Halifax,  July  31st,  1783. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  Saturday  3d  Aug't,  1783. 

My  dear  good  fellow, — Last  Saturday  I  left  the  Eiver  St.  John's  and 
crossed  the  Bay  of  Fundy  and  at  Annapolis  took  horse  and  yesterday 
arrived  at  this  place.  I  am  amply  paid  for  all  the  fatigues  and  dangers 
which  I  have  experienced  by  the  polite  reception  I  met  with  from  Gen. 
Fox.  On  Tuesday  or  Wednesday  next  Gen'l  Paterson  embarks  for  Eng- 
land and  then  I  shall  engage  in  my  new  business. 

When  I  received  your  letter  I  had  just  returned  from  a  kind  of  cam- 
paign that  would  have  added  a  few  wrinkles  to  any  man's  face,  and  God 
knows  rest  and  refreshment  would  have  been  very  pleasant,  but  the  fear 
of  a  possibility  that  my  absence  would  have  been  prejudicial,  induced  me 
to  exert  every  nerve  and  I  cannot  express  to  You  how  excessively  I  was 
gratify'd  at  being  only  24  hours  after  the  General.  Barclay  (who  knows 
c\eiy  circumstance  of  the  matter)  will  communicate  all  you  wish  to  know. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  113 

I  am  sensible  how  far  your  curiosity  extends  in  matters  that  relate  to  me 
and  I  would  indulge  it  if  I  could  by  this  opportunity,  but  Barclay  has 
been  summoned  from  Capt.  Tryers',  where  we  dined,  to  embark  imme- 
diately. As  I  am  now  becoming  a  sedentary  man,  you  may  depend  on 
my  commencing  an  old  fashioned  history  which  I  shall  forward  by  the 
next  conveyance. 

I  cannot  describe  to  you  my  distress  at  an  event  which  has  taken 
place  in  my  family.  I  doubt  whether  I  would  not  be  lessened  in  your 
opinion  was  I  to  tell  you  in  what  manner  it  has  affected  me  —  the  poor 
little  fellow.  [He  probably  refers  to  the  death  of  his  little  boy  "Chip."] 

I  have  reconciled  Polly  in  some  degree  to  my  absence.  She  is  more 
comfortably  situated  than  she  ever  was  before.  William  (Quarter  Master, 
formerly  Thompson's  Groom)  superintends  all  the  business  at  Granville. 
Polly  has  two  cows,  which  I  bought,  and  from  which  she  makes  all  her 
butter,  &c.  "Silk"  continues  with  her  and  Frank  and  little  George;  and 
under  the  management  of  William  they  do  very  well.  Presley  (Thomp- 
son's orderly  man)  is  with  me  and  a  very  valuable  fellow.  The  place  I 
have  bired  has  been  cultivated  in  such  a  stile  as  to  ensure  us  more  hay 
and  vegetables  than  we  can  possible  use.  In  short  Chip  for  many  years 
past  I  have  not  felt  myself  so  free  from  chagrin  so  rationally  happy,  or 
whatever  else  you  have  a  mind  to  call  it,  as  now.  My  appointment  I 
believe  has  given  as  much  pleasure  to  the  people  here  perhaps  as  ever 
such  an  event  did  for  reasons  which  Barclay  will  tell  you. 

I  shall  follow  your  rules  lay'd  down  in  your  letter  —  rely  on't  I  will 
be  industrious  and  prudent,  the  last  I  acknowledge  will  be  the  most 
arduous  task  but  I  am  equal  even  to  that.  Barclay  will  pay  you  twelve 
guineas,  and  he  means  to  make  a  serious  application  to  the  Commander 
in  Chief  for  a  sum  to  reimburse  Delancey,  himself  and  me  for  our  ex- 
penses in  the  agency  for  the  Provincial  Regiments.  If  he  acquires 
anything,  and  I  presume  he  will,  I  have  requested  him  to  pay  my  propor- 
tion to  you.  I  wrote  you  to  send  me  clothes  —  if  you  have  not  engaged 
'em  you  need  not  do  it.  I  find  I  can  get  'em  here  as  cheap  as  at  York  -- 
only  supply  the  girls  with  some  linen,  my  kit  is  in  bad  condition. 

I  shall  not  write  the  old  gentleman,  you  are  possessed  of  every 
necessary  fact  respecting  me,  and  I  have  requested  Barclay  to  see  him 
instantly  after  his  arrival. 

I  suppose  that  my  subsistence  will  be  paid  for  one  more  period,  and 
that  you  will  pay  yourself  for  such  matters  as  I  have  been  supplied  with 
since  I  left  you. 

I  know  not  where  to  leave  off  —  my  different  tours  have  been  very 
expensive,  but  I  have  scuttled  thro'  like  an  old  soldier,  and  I  begin  to 
value  myself  upon  such  maneuvres,  possibly  I  may  one  day  4o  other 


114 


WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 


make  an  attempt  to  save  a  little  money.      I  know  that  T..  Coffin,  Fred 
Philips  and  yourself  sneer  at  the  idea  —  Laugh  and  be  hanged,  I'll  try. 

I  am  anxiously  expecting  the  arrival  of  Colonel  Fanning  here.      Is 
it  not  possible  my  dear  Chip  that  a  collection  of  us  (consequential  men) 
may  have  it  in  our  power  to  coax  you  by  some  means  to  join  us  here  ? 
What  can  induce  you?     This  is  a  matter  in  which  I  feel  myself  so  deeply, 
very  deeply  interested,  that  I  cannot  write  dispassionately — but  we  are 
enterprising  people — may  not  something  be  effected? 
Adieu, 
Almighty  God  bless  you, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

Rev.  Jonathan  Odell*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  Aug.  3rd,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — I  have  been  recently  feasted  with  communications  of  Ex- 
tracts from  your  letters  to  Major  Upham  and  Mr.  Chipman,  and  having 
paid  them  in  thanks,  which  you  know  is  orthodox  clerical  coin,  for  the 
pleasure  they  have  afforded  me,  I  now  seize  the  moment  while  Chip's 
dinner  is  waiting  for  a  Guest  more  tardy  than  myself  to  make  a  tender  of 
the  same  tribute  to  you.  I  am  very  happy  to  find  from  your  description 
of  "a  prospect"  to  which  a  way  has  been  cut  by  such  herculean  exertions, 
my  own  prospects  eventually  brightening  in  the  hope  that  I  too,  with 
Friend  Chipman,  may  ere  long  have  a  comfortable  habitation  in  your  new 
planned  Town,  where  I  shall  hope  a  spark  of  your  fire  will  also  awaken  me 
to  feel  that  noble  enthusiasm  which  looks  with  disdain  on  all  former 
objects  of  description — the  mere  spurts  of  small  beer  and  such  like  diuretic 
drippings.  I  have  further  to  acknowledge  your  excellent  Newtonian  dis- 
covery— never  sure  did  the  Hon'ble  Major  [Hanger]  dream  of  such  fortune 
awaiting  his  former  attendant,  secured  it  seems  by  your  oracular  response 
to  the  Lady's  inquiry.  | 

But  dinner  waits.     God  bless  you,  I  have  written  a  hasty  line  to  Major 

*Rev  Jonathan  Odell  was  a  man  of  many  parts.  It  is  said  that  "he  com- 
menced doctor  of  physic."  He  was  born  in  Newark,  New  Jersey,  September  25, 
1737,  and  was  for  a  time  preceptor  there.  He  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of 
London  in  1766.  He  was  in  charge  of  the  church  at  Burlington,  N.  J.,  when  the 
Revolution  began.  In  1777  he  was  gazetted  chaplain  of  the  Pennsylvania  Loy- 
alists, but  was  transferred  to  the  King's  American  Dragoons  upon  the  organ- 
ization of  that  corps.  He  was  a  protege  of  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  and  became  his 
private  secretary,  and  through  his  influence  was  appointed  provincial  secretary 
on  the  formation  of  the  province  of  New  Brunswick  in  1783.  The  office  descend- 
ed to  his  son,  the  Hon.  W.  F.  Odell,  who  held  it  for  32  years.  The  father,  after 
coming  to  Fredericton,  is  believed  to  have  occasionally  officiated  in  the  capacity 
of  a  clergyman.  He  was  called  the  Honorable  and  Reverend  Jonathan  Odell. 
He  was  quite  a  clever  writer,  and  composed  many  bits  of  poetry.  He  was  the 
intimate  friend  of  Winslow  and  Chipman. 

fSee  under  date  7th  July,  1783. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  115 

Murray — you  are  my  Guardians,  and  I  am  sure  you  will  provide  for  me. 
If  you  lose  the  game  at  all  fours  let  not  the  inference  be  "we  will  have  no 
church/'*  rather  let  the  Church  be  destined,  if  it  cannot  be  a  house  of 
prayer,  to  accommodate  with  a  Dwelling — Your  affectionate  Friend  & 
h'ble  Serv't, 

Jon.  Odell. 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York  3d  Augt.  1783. 

Dear  Winslow, — I  wrote  you  largely  the  day  before  yesterday,  but  as 
an  opportunity  offers  for  St.  John's  tomorrow  by  Stephen  Skinner t  I  will 
not  omit  it,  tho'  nothing  of  consequence  occurs  to  write  about.  The 
committee,  or  rather  Agents,  appointed  by  those  gentlemen  who  have 
lately  applied  to  the  Commander  in  Chief  for  lands  in  Nova  Scotia  go  in 
the  ship  which  sails  tomorrow,  J  I  signed  the  Petition  but  have  since 
found  several  names  upon  the  list  which  do  not  comport  with  my  ideas  of 
the  business  at  all.  I  shall  of  course  decline  any  further  concern  in  the 
matter  relying  upon  your  having  it  in  your  power  to  provide  much  better 
for  me  in  your  arrangements  than  can  be  done  in  any  other  way.  Our 
friend  Tom  Bannister  ||  is  upon  the  list,  he  subscribes  the  power  of  agency 
and  pays  his  3  guineas  to  defray  the  expences  of  the  agents  in  negotiating 
the  business  for  the  Company.  If  it  is  practicable  to  have  me  included 
for  a  tract  or  lot  or  share  or  whatever  it  is  called,  among  those  that  will 
be  of  your  party,  don't  forget  me.  I  should  admire  a  very  romantic, 
grand-water-river-falls-lake-prospect  with  a  good  cold  spring  of  water  near 
my  house.  I  shall  be  very  anxious  till  I  know  the  result  of  the  proposal 
relative  to  General  Fox,  as  I  am  more  and  more  uneasy  that  so  much  was 
said  to  him  on  the  subject,  tho'  it  was  absolutely  necessary,  unless  the 
matter  was  given  up  altogether,  and  I  wished  it  might  be  in  your  option 
to  undertake  it  if  your  situation  and  interest  rendered  it  eligible. 

The  month  of  August  is  arrived  and  everything  here  wears  the  same 

*See  letter  of  Edward  Winslow  to  Joshua  Upham,  written  in  July,  1783. 

fBrother  of  Brigadier  General  Cortlandt  Skinner  of  New  Jersey. 

JThe  agents  for  the  "Fifty-five"  were  Rev.  John  Sayre,  Philip  J.  Livingston, 
and  Nathaniel  Chandler.  They  arrived  at  Annapolis  Royal  August  17,  1783,  and 
their  proceedings  are  recorded  in  a  very  scarce  and  interesting  pamphlet,  of 
which  a  copy  is  in  possession  of  the  writer  of  these  notes.  Rev.  John  Sayre 
went  to  St.  John,  and  Livingston  and  Chandler  thereupon  associated  with  them 
Stephen  Skinner,  who  was  one  of  the  "Fifty-five,"  and  proceeded  to  Halifax. 
The  governor  demurred  to  granting  so  large  a  tract  as  5,000  acres  to  each  in- 
dividual of  the  company.  Delay  ensued.  Sir  Guy  Carleton  declined  to  counten- 
ance the  project,  and  in  the  end  it  was  a  complete  failure. 

||Thomas  Bannister  belonged  to  Rhode  Island.  He  saw  some  service  under 
Daniel  Murray  in  Wentworth's  Volunteers.  He  was  a  magistrate  at  Wey- 
mou/th,  N.  S.,  in  1785. 


116  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1783 

appearance  as  it  did  three  months  ago,  except  that  now  and  then  a  Hessian 
regiment  embarks  for  Europe.  One  of  these  goes  on  board  Capt.  Humble 
in  a  few  days  to  his  great  mortification,  he  wished  to  go  back  again  to  St. 
John's. 

I  wrote  to  you  fully  in  my  last  my  opinion  respecting  your  Father's 
movements;  he  means  to  consult  Mr.  Watson  and  his  other  friends,  their 
opinion  with  your  next  letters  will  ultimately  decide  him.  He  dines  with 
me  to-day  with  Barclay  and  a  few  friends.  I  wish  you  could  take  a  glass 
with  us  of  the  last  bottle  of  Thompson's  that  I  have. 

Opinions  are  various  respecting  the  evacuation  of  this  place,  tho'  I 
have  little  doubt  myself  that  it  will  be  soon.  No  magazines  of  fuel  or 
forage  are  providing  for  the  winter — the  whole  army  is  encamping  from 
Newton  across  to  Denys's*  as  if  to  be  in  readiness  to  embark  at  a  moment's 
warning.  I  imagine  we  shall  be  hurried  off  as  soon  as  the  definitive  treaty 
arrives. 

Whenever  your  scheme  of  a  separate  government  at  St.  John's  is  ripe 
for  execution  I  shall  be  ready  to  embark  in  the  business.  I  think  if  the 
present  illiberal  policy  in  the  United  States  continues,  that  must  soon 
become  a  very  valuable  and  important  country,  and  one  may  then  I  think 
stand  a  chance  to  be  foremost  in  some  line  or  other. 

Dr.  Bailey  goes  to  England  this  fall,  Blowers  to  Halifax  immediately. 
By  the  way,  Miss  Kentt  is  now  very  ill,  I  think  she  must  die.  You  will  I 
think  see  all  your  friends  at  Halifax  next  winter.  My  movements  are  not 
yet  absolutely  determined  on  tho'  I  think  Halifax  will  bring  me  up. 
Remember  me  particularly  to  Murray  and  the  rest  of  my  friends  with 
you — 

Adieu.     Yours  most  faithfully, 

Chip. 

Lt.  Col.  Isaac  Allen  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Wilmot,}  August  7th,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — I  congratulate  you  on  the  arrival  of  General  Fox  and  hope 
your  situation  will  be  as  profitable  to  yourself  as  I  am  sure  it  will  be  advan- 
tageous to  your  Friends  and  all  distressed  Loyalists.  Delancey  tells  me 
you  have  relinquished  all  the  Province  to  the  Refugees  except  the  Lands 

*Newton  was  a  village  a  little  to  the  east  of  Brooklyn,  on  Long  Island,  and 
Deny's,  in  the  same  vicinity,  was  a  place  where  the  Loyalist  regiments  frequent- 
ly encamped  and  were  mustered  by  Colonel  Winslow. 

fMiss  Kent  was  a  daughter  of  Benjamin  Kent,  and  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Sampson 
Salter  Blowers.  She  lived  with  Chief  Justice  Blowers  and  her  sister  at  Halifax. 

JWilmot,  in  Annapolis  County,  offered  an  asylum  to  a  number  of  Loyalists 
of  merit,  among  them  General  Timothy  Ruggles.  Lieut.  Col.  Allen's  stay  there 
was  but  brief.  Lands  were  surveyed  here  for  the  elder  Edward  Winslow  by 
direction  of  Hon.  Charles  Morris,  the  surveyor  general  of  Nova  Scotia. 


178::]  WINSLOW    PAPERS  117 

above  Sunbury.  I  must  therefore  on  behalf  of  myself  and  the  ladds  I  have 
settled  on  Ivennebekasius*  beg  your  assistance  to  have  that  land  confirmed 
to  me.  The  state  of  the  case  is  this;  Doctor  Prince  about  12  months  ago 
obtained  a  Promise  from  Sir  Andrew  Hammondt  for  five  thousand  acres, 
which  was  surveyed  at  his  request  and  expence  but  not  regularly  returned 
in  the  office  nor  any  Patent  taken  out.  Upon  my  arrival  at  St.  John's 
the  Doctor  proposed  to  convey  me  three  thousand  of  the  five  upon  my 
promising  ten  settlers,  which  I  immediately  did  and  have  been  at  the 
trouble  and  expence  of  having  the  lands  divided  and  the  men  have  built, 
and  cleared  part  of  the  lands.  Doctor  Prince  was  so  mortified  at  the  loss 
of  Musquash  Cove  that  he  did  not  chuse  to  ask  any  favor  of  the  Governor, 
but  wished  Bliss  and  Major  Murray  to  come  in  for  two  thousand  acres,  the 
residue  of  the  Tract.  I  think  this  tract  worth  attending  to  and  as  I  find 
many  are  making  applications  for  private  Grants  you  will  have  no  diffi- 
culty in  procuring  this  when  it  is  considered  that  I  have  been  at  consider- 
able expence  in  getting  the  lands  surveyed  and  settled,  and  that  at  the 
time  I  entered  into  the  scheme  with  Doctor  Prince  I  could  have  no  idea 
it  would  interfere  with  the  interest  of  Provincials  or  Kefugees. 

Major  Barclay,  in  a  letter  to  Eobinson,  mentioned  that  application  is 
made  for  lands  in  this  town.  Whether  this  Grant  is  solicited  for  Provin- 
cial officers  in  general  or  for  individuals  I  know  not.  If  it  should  be  for 
individuals  I  should  be  glad  to  have  two  thousand  acres  here  and  would 
recommend  it  to  you  to  get  a  proportion  of  your  lands  here  as  I  think  the 
lands  equal  to  any  high  lands  we  saw  at  St.  John's.  Inclosed  I  send  you 
the  names  of  the  MenJ  settled  on  the  lands  at  Kennebekasius,  so  that  we 
must  be  charged  with  only  three  thousand  acres  of  this  Tract  and  the  men 
with  two  hundred  each.  I  hope  you  will  think  with  me  that  this  business 
is  worth  attending  to  when  I  assure  you  that  the  lands  are  equal  in  Quality 
to  Mauger-Ville  and  not  so  subject  to  the  Freshet.  If  Bliss  should  decline 
having  a  part  of  this  land  there  will  be  three  lots,  which  will  give  Murray, 
you  and  myself  a  thousand  each,  and  they  will  be  more  valuable  as  I  have 
ten  excellent  Farmers  upon  them. 

Pray  let  me  hear  from  you  as  soon  as  possible  and  inform  me  whether 

*Lieut.  Col.  Isaac  Allen,  with  others,  obtained  a  grant  of  14,000  acres  on  the 
Kennebeccasis  river,  including  in  its  limits  the  present  village  of  Sussex.  The 
grant  was  dated  July  6,  1784.  It  was  afterwards  relinquished  in  consideration 
of  a  grant  of  lands  elsewhere. 

fSir  Andrew  Snape  Hammond's  grant  of  10,000  acres  on  the  south  side  of 
the  Kennebeccasis,  in  the  vicinity  of  Hammond  River,  was  made  on  Dec.  23, 
1782.  The  grant  was  escheated  and  the  land  regranted  to  bona  fide  settlers. 

JThe  names  enclosed  were  as  follows:  Ruloff  Ruloffson,  Jonathan  Thatcher, 
Albert  Burdan,  Ezekiel  Crozier,  Peter  Snyder,  Joseph  Parks,  Oliver  Frazer, 
Abner  Sharp,  Cornelius  Anderson,  Daniel  Insley  (Ansley).  These  men  belonged 
to  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers,  and  many  of  their  descendants  are  living  in 
Kings  County  today. 


118  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

you  are  like  to  succeed  or  no;  if  you  should  succeed  for  the  Lands  on 
Kennebekasius  pray  write  a  line  to  Sergeant  Major  Ruloffson,  who  is  now 
there,  informing  him  of  it  as  they  are  now  in  suspense  and  will  not  proceed 
in  improving  as  fast  as  I  could  wish.  I  make  no  apology  for  this  tedious 
letter,  as  I  know  the  pleasure  you  will  have  in  obliging  your  friend  Murray 
and  myself  will  he  superior  to  the  trouble  of  reading  the  letter  or  soliciting 
the  business. 

I  am  still  afflicted  with  the  complaint  you  left  me  with.  I  fear  I  shall 
never  get  clear  of  it.  I  expect  to  sail  for  [New]  York  in  a  few  days  and 
shall  be  happy  to  execute  your  commands  there.  I  am  with  great  truth, 

Your  Friend  &  Hum.  Serv't, 

I.  Allen. 

[P.  S.]  Our  friend  Hazen  knows  where  these  men  live:  you  had 
better  write  to  him,  if  you  succeed,  who  will  inform  them.  I  have  no 
better  Paper, 

Edward  Winslow  to  Major  Murray. 

Halifax  8th  August,  1783. 

Sir, — It  having  been  represented  to  Brigadier  General  Fox  that  the 
King's  American  Dragoons  under  your  command  cannot  be  enhutted  at 
the  place  where  they  are  at  present  encamped*  without  inconvenience  to 
the  great  number  of  Loyalists  who  are  forming  settlements  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Eiver  St.  John's,  and  he  being  also  informed  that  His  Excellency 
the  Governor  of  this  Province  has  assigned  a  certain  tract  of  land  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  Provincial  Regiments  on  the  River  St.  John's  begin- 
ning at  the  easternt  boundaries  of  the  Townships  of  Sunbury  and  New- 
town  and  extending  up  the  river,  I  am  directed  to  acquaint  you  that  you 
have  Brigadier  General  Fox's  permission  to  remove  the  King's  American 
Dragoons  to  that  part  of  the  District  which  has  been  allotted  to  the  regi- 
ment by  the  agents  for  locating  lands  for  His  Majesty's  Provincial  Forces. 
And  as  the  procuring  the  Timber  and  many  other  articles  necessary  for 
erecting  the  Huts  will  at  the  same  time  facilitate  the  clearing  the  Land 
and  in  other  respects  be  beneficial  to  property  which  is  assigned  to  the 
Regiment,  it  is  the  General's  idea  that  the  Huts  may  be  built  without  any 
public  expence.  Lieutenant  Colonel  Morse,  Chief  Engineer,  will  (in  con- 
sideration that  your  regiment  may  be  exposed  to  peculiar  inconveniences 

*The  place  of  encampment  seems  to  have  been  in  Carleton,  on  the  west  side 
of  St.  John  harbor.  The  regiment  was  sent  up  the  river  to  Prince  William  and 
there  disbanded,  a  step  which  was  approved  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

fThere  is  evidently  a  mistake  here.  For  "Eastern"  read  "Western."  The 
township  of  Newtown  was  opposite  Fredericton;  the  township  of  Sunbury  in- 
cluded the  site  of  Fredericton  and  nearly  all  the  parish  of  Kingsclear. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  119 

from  being  the  first  who  are  ordered  to  hut  on  the  River  St.  John's) 
forward  to  you  such  articles  as  he  apprehends  cannot  he  procured  at  that 
place. 

I  have  the  honor  to  he  &c,  &c. 

Edward  Winslow,  Secretary. 

Brigadier  General  Fox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

[August,  1783.] 

D'r  Sir,, — I  am  to  go  tomorrow  morning  with  Col.  Morse  to  the  Gov- 
ernour  hefore  Ten  O'Clock  about  the  business  I  mentioned  to  you  as  I  was 
dressing.  I  wish  to  talk  to  you  on  the  Subject  before  I  go  as  the  more  I 
think  of  it  the  more  I  think  sending  Troops  might  produce  the  most 
ruinous  consequence;  at  the  same  time  not  only  my  instructions  but  my 
real  desire  would  be  to  attend  to  every  wish  and  opinion  of  the  Governour's, 
and  even  yield  obedience  to  his  orders  as  Governour  where  I  did  not  com- 
mit myself  or  prejudice  the  service, 

Yours  most  sincerely 

H.  E.  Fox. 
Thursday  night. 

[P.  S.]     Be  so  good  as  to  bring  Capt.  Studholme's  Letters  with  you. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  9th  August,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip, — I  now  commence  my  operations  in  the  writing  way 
which  will  be  continued  every  hour  when  I  have  leisure  until  an  oppor- 
tunity offers  for  [New]  York.  The  first  subject  which  engages  my  atten- 
tion is  of  course  my  own  money  matters.  You  will  find  by  the  acc't. 
inclosed  that  I  have  expended  a  large  sum  in  the  business  of  Agent  for 
the  Provincial  Regiments — this  sum  Barclay  assured  me  he  would  apply 
to  the  Commander  in  Chief  to  reimburse.  Should  be  fail  (which  I  cannot 
suppose)  I  have  no  doubt  the  regiments  who  empowered  me  specially  will 
answer  for  my  proportion,  as  I  have  certainly  succeeded  (I  flatter  myself) 
beyond  what  they  could  expect.  But  should  the  public  wish  to  cheat  me, 
and  those  regiments  want  gratitude  (both  which  may  happen)  Barclay  is 
under  engagements  to  pay  one  half  of  the  sums  due  to  the  Express,  to 
Eason,  and  for  the  vessel,  the  whole  of  which  is  £19,10 — his  half  £9,15 
Halifax  currency. 

*  15th  August — I  intended,  my  dear  Chip,  to  have  bored 

you  with  a  very  lengthy  epistle — many  are  the  disappointments  of  the 
righteous,  &c.  A  vessel  is  ordered  to  depart  tomorrow  morning  and  my 
official  business  obliges  me  to  neglect  everything  else.  If  you  want  to 


120 


WINSLOW  PAPERS. 


("1783 


name  a  pattern  of  industry  and  temperance  you  cannot  hit  the  mark  so 
perfectly  as  E.  W.  I  only  wish  that  some  man  of  observation  was  to 
remove  from  this  to  [New]  York  to  do  justice  to  my  exertions*  but  more 
of  this  in  future. 

Never  was  a  set  of  men  so  completely  in  the  dark  as  those  of  this 
Garrison — it  is  yet  so  doubtful  whether  you  are  to  leave  [New]  York  this 
winter  or  not,  that  one  cannot  determine  what  to  do  or  how  to  advise  one's 
friends.  I  have  very  few.  I  am  not  so  seriously  concerned  about  any 
man  on  the  face  of  the  earth  as  about  yourself.  Accustomed  as  I  am  to 
dashing,  bustling,  staring  poverty  in  the  face,  'dodging  it  and  laughing  at 
it,  I  don't  care  a  condemn  about  myself — but  you  who  have  taken  so  much 
pains  to  acquire  professional  knowledge  descend  with  great  reluctance  one 
single  step  from  the  finale,  and  you  cannot  reconcile  yourself  to  anything 
on  a  small  scale.  If  necessity  should  bring  you  to  this  province  I  do  really 

*Among  the  matters  that  obliged  Winslow  to  exert  himself  was  that  of  provid- 
ing places  of  settlement  for  his  old  military  comrades.  The  folio  wing  are  samples  of 
the  powers  of  attorney  entrusted  to  him  as  agent  for  the  provincial  regiments. 

"  I,  the  subscriber,  hereby  authorize  and   empower  Edward  "Winslow,   Esq., 
"  muster  master  general  of  provincial  forces,  to  obtain  grants  and  locate  land 
"  in  Nova  Scotia  for  the  Queen's  Rangers  agreeable  to  the  annexed  return. 
"  (Signed)  R.  ARMSTRONG,  Major  Q.  R. 

"  New  York,  April  ye  15th,  1783. 

"  Return  of  officers,  non-commissioned  officers,  privates,  women  and  chil- 
"  dren  for  lands  in  Nova  Scotia.  His  Majesty's  corps  of  Queen's  Rangers: — 


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"  I,  the  subscriber,  hereby  authorize  and  empower  Edward  Winslow,  Esq., 
"  muster  master  general  of  provincial  forces,  to  obtain  grants  and  locate  lands 
"  in  Nova  Scotia  for  the  second  battalion  of  DeLancey's  brigade,  agreable  to 
"  the  annexed  return. 

"  (Signed)  G.   G.   LUDLOW,   Col. 

"  New  York,  April  12,  1783." 

"  A  return  of  officers,  men,  women  and  children  of  the  second  battalion  of 
"  DeLancey's  brigade  that  have  agreed  to  settle  in  Nova  Scotia:— 


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358 

1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  121 

think  that  a  man  of  spirit  and  abilities  might  get  as  comfortable  a  living 
as  the  climate  and  the  society  will  admit,  and — strange  as  it  may  appear — 
I  aver  that  in  my  present  situation  it  is  as  much  in  my  power  to  assist  my 
friends  as  any  one  man  in  the  province  of  Nova  Scotia.  You  never  did 
me  so  important  a  service  as  by  forwarding  my  present  appointment.  I 
have  not  time  nor  words  to  express  the  satisfaction  I  have  and  expect  to 
enjoy  in  my  present  connection. 

Fm  summoned.  I  did  not  intend  that  my  duty  to  my  General  or 
any  other  duty  should  prevent  me  from  performing  my  first  of  duties,  to  my 
Father,  but  I  can't  add  another  word,  only  that  I  shall  set  out  with  General 
Fox  for  Annapolis  and  the  River  St.  John's  next  week,  and  that  I  am 
invariably 

&  extremely  Yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

Dr.  Adino  Paddock  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Camp  Manawauganish,*  12  August,  1783. 

D'r  Sir, — I  have  this  moment  heard  of  Mr.  Hazen's  intended  depart- 
ure for  Halifax.  The  Major  [Murray]  has  just  got  down  the  river.  He 
is  in  raptures  with  it.  We  shall  all  move  up  in  about  a  fortnight — the 
sooner  the  better  I  think,  as  Hutting  in  this  country  is  a  serious  piece  of 
business.  There  is  a  report  that  troops  are  coming  here.  If  there  are 
detachments  from  different  corps  that  will  justify  an  appointment  [of 
Surgeon]  to  the  post,  I  know  that  your  attention  is  such  that  I  may 
expect  not  to  be  overlooked,  tho'  of  so  diminutive  a  size. 

Poor  Naset  is  distracted  about  Major  Coffin.  We  have  a  report  by 
Campbell  that  he  is  killed  ;t  for  God's  sake  let  us  know  if  it  is  true.  I 
hope  not.  His  house  is  raised.  Nase  is  very  industrious.  I  hope  Gen'l 
Fox  has  arrived  and  that  you  meet  with  every  wish  &  pleasure  your  heart 
can  desire.  There  is  a  fleet  expected  everymoment  from  [New]  York. 
Capt.  Stewart ||  of  our  corps  is  said  to  be  in  it.  You  cannot  expect  any 
News  from  this  remote  Corner — from  you  we  expect  everything.  When 
shall  we  hear  from  the  Colonel  ?§  God  grant  him  his  senses.  If  FultonU  is 

*The  encampment  of  the  King's  American  Dragoons.  It  was  probably  on 
the  heights  back  of  Carleton,  on  the  west  side  of  the  harbor  of  St.  John.  The 
vicinity  is  yet  known  as  "Mahogany,"  a  corruption  of  Manawagonish. 

fEnsign  Henry  Nase  of  the  King's  American  Regiment.  He  joined  the 
corps  at  Kingsbridge  in  1776,  and  served  through  the  war.  In  1783  he  settled 
at  Westfield,  Kings  Co.,  N.  B.,  and  was  an  active  and  useful  citizen.  He  was 
a  magistrate,  a  lieutenant  colonel  of  militia,  deputy  surrogate  and  an  active 
churchman.  He  died  in  1836  at  the  age  of  84  years. 

JThis  report  proved  to  be  untrue. 

JlCaptain  William  Stewart  of  the  King's  American  Dragoons. 

§  Colonel  Benjamin  Thompson. 

IfCaptain  James  Fulton,  a  native  of  New  Hampshire,  one  of  the  organizers 
of  the  King's  American  Dragoons  under  Lieut.  Col.  Thompson.  He  went  to 
Halifax  in  1783.  Died  in  Nova  Scotia  in  1826. 


122  WINSLOW  PAPEBS.  [1783 

there  let  him  know  he  has  the  prayers  of  every  one  for  a  safe  and  speedy 
return. 

The  Gentlemen  are  all  well  and  desire  their  compliments.  If  yon 
should  honor  me  with  a  line  address  it  to  the  Care  of  Wm.  Tyng*  Esq'r. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  Sir, 
Your  very  much  obliged  friend  and  Hum.  serv. 

A.  Paddock. 

Brig.  General  Fox  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

Halifax  15th  August,  1783. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honor  to  inform  your  Excellency  that  on  the  6th 
Instant,  Major  General  Paterson  embarked  for  Great  Britain  in  His  Maj- 
esty's Ship  Magicienne,  under  whose  convoy  were  a  number  of  ships 
carrying  the  whole  of  the  German  Troops  from  this  province.  Brigadier 
General  Campbell  embarked  on  the  same  day  for  New  York  and  I  took 
upon  me  the  Command  of  His  Majesty's  Troops  in  this  District. 

I  immediately  communicated  to  Governor  Parr  your  Excellency's 
Instruction  relative  to  sending  troops  to  Port  Eoseway,  and  it  was  the 
Governor's  opinion  "that  from  the  present  good  disposition  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants, it  was  not  expedient  to  send  troops  there  at  this  time."  I  also  made 
application  to  the  Governor  for  a  reservation  of  such  Lands  in  the  new 
settlements  now  forming  in  this  Province  as  may  be  necessary  for  public- 
purposes,  and  I  was  favored  with  His  Excellency's  assurances  "that  such 
Eeservations  should  be  made  in  all  instances." 

A  list  of  the  several  Departments  in  Nova  Scotia  is  herewith  inclosed. 
I  have  endeavoured  to  reduce  them  as  low  as  the  nature  of  the  service  will 
admit.  The  department  of  Commissary  of  Prisoners  is  discontinued  agre- 
able  to  your  Excellency's  order,  and  as  your  Excellency  has  given  leave 
for  Mr.  Winslow,  Muster  Master  General  of  Provincials  to  reside  at  Hali- 
fax, I  thought  it  unnecessary  to  continue  Major  Skinner  and  his  Deputy 
here. 

I  have  ordered  the  allowance  of  Eum  to  Working  Parties  to  be  reduced 
to  a  gill  per  man  (it  having  been  formerly  the  practice  here  to  allow  half 
a  pint)  and  I  have  directed  that  the  Commissioned  Officers  shall  receive 

*Colonel  William  Tyng  was  at  one  time  sheriff  of  Cumberland  County,  in 
Maine.  He  was  born  in  Boston  in  1737.  He  was  commissioned  a  colonel  by 
General  Gage  in  1774.  He  was  a  commissary  at  New  York  during  the  war,  and 
was  sent  to  St.  John  at  the  peace  in  1783  to  act  as  commissary  and  agent  for 
the  Loyalists,  an  office  he  filled  to  their  satisfaction.  He  was  one  of  the  direc- 
tors in  allotting  grants  at  Parr  Town  to  the  Loyalists.  The  street  now  called 
Princess  street  was  at  first  known  as  Tyng  street.  Colonel  Tyng  retired  to 
Gagetown  about  1785  and  was  sheriff  of  Queens  County.  Later  he  returned  to 
the  United  States  and  died  near  Portland,  Maine,  in  1807,  aged  70  years.  Lor- 
enzo Sabine  in  his  Loyalists  of  the  American  Revolution  eulogizes  Col.  Tyng. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  123 

Spruce-Beer  in  lieu  of  Eum  (which  hitherto  has  not  been  the  custom  in 
this  Garrison).  I  have  also  found  it  necessary  to  make  some  regulations 
in  the  Issues  of  Fuel,  which  I  have  communicated  to  Mr.  Watson. 

On  a  representation  made  to  me  that  the  King's  American  Dragoons 
could  not  be  hutted  where  they  are  at  present  encamped  without  material 
inconvenience  to  the  great  number  of  Loyalists  who  are  forming  settle- 
ments at  the  mouth  of  the  Eiver  Saint- John's;  and  having  been  also 
informed  that  the  Governor  has  assigned  a  Tract  of  Land  for  the  accom- 
modation of  the  Provincial  Begiments,  I  thought  it  advisable,  after  con- 
sulting the  Governor,  to  send  the  Regiment  to  that  Ground,  which  is  about 
one  hundred  miles  up  the  Eiver  St.  John's,  and  I  gave  notice  to  major 
Murray,  "That  as  the  procuring  the  Timber  and  many  other  articles 
necessary  for  erecting  the  Hutts  will  at  the  same  time  facilitate  the  clearing 
the  Land  and  be  other  ways  beneficial  to  the  property  which  is  assigned  to 
the  Eegiment,  it  was  my  idea  that  the  Hutts  should  be  built  without  any 
public  expence." 

I  inclose  to  the  Adjutant  General  the  returns  to  the  1st  August,  I  also 
take  the  liberty  of  forwarding  a  memorial  from  the  Honorable  Forster 
Hutchinson,  Esq'r,  one  of  His  Majesty's  Council  for  the  Province  of  Massa- 
chusetts Bay  and  Brother  of  the  late  Governor.  This  is  a  Gentleman  of 
such  great  consideration  and  respectable  character  that  I  could  not  decline 
making  his  circumstances  known  to  your  Excellency  through  this  channel. 

I  must  also  submit  to  your  Excellency's  consideration  the  copy  of  a 
letter  which  I  have  this  day  received  from  His  Excellency  Governor  Parr. 
As  the  subject  appeared  to  me  of  very  great  importance  I  endeavoured  to 
obtain  every  information  in  my  power,  and  on  the  whole  I  thought  it  my 
duty  to  observe  to  the  Governor  that  the  measure  proposed  of  sending  a 
Detachment  of  Troops  to  the  place  pointed  out  in  his  Letter  could  not 
have  a  tendency  to  settle  the  controversy  relative  to  the  Boundaries  and 
might  in  the  present  situation  of  matters  be  attended  with  very  disagree- 
able consequences.  His  Excellency  the  Governor  has  agreed  to  defer  the 
matter  until  I  am  favoured  with  particular  instructions  on  the  subject. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Your  Excellency's  most 
obedient  and  humble  Servant, 

H.  E.  Fox,  Br.  Gen. 

Governor  Parr  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

Halifax,  15  Aug.,  1783. 

Sir, — I  should  have  done  myself  the  honour  of  writing  to  your  Excel- 
lency by  Major  Barclay,  but  was  prevented  by  a  severe  cold  in  my  head. 
It  was  to  inform  you  how  happy  it  made  me  to  find  that  the  Provincial 


124  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

corps  could  be  accommodated  upon  the  River  St.  John  near  the  source  of 
that  River  leaving  the  lower  part  to  the  Refugees  now  settled  there. 

*  *  Notwithstanding  the  Provincial  corps  are  settled  +o  their 
satisfaction  upon  St.  Johns  River,  I  cannot  avoid  expressing  my  concern 
that  some  of  these  corps  were  not  set  down  upon  the  eastern  side  of  the 
River  St.  Croix,  or  somewhere  upon  the  Bay  of  Passamaquoddy,  the  Fron- 
tier of  this  Province,  to  resemble  the  cantonments  of  an  army,  agreeable 
to  your  Excellency's  letter  dated  the  26th  April.  The  inclosed  is  a  pro- 
posed Route  to  Quebec.  I  have  not  a  doubt  but  that  it  will  in  a  short 
time  be  compleated  with  Post  Houses  &c. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be  with  great  respect, 

Your  Excellency's  most  obedient 

and  most  humble  servant, 

J.  Parr. 

Major  Upham  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  Aug't,  21,  1783. 

Dear  Winslow, — Your  situation  with  General  Fox  has  undoubtedly 
given  you  an  opportunity  to  know  that  the  K.  A.  Dragoons  are  established 
and  will  receive  Half  Pay  when  disbanded.  I  suppose  the  present  will  be 
the  last  abstract,  I  mean  from  the  25th  August — in  that  case  I  wish  every 
contingent  allowance  may  be  included.  You  will  I  am  sure  take  care  of 
us.  I  hope  you  will  make  interest  to  be  continued  in  your  present  employ- 
ment when  General  Campbell  shall  take  command.  I  must  beg  the  favour 
of  you  to  forward  the  inclosed  to  Major  Murray.  I  wish  him  to  send  me 
an  old  Rhode  Island  admiralty  commission. 

We  shall  all  soon  be  with  you — every  body,  all  the  World  moves  on 
to  Nova  Scotia — Blowers  &c  will  soon  be  there.  God  bless  you — if  pos- 
sible. 

I  am  most  sincerely,  Your  friend  &c., 

J.  Upham. 
If  Murray  sends  you  the  commission  pray  keep  it  till  I  see  you. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton  to  Brig.  Gen.  H.  E.  Fox. 

New  York,  22d  August,  1783. 

Sir, — I  have  received  yours  of  the  6th  instant.  *  *  The 
2d  Battalion  of  the  84th  Regiment  and  the  British  American  corps  in 
Nova  Scotia  and  the  Island  of  St.  Johns  are  to  be  disbanded  as  soon  as 
possible,  for  which  you  will  please  take  the  necessary  steps.  *  * 
The  abstracts  for  the  British  American  Forces  are  to  be  made  up  to  the 


1783]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  125 

day  of  their  being  disbanded,  and  fourteen  days  pay  from  that  day  without 
deduction  is  to  be  given  to  each  of  the  non  commissioned  officers,  drum- 
mers and  private  men. 

I  have  ordered  that  a  spade  and  an  axe  should  be  given  to  each  Soldier 
here,  whose  future  mode  of  life  may  require  them,  on  his  being  disbanded, 
and  you  will  please  to  order  the  same  to  be  issued  to  each  Soldier  dis- 
charged in  Nova  Scotia  in  like  manner.  *  *  * 

The  several  corps  should  be  discharged  as  contiguous  as  possible  to 
the  Lands  on  which  they  are  to  settle,  for  which  purpose  you  will  com- 
municate with  the  Governor  and  press  him  not  only  to  determine  the 
spots  for  each  corps  but  that  he  will  also  expedite,  as  much  as  possible,  the 
location  of  lands  for  the  Refugees  on  the  River  St.  Johns,  which  I  am 
concerned  to  hear  has  been  much  delayed.  As  it  is  probable  some  of  the 
Refugees  going  from  hence,  notwithstanding  the  exertions  we  have  made, 
will  not  arrive  till  late  in  the  year,  you  will  be  pleased  to  have  the  Barracks 
and  Public  Stores  at  Annapolis  put  into  repair  for  their  reception,  or  for 
the  use  of  such  troops  as  it  may  be  necessary  to  send  there.  The  British 
American  Troops  from  this  place  will  be  sent  to  the  River  St  Johns  as 
soon  as  possible.  *  I  enclose  an  extract  of  a  letter  from 

the  Secretary  of  State,  which  you  will  please  to  communicate  to  the  officers 
of  the  British  American  Corps,  that  they  may  be  informed  on  what  ground 
they  stand  as  to  their  hopes  of  half  pay.     I  have  no  other  information  on 
this  subject.         *         *         * 
I  am  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  and 

most  humble  Servant, 

Guy  Carleton. 

Adju't.  Gen.  Oliver  Delancey  to  Gen.  Fox. 

Adjutant  General's  Office, 

New  York,  23  Aug.  1783. 

Sir, — I  am  directed  by  the  Commander  in  Chief  to  inform  you  that 
the  King's  American  Dragoons,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Thompson;  the  Fencible  American  Regiment,  commanded  by  Colonel 
Goreham;  Kings  Orange  Rangers,  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Bayard;  the  Kings  Rangers>  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  Rogers, 
and  the  St.  John's  Volunteers,*  commanded  by  Capt.  Callbeck,  are  to  be 


*The  St.  John's  Volunteers  were  raised  on  the  Island  of  St.  John's  (now 
Prince  Edward  Island)  by  Captain  Philips  Callbeck  about  February,  1777.  Capt. 
Callbeck  was  at  one  time  administrator  of  government  on  the  island.  He  was 
carried  away  as  a  prisoner  by  some  American  marauders  in  the  year  1775.  See 
Canadian  Archives  for  1895  at  page  15. 


126  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

disbanded  as  soon  as  possible  at  Halifax,  or  such  other  place  in  your  pro- 
vince as  you  and  the  Governor  shall  think  most  advisable,  except  the 
Kings  Eangers*  and  St.  John's  Volunteers,  who  probably  you  may  think 
it  will  be  best  to  dismiss  at  that  Island,  where  they  are  now  stationed. 

The  17th,  33rd,  37th,  42d,  54th,  &  57th  Eegiments  are  to  remain  in 
Nova  Scotia  under  the  orders  of  Major  General  Campbell. 

The  corps  in  Newfoundland  commanded  by  Lieut.  Colonel  Pringle 
is  to  be  disbanded  as  soon  as  two  companies  of  the  37th  Eegiment  which 
are  to  be  stationed  there,  arrive  at  that  place. 

Enclosed  I  send  you  a  copy  of  the  General  orders  given  out  this  day 
confirming  the  sentence  of  the  General  Court  Martial  held  on  Lieutenant 
Wheaton  of  the  Nova  Scotia  Volunteers;  and  likewise  a  sketch  of  the 
Embarkations  which  are  to  take  place  for  your  Province  as  soon  as  possible. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Sir, 

With  great  respect,  Your  most  obed't, 
Humble  servant, 

01.  DeLancey,  Adjt.  Gen'l. 
The  Honb'le 

Brigadier  Gen'l  Fox,  &c,  &c. 


Memorial  on  behalf  of  Eoyal  Guides  and  Pioneers. 

To  His  Excellency  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  Knight  of  the  Bath,  Commander 
in  Chief,  &c,  &c,  &c, 

The  memorial  of  Major  John  Aldington  in  behalf  of  himself  and  the 
Eegiment  of  Guides  and  Pioneers  under  his  command,  Sheweth: — That 
this  Eegiment  or  Detachments  from  it  have  been  constantly  on  service 
from  the  year  1776  to  the  capitulation  of  York  Town  viz:  at  Danbury,  in 
the  Jerseys,  from  the  head  of  Elk  to  Philadelphia,  at  the  reduction  of 
Forts  Clinton  and  Montgomery,  at  Ehode  Island  and  Martha's  Vineyard, 
at  the  reduction  of  Charlestown  and  through  the  southern  provinces,  at 
Cape  Far  with  General  Leslie  and  in  Virginia  with  General  Arnold. 

That  all  the  officers  in  the  Eegiment,  with  only  one  exception  have 
been  more  than  six  years  in  the  service,  are  mostly  Eefugees  whose  proper- 
ties have  been  confiscated  and  who  from  their  Loyalty  have  rendered 
themselves  too  obnoxious  ever  to  return. 

That  not  having  been  included  in  the  memorial  presented  to  your 

*The  King's  Rangers  were  raised  under  Colonel  Robert  Rogers,  who  had 
previously  commanded  the  Queen's  Rangers.  He  was  a  brave  soldier,  and  had 
gained  quite  a  reputation  by  his  services  during  the  French  war.  He  under- 
took the  organization  of  the  King's  Rangers  in  May,  1779,  but  owing  to  intem- 
perate habits  his  success  was  not  very  great.  The  King's  Rangers  were  sent 
to  Halifax  in  1779,  and  afterwards  to  Prince  Edward  Island. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  127 

Excellency  in  favor  of  the  other  Provincial  Regiments,  and  understanding 
that  Lands  in  Nova  Scotia  have  been  promised  to  such  as  were  desirous 
of  settling  in  that  country,  your  memorialists  therefore  hope  they  will  be 
considered  as  entitled  to  all  the  advantages  which  may  be  given  to  the 
other  Provincial  Regiments,  and  especially  as  to  Lands  in  Nova  Scotia 
where  they  are  very  desirous  of  settling  and  of  confirming  their  attachment 
to  their  sovereign  by  becoming  faithful  and  useful  subjects. 

John  Aldington, 
Major  Commanding  Guides  &  Pioneers. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  27th  August,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip, — When  you  cast  your  eye  on  the  date  of  this  letter 
you  will  conclude  that  I  have  not  much  leisure  to  amuse  myself  or  friends. 

I  really  do  think  that  the  River  St.  John's  is  the  pleasantest  part  of 
this  country  and  I  am  sure  the  land  is  better  than  any  I  have  ever  seen. 
I  therefore  intend  to  take  my  estate  upon  that  river,  and  as  I  love  you  just 
exactly  as  I  do  myself,  I  intend  that  you  shall  fare  precisely  as  I  do.  When 
I  left  it  there  had  been  no  survey  for  the  Provincials.  Since  I  have  arrived 
here  I  have  obtained  an  order  for  Murray  and  his  regiment  to  take  posses- 
sion of  a  particular  spot,  in  the  neighborhood  of  which  I  am  determined 
to  lay  out  farms  for  half  a  dozen  of  my  friends,  and  when  they  are  surveyed 
and  bounded  I  will  apply  for  the  Grants,  and — what's  more — I  will  obtain 
'em.  I  am  induced  to  do  this  for  a  thousand  reasons,  one  of  the  most 
powerful  is  that  the  regiment  will  assist  so  essentially  in  clearing,  &c.  I 
enclose  you  a  letter  which  I  received  from  Murray,  who  when  I  left  the 
river  was  prejudiced  against  the  country.  You  shall  have  a  fine  prospect, 
rocks,  hills,  &c,  and  there  is  no  fear  of  your  having  water  near  your  house. 

If  you  chuse  to  build  on  the  Intervale  your  lower  story  will  be  full 
all  the  sprine:  season,  which  is  very  handy.  On  this  tour  I  will  settle  the 
business. 

I  have  wrote  particularly  to  Penny  respecting  my  father  and  his 
family.  I  cannot  reconcile  myself  to  their  coming  here.  I  can  give  you 
no  idea  of  the  expences.  If  Government  will  make  him  any  allowance 
why  not  spend  it  comfortably  in  England.  If  I  must  support  'em  why  not 
let  me  do  it  in  a  country  allowed  to  be  more  comfortable  and  infinitely 
cheaper  than  this.  I  cannot  do  it  here,  because,  altho'  I  live  with  General 
Fox  (that  is  dine),  pay  no  house  rent,  nothing  for  fuel,  drink  no  wine  (of 
my  own),  hire  no  servants — nor  anything  else,  I  cannot  if  I  were  to  suffer 
perdition  live  on  all  the  pay  I  can  get.  I  shall  submit  to  better  advice, 
but  if  there's  a  chance  of  his  getting  a  recompence,  his  being  in  England 
is  the  most  effectual  way  to  it — but  enough. 


128  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

I  am  vastly  gratify'd  my  dear  Chip  at  my  situation  (embarrassed  as 
my  circumstances  are),  I  am  precisely  on  the  terms  with  the  General  that 
I  could  wish.  In  the  morning  the  formal  man  of  business,  and  be  assured 
that  a  more  penetrating  sensible  man  is  not  to  be  found;  in  the  evening 
on  terms  of  familiarity  and,  I  natter  myself,  friendship.  In  short  I  have 
received  such  marks  of  attention  and  such  handsome  compliments  that 
my  vanity  is  not  a  little  increased.  If  there  was  not  now,  nor  never  had 

been  any  money  in  the  world,  I  should  do  tolerably  well,  but  the  d d 

stuff  always  plagues  me.  I  do  not  know  how  I  get  rid  of  it.  I  give  none 
away  and  I  spend  none,  but  I  am  always  poorer  than  Lazarus.  I  hope  you 
will  succeed  in  obtaining  a  reimbursement  of  the  money  which  I  have 
expended  on  the  business  of  Agent,  if  not  I  shall  be  very  much  distressed. 
I  have  as  yet  received  nothing  as  Secretary  and  until  it  is  mentioned  to 
me,  I  shall  not  open  my  lips.  Difficulties  arose  here  about  a  paymaster  of 
contingencies,  particularly  in  the  Engineers  Department.  Col.  Morse,  who 
has  been  very  polite  to  me,  proposed  to  the  General  to  appoint  me.  I  was 
consulted  and  I  thought  he  had  better  omit  until  the  Commander  in 
Chiefs  pleasure  was  known.  Morse,  however,  urged  it  and  the  General 
consented.  It  was  proposed  to  me  and  I  accepted  it  on  one  condition, 
which  was  that  I  should  be  permitted  to  do  the  duty  (till  the  Commander 
in  Chief  had  approved  my  appointment  or  appointed  another)  without 
receiving  any  pay  for  it.  I  knew  this  proposal  would  gratify  my  friend — 
it  had  the  desired  effect.  I  now  act  as  sole  Muster  Master  of  Provincials, 
Secretary  to  the  General,  and  Paymaster  to  the  Engineers  and  with  one 
Clerk  at  5s  a  day  I  do  all  this  business  I  believe  to  general  acceptance.  If 
you  come  here  you  will  find  me  in  point  of  reputation  what  as  my  friend 
you'd  wish  me  to  be.  Thus  circumstanced  we  might  by  laying  our  heads 
together  effect  some  substantial  matters  for  both.  I  shall  be  monstrously 
pleased  when  it  conies  my  turn  again  to  be  of  some  use  in  the  joint 
concern. 

I  have  this  instant  heard  that  a  number  of  respectable  Vassals,  Sw- 
ings, &c,  have  arrived  at  Boston  and  were  not  permitted  to  land.  I  suppose 
they  will  of  course  return  to  England.  I  cannot  help  hoping  that  my 
father  will  think  that  the  most  eligible  method  for  himself  and  family. 
This  country  Chip  will  do  well  enough  for  you  and  I  to  bustle  in  but  it  is 
the  devil  for  a  helpless  man.  I  think  you  can  convince  him  of  it.  Let 
me  know  what  your  determination  is  with  respect  to  yourself  and  tell  me 
minutely  what  you  wish  me  to  do.  My  house  here  will  hold  two  people 
so  that  matter's  settled  for  the  Apostle  Paul  shall  not  supercede  you  there. 

I  never  know  when  to  stop.  Remember  me  affectionately  to  all  hands. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  129 

I  have  not  received  one  line  from  Col.  Ludlow  since  I  was  in  this  province. 
I  hope  my  friend  Jack  Coffin  is  recovered.     I  have  great  anxiety  about 

him. 

Most  affectionately  yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 


LJ.  Gen.  Thos.  Musgrave  to  Edward  Winslow. 

N.  York,  30th  Aug.,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — I  am  infinitely  obliged  to  you  for  your  very  satisfactory 
letter  of  the  29th  June  which  was  only  delivered  to  me  last  week.  From 
the  encouragement  you  there  give  me  I  fear  that  I  must  be  further  trouble- 
some to  you  for  your  assistance  in  getting  my  lands  located  as  soon  as  you 
have  finished  your  own  business  and  that  the  Governor  is  disposed  to  grant 
them.  There  is  a  circumstance  which  I  did  not  mention  to  you  before, 
that  may  perhaps  be  of  some  advantage  to  me  in  this  matter.  My  ances- 
tors were  among  the  original  Baronets  of  Nova  Scotia*  and  had  very  large 
tracts  of  land  annexed  to  their  Patent  and  altho7  they  may  have  forfeited 
their  pretensions  to  them  by  not  fulfilling  their  agreements,  yet  I  should 
hope  they  might  be  restored  to  me  or  at  least  other  lands  of  equal  good- 
ness. Should  you  be  of  the  same  opinion  and  think  that  this  will  be  some 
sort  of  claim  you  of  course  will  make  it,  otherwise  let  it  drop. 

Give  me  leave  to  congratulate  you  on  your  new  appointment  and  to 
assure  you  that  few  can  feel  more  pleasure  than  myself  at  any  good  fortune 
which  may  attend  you  or  your  family.  There  was  no  persuading  the  good 
Old  Gentleman  to  think  of  undertaking  so  long  a  voyage  as  that  to  Eng- 
land, and  the  remaining  here  was  by  no  means  thought  advisable,  so  that 
his  only  alternative  was  to  go  to  Nova  Scotia  where  I  hope  he  will  arrive 
safe  and  meet  with  every  comfort  his  merit  and  situation  entitle  him  to. 
From  your  present  employment  you  must  be  more  thoroughlv  acquainted 
with  all  arrangements  than  we  insignificant  beings  here,  so  that  I  suppose 
it  needless  to  give  you  the  reports  we  hear.  Gen'l  Bircht  takes  his  depart- 
ure on  Sunday  next  and  I  have  entered  on  his  troublesome  office  but  flatter 
myself  that  it  will  not  be  for  long  duration,  as  every  dispatch  is  making 
for  the  evacuation  that  circumstances  will  admit. 


*Sir  William  Alexander  in  1621  received  a  grant  of  Acadia  from  King  James 
I.  He  obtained  from  Charles  I.  permission  to  create  a  number  of  baronets  in 
Nova  Scotia,  and  107  of  these  baronets  were  actually  created  during  the  next 
ten  years.  The  estates  of  34  were  situated  in  what  is  now  New  Brunswick,  15 
were  in  Nova  Scotia,  24  in  Cape  Breton  and  34  in  Anticosti.  Baronets  continued 
to  be  created  up  to  the  time  of  the  union  of  England  and  Scotland.  There  were 
more  than  280  in  all. 

fGeneral  Birch  was  commandant  of  the  city  of  New  York  during  the  greater 
part  of  the  Revolutionary  war.  He  was  colonel  in  the  17th  Light  Dragoons. 


130  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  -.  [  [17*3 

I  shall  beg  to  be  remembered  most  kindly  to  your  Chieftain  and  all 
enquiring  friends,  and  am  with  great  truth  D'r  Sir, 

Most  sincerely  yours, 

Thos.  Musgrave.* 

Col.  Benjamin  Thompson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Pall  Mall  Court  10th  Sept.  1783. 

Dear  Winslow, — As  you  possibly  have  left  American  before  this  letter 
can  reach  Nova  Scotia  I  shall  leave  a  duplicate  of  it  for  you  in  London. 

I  am  just  upon  the  eve  of  setting  out  upon  my  travels,  and  it  is  not 
a  small  mortification  to  me  that  I  shall  be  absent  when  you  will  arrive 
here.  I  shall  leave  London  on  Sunday  next,  shall  cross  from  Dover  to 
Calais,  and  from  thence  shall  pass  through  Flanders  to  Strasburg,  and  by 
Ulm  and  Munich  to  Vienna  where  I  propose  fo  winter.  In  the  Spring  I 
shall  visit  Hungary,  Bohemia,  Saxony  and  the  King  of  Prussia's  Domin- 
ions, &  from  Berlin  shall  probably  shape  my  Course  towards  old  England, 
which  I  mean  to  make  my  home.  How  long  I  shall  be  absent  from  it  I 
cannot  tell.  If  there  should  be  a  war  in  any  part  of  Europe  (which  does 
not  at  present  seem  probable)  I  shall  stay  abroad  longer,  as  I  would  not 
miss  such  an  opportunity  of  improving  myself  in  my  profession;  but  if 
there  should  be  nothing  of  that  sort  to  detain  me  I  shall  return  as  soon 
as  I  have  satisfied  my  curiosity  with  seeing  what  is  curious  in  the  Northern 
parts  of  Europe.  My  first  scheme  was  a  much  wilder,  or  if  you  please,  a 
more  desperate  one,  as  you  will  see  by  my  last  letters,  but  the  goodness 
of  my  friends  in  this  country  has  induced  me  to  change  my  plan. 

Lord  Sackvillet  has  had  the  goodness  to  charge  himself  with  the  care 
of  all  my  affairs  of  every  kind,  both  public  and  private,  in  my  absence;  and 
he  permits  me  to  tell  my  friends  that  they  may  consider  him  in  that  light. 
I  have  left  with  him  all  my  papers,  and  memorandums  of  all  my  wishes 
relative  to  my  affairs,  with  full  and  legal  powers  to  act  for  me  in  every- 
thing. 

In  my  last  letter  I  took  the  liberty  of  mentioning  to  you  my  wishes 
respecting  my  pecuniary  concerns  in  your  part  of  the  Country.  I  have 
now  only  to  beg  you  would  be  so  good  as  to  take  charge  of  them,  and  that 
you  would  remit  to  Lord  Sackville  any  monies  you  may  have  of  mine,  or 
that  you  may  receive  for  me  either  as  pay,  or  as  payment  of  the  Debts  due 
to  me  from  the  officers  of  my  Regiment.  You  may  if  you  please  corres- 
pond with  me  as  usual,  only  directing  your  Letters  to  the  care  of  Lord 

*General  Thomas  Musgrave  succeeded  General  Birch  as  commandant  at 
New  York  in  1783.  His  name  appears  among  a  list  of  officers  who  on  Dec.  10, 
1783,  applied  for  lands  at  Prince  William,  on  the  St.  John  river. 

f  Lord  Sackville  is  better  known  as  Lord  George  Germaine.  He  was  Lieut. 
Col.  Benjamin  Thompson's  friend  and  patron. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  131 

Sackville,  Pall  Mall,  London.  His  Lordship  will  open  the  Letters  and 
you  will  get  answers  to  them,  but  it  will  be  as  well  to  write  to  Lord  Sack- 
ville  directly.  If  you  come  to  England  you  will  wait  upon  him  of  course, 
and  if  you  dont  like  him  very  much  indeed  I  shall  be  grealty  disappointed. 
I  have  told  him  that  he  will  like  you  and  that  he  would  do  so  even  were 
you  my  enemy  instead  of  being  one  of  my  best  friends.  It  is  now  a  long 
time  since  we  parted,  and  I  have  not  yet  had  the  pleasure  to  receive  a 
single  line  from  you,  tho'  I  have  wrote  you  whole  Volumes.  Pray  let  me 
hear  from  you  soon,  and  often.  Your  letters  will  reach  me  safe,  wherever 
I  may  be,  provided  you  address  them  to  the  care  of  Lord  Sackville,  and 
I  will  write  to  you  through  the  same  channel. 

Kemember  me  to  all  my  friends  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  believe  me  ever, 
My  Dear  Winslow, 

Yours  most  sincerely 

B.  Thompson. 

Major  Joshua  Upham  to  Col.  Winslow. 

New  York,  Sept,  12,  1783. 

Dear  Winslow, — I  am  allowed  five  minutes  only  to  write  to  you.  I 
beg  you  will  use  your  influence  that  the  District  and  Country  to  be  settled 
by  the  Provincials  be  erected  into  a  County  and  called  by  the  name  of 
Carleton — that  the  principal  Town  on  the  River  St.  John  be  called  Guy.* 
Surely  no  man  has  so  effectually  contributed  to  the  settlement  of  that 
Country  as  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  I  wish  the  Provincial  Officers  may  have 
the  credit  of  proving  the  above.  I  submit  the  matter  with  pleasure  to 
your  management;  have  written  to  Murray  on  the  Subject.  I  am  sure  you 
will  gladly  give  us  your  Influence  to  effect  every  possible  mark  of  gratitude 
and  respect  to  our  best  friend  and  most  effectual  Patron. 
I  have  the  honor  to  be  dear  Sir, 

Your  friend  &  humble  servant, 

J.  Upham. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton  to  Br.  Gen.  Fox. 

New  York,  12th  Sept.  1783. 

Sir, — I  enclose  a  return  of  troops  embarked  for  Nova  Scotia.  The 
British  and  British  American  Regiments  that  go  to  the  River  St.  John's, 
are  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  Hewlett  of  Delancey's  2nd  Batt. 
who  has  directions,  together  with  Capt.  Prevost,  Deputy  Inspector  General 
of  British  American  Forces,  to  disband  them  as  soon  after  their  arrival  as 
it  can  be  done  with  convenience,  but  not  later  than  the  20th  of  October 
*This  idea  fortunately  did  not  prevail. 


132  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

on  which,  day  I  shall  consider  them  all  disbanded.  He  is  directed  to  report 
his  proceedings  to  you  of  which  you  will  give  me  the  earliest  information. 
The  Eegiments  have  received  a  quantity  of  necessaries  and  stores  at  this 
place,  so  that  they  can  have  no  demands  whatever  after  their  arrival. 

I  am  informed  from  good  authority,  that  the  people  from  Machias,* 
mentioned  by  Governor  Parr  to  have  placed  themselves  on  the  Eastern 
side  of  the  Eiver  St.  Croix,  have  withdrawn  from  thence,  but  I  should 
recommend  it  to  the  Governor  to  make  such  arrangements  as  will  effectu- 
ally secure  that  frontier  before  our  Post  at  Penobscot  is  evacuated. 
I  am  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  and  most  humble  servant, 

Guy  Carleton. 

Sir  Guy  Carleton  to  Lieut.  Col.  Hewlett. 

New  York,  Sept.  12,  1783. 

Sir, — You  are  to  take  command  of  the  British  and  British  American 
Troops  mentioned  in  the  margin,  and  which  are  to  proceed  to  the  Eiver 
St.  John's  in  the  Bay  of  Fundy  in  Nova  Scotia.  On  your  arrival  there 
you  will  see  that  the  stores  intended  for  them  are  duly  delivered,  and  you 
will  take  such  steps  as  shall  be  necessary  for  the  several  corps  proceeding 
immediately  to  the  places  alloted  for  their  settlement,  where  they  are  to 
be  disbanded  on  their  arrival,  provided  it  does  not  exceed  the  20th  October, 
on  or  before  which  day  Capt.  Prevost,  Deputy  Inspector  of  British  Ameri- 
can forces,  has  directions  to  disband  them,  for  which  purpose  you  will  give 
him  the  necessary  assistance  wherever  you  may  happen  to  be  at  the  time, 
adhering  strictly  to  the  King's  Instructions  published  in  the  order  of  the 
17th  August  last. 

The  disembarkation  of  the  troops  must  not  be  delayed  as  the  trans- 
ports must  return  with  all  possible  despatch.  Directions  have  been  given 
to  Mr.  Colville,t  assistant  agent  of  all  small  craft  at  the  Eiver  St.  John's, 
to  afford  every  assistance  in  his  power  to  the  corps  in  getting  to  their 
places  of  destination,  and  the  commanding  officers  of  corps  will  make 
application  to  him  for  that  purpose. 

I  am,  &c.,  &c, 

Guy  Carleton. 

*The  leader  of  this  invasion  was  the  rebel  Colonel  John  Allan,  who  fled  from 
Cumberland  in  1775.  He  had  at  one  time  been  a  representative  of  that  township 
in  the  Nova  Scotia  house  of  assembly. 

fJohn  Colville,  here  referred  to,  commanded  a  company  of  Volunteer  Artil- 
lery in  1795.  He  was  a  public  spirited  citizen,  a  man  of  education  and  a  leading 
city  merchant.  He  built  the  old  "Crookshank  House"  on  Chipman's  Hill,  which 
was  pulled  down  a  year  or  two  ago,  at  that  time  the  oldest  building  in  the  city 
of  St.  John  south  of  TJnion  street.  Capt.  Calville  died  in  1818  at  the  age  of  70 
years.  See  Baxter's  History  of  N.  B.  Regt.  of  Artillery,  pp.  8,  9. 


1783J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  133 

[Names  of  corps  placed  in  the  margin  of  the  letter  preceding  are 
as  follows:  The  Queens  Bangers,  Kings  American  Regiment,  Detachment 
of  the  Garrison  Battalion,  New  York  Volunteers,  1st  De  Lancey's,  2d  De 
Lanceys,  Loyal  American  Regiment,  1st  Battalion  New  Jersey  Volunteers, 
2d  ditto,  3d  ditto,  Prince  of  Wales  American  Regiment,  Pennsylvania 
Loyalists,  Maryland  Loyalists,  American  Legion,  Guides  &  Pioneers,  De- 
tachment Kings  American  Dragoons,  Detachment  North  Carolina  Volun- 
teers.] 

Governor  Fanning  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  21st  Sept,  1783. 

My  dear  Sir, — I  have  the  pleasure  to  acquaint  you  that  Gov'r  Went- 
worth  and  myself  arrived  here  yesterday  in  the  Gray  Hound  packet,  from 
Falmouth,  and  thinking  it  may  be  of  consequence  to  you  to  have  the  letters 
which  I  brought  for  you  as  early  as  possible  I  commit  them,  with  several 
other  letters  for  our  Friends,  to  the  care  of  an  Express  which  I  understand 
is  going  to  Gen.  Fox.  As  I  expect  you  will  return  here  with  the  Gen'l  in 
a  few  days  I  say  nothing  of  business  or  politicks.  Governor  Wentworth 
and  myself  should  both  write  to  the  General  if  it  was  not  that  we  are  told 
he  is  to  return  on  the  26th  Instant.  This  we  desire  you  to  be  so  good  as 
to  communicate  to  him  with  a  tender  of  our  compliments  and  best  wishes. 
At  the  same  time  we  beg  your  acceptance  of  our  compliments  and  con- 
gratulations to  yourself  on  your  allowance  of  half-pay  as  Muster  Master 
General  and  your  still  better  fortune  of  being  Secretary  to  Gen'l  Fox. 

I  am  most  sincerely  yours, 

Edm'd  Fanning. 

S.  S.  Blowers*  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  Septem'r  25th,  1783. 

My  dear  Chip, — I  fully  intended  to  have  written  to  you  by  the  Bon- 
etta  but  I  was  in  such  a  fidget  about  my  lodgings  &c.  that  I  could  not  find 
time.  I  wrote  indeed  to  Jeffrey  but  fear  the  letter  was  not  put  on  board. 

*  Sampson  Salter  Blowers  of  Boston  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1763.  He  was 
an  exceedingly  able  lawyer,  the  friend  and  associate  of  Adams  and  Quincy.  He 
studied  law  with  Jonathan  Bliss  in  the  office  of  Lieut.  Gov.  Hutchinson.  After 
a  severe  experience  at  the  hands  of  his  countrymen  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Re- 
volution he  went  to  New  York,  where  he  filled  several  positions  in  connection 
with  the  army.  He  came  to  Halifax  at  the  peace  in  1783  and  was  not  long 
afterwards  appointed  attorney  general  of  Nova  Scotia  in  1785.  In  1809  he  was 
made  chief  justice.  He  died  in  1842  in  his  100th  year,  having  outlived  nearly  all 
his  contemporaries,  and  having,  it  is  said,  never  worn  an  overcoat  in  his  life. 
It  is  believed  that  he  never  again  placed  foot  on  the  soil  of  Massachusetts  from 
the  hour  he  left  it  during  the  war.  He  left  his  estate  to  William  Blowers  Bliss, 
the  second  son  of  his  old  friend  Chief  Justice  Bliss  of  New  Brunswick. 


134  WIN  SLOW    PAPERS  [1783 

Mr.  Deblois  took  charge  of  it  and  is  apprehensive  that  it  missed  the  Oppor- 
tunity, by  that  Ship,  and  went  by  a  small  Schooner  which  sailed  about  the 
same  time.  Our  passage  was  as  well  as  we  had  reason  to  expect,  and  we 
are  now  comfortably  lodged  at  a  Mrs.  Whitty's  where  we  have  three  Rooms 
and  a  kitchen  for  eight  pounds  a  month,  and  are  now  all  three  of  us,  sitting 
in  tolerable  health  and  spirits  round  a  good  fire.  I  have  been  politely 
received  by  the  Governor,  and  have  seen  several  of  the  great  men  here, 
and  am  told  by  them  all  that  my  coming  among  them  is  agreeable  and 
that  I  shall  soon  find  business.  This  last  however  I  am  inclined  to  doubt, 
in  any  extensive  degree.  From  all  I  can  learn  there  is  very  little  business 
in  our  way  to  be  done  here,  and  that  but  indifferently  paid  for,  and  there 
is  no  want  of  lawyers.  I  hope  indeed  as  the  Settlements  increase  there 
will  be  more  need  of  us.  At  any  rate  I  have  started  in  the  race  and  must 
now  do  my  best  to  get  on.  The  Supreme  Court  will  meet  next  month 
when  I  expect  to  be  sworn  &  shall  be  better  able  to  judge  of  all  Matters, 
Men  and  Things.  Ned  has  not  yet  returned  from  St.  John's,  but  is  soon 
expected.  The  family  are  tollerably  well  settled  in  a  small  House  on  the 
Hill,  which  the  Col.  had  taken  for  his  Office  &c.  The  old  Gentl'n  has  just 
been  to  tell  me  that  he  hears  his  son  has  hired,  for  3  years,  a  small  Farm 
and  House  which  is  now  repairing  at  or  near  Annapolis,  which  he  supposes 
is  fitting  for  him  and  the  family,  and  that  he  expects  to'  remove  there  as 
soon  as  Ned  returns  to  this  place 

Pray  have  you  heard  anything  from  England  relative  to  the  Epochs. 
A  Paquet  arrived  here  two  days  ago  with  Gov's  Wentworth  and  Fanning, 
but  they  seem  to  know  nothing  but  that  the  Provincial  Corps  are  estab- 
lished and  the  Muster  Master  General  with  them,  but  I  cannot  learn  how 
it  is  with  his  Deputy.  There  is  an  Act  of  Parliament  made  appointing 
Commissioners  to  examine  and  ascertain  the  losses  of  the  Loyalists  who 
are  to  exhibit  their  Claims  before  the  25th  (I  think)  of  March  next,  after 
which  none  will  be  received.  Gov'r  Wentworth  has  not  brought  his  family 
but  they  are  to  follow  in  the  Spring  it  is  said.  He  is  come  here  as  Sur- 
veyor General  [of  the  King's  woods]  with  £800  a  year  and  a  Guinea  a  day 
while  on  actual  Service.  Col.  Fanning,  who  appears  to  be  much  pleased 
with  his  appointment,*  talks  of  going  to  Annapolis  or  Port  Roseway  to 
reside,  as  he  cannot  get  a  house  here  to  his  mind. 

Pen  Winslow  has  been  confined  with  a  bad  Cold  ever  since  she  left 
the  Ship  but  is  now  getting  better.  She  desires  me  to  tell  you  it  will  be 
your  turn  to  monodize  very  soon  she  fears.  Mrs.  Blowers  and  Betsy  beg 
to  be  particularly  remembered.  Mrs.  Blowers  says  she  wants  you  here 
very  much  to  enliven  the  gloomy  Scenes  which  surround  her.  The 
weather  to  be  sure  is  abominably  dull  and  the  Town  looks  as  solitary  com- 
*As  lieutenant  governor  of  Nova  Scotia. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  135 

pared  with  New  York,  as  Newport  used  to  when  we  were  there.  Every- 
thing is  intollerably  dear  and  the  old  Inhabitants  are  accumulating  wealth 
at  a  great  rate  by  the  exorbitant  prices  which  they  extort  from  the  Stran- 
gers. 

Pray  when  are  the  Troops  to  leave  New  York?  and  do  you  hold  your 
resolution  of  going  to  England?  How  goes  on  the  important  business  of 
the  various  Boards  with  you?  and  is  there  to  be  any  pay  given?  Who  is 
gone  or  going  to  England,  who  coming  here,  and  who  intend  to  stay  in 
the  Country?  Answer  me  all  these  Questions,  and  tell  me  everything 
foreign  and  domestic  before  you  depart  or  I  shall  snarl  at  you.  Let  me 
be  remembered  affectionately  to  Taylor  &  Jeffrey,  and  believe  me  most 
cordially  yours, 

S.  S.  Blowers. 


Edward  Winslow  Sr.  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  26th  Septr.  1783. 

Dr.  Sir, — Apprehending  it  will  not  be  disagreeable  to  you  to  have  a 
Short  history  of  our  voiage,  present  situation,  &c,  I  take  this  opportunity 
of  advising  you  that  after  a  disagreeable  passage  of  fourteen  days,  during 
the  most  of  the  time  every  passenger  (myself  excepted)  were  very  sick, 
we  arrived  at  this  Garison;  on  my  arrival  found  Ned  absent  on  an  Excur- 
sion to  the  Eiver  St.  Johns  with  Genl  Fox,  &c;  previous  to  his  departure 
a  pretty  little  box  was  procured  by  him  for  our  reception,  much  of  the  size 
of  the  Bowery  house,  for  which  I  am  to  pay  £45  pr  Ann.  It  was  very 
lucky  for  me  that  he  took  that  precaution,  as  it  is  almost  impracticable  to 
get  a  house  to  put  your  head  in.  I  have  been  treated  with  great  polite- 
ness &  Civility  by  the  principle  people  here  and  have  been  at  two  Balls 
and  one  concert,  at  the  concert  was  exceedingly  good  musick  vocal  and 
instrumental,  there  appeared  to  be  nothing  wanting  to  make  it  compleat 
but  your  voice  to  have  been  added  to  the  same;  altho'  there  was  a  Gent 
that  sang  extremely  well,  I  can  truly  say  I  had  much  rather  hear  you  than 
him,  there  is  something  so  sprightly  in  your  Singing  that  affords  me  more 
pleasure  than  almost  any  other  person.  There  was  present  at  the  concert, 
Gov'r  Parr,  GoVr  Wentworth  and  Gov'r  Fanning,,  with  a  number  of  Bril- 
liant Ladies  &  Gent'n  of  the  Navy  &  Army,  had  you  been  there,  how  you 
would  have  danced. 

Col.  Fanning  assures  me  .the  provincial  Cores  are  all  established  on 
half  pay,  that  the  same  is  allowed  to  Ned  "dur.  vita."  As  I  suggest  it  will 
not  be  long  before  you  cross  the  great  and  mighty  deep,  I  do  most  sincerely 
wish  you  a  pleasant  passage,  a  safe  arrival  at  the  great  City,  a  joyfull 
winter,  and  in  the  Spring  a  Sight  of  you  at  Nova  Scotia;  your  company  in 


136  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

the  most  dreary  part  of  K  S.  will  make  the  same  agreeable  to  me  &  myne 
who  frequently  talk  of  and  wish  you  to  spend  the  winter  at  this  place.  I 
have  a  favour  to  request  of  you  when  in  G.  Britain  viz.  that  you  would 
inquire  of  Mr.  Gyer,*  if  anything  has  heen  done  relative  to  the  matter  I 
intrusted  him  with  on  my  arrival  at  K  York.  When  the  port  of  Boston 
was  shut  up  the  Collector  Comptroller  &  other  Officers  of  the  Customs  at 
Boston  were  directed  hy  the  Commissioner  to  remove  to  Plymouth  with 
their  books3  papers,  &c,  and  to  open  their  office  at  Plymouth,  &c.,  and  my 
office  as  Coll'r  for  the  port  of  Plymouth  was  to  cease  until  the  port  of 
Boston  should  be  again  open'd,  which  was  then  expected  would  be  the 
case  in  a  very  short  time.  On  the  third  day  of  June,  1774,  the  Custom- 
house books,  papers,  &c,  were  removed  from  Boston  to  Plymouth,  and  the 
Custom  house  business  carried  on  by  Mr.  Harrison,  Halloway,  &c,  which 
was  heretofore  transacted  by  me,  and  so  continued  to  do  business  until  the 
first  of  Oct'r,  1775,  during  which  time  I  provided  for  them  an  Office,  fuel, 
and  candles,  which  with  the  fees  received  for  the  Collector  (which  I  had 
the  promise  of  being  made  up  to  me)  amounted  to  more  than  three  hun- 
dred pounds  Ster.  On  the  12th  of  Sept.  1774,  Mr.  Harrison  the  Collector 
gave  me  his  note  of  hand  for  fifty  pound  sterling  pr.  Ann.  for  doing  his 
business  until  the  port  of  Boston  should  be  again  opened.  Altho'  I  do 
not  expect  him  to  pay  me  until  the  port  of  Boston  was  again  opened,  yet 
I  think  he  can  have  no  objection  to  paying  me  for  transacting  his  business 
from  the  12th  of  Septr.  1774  to  the  12th  of  Oct.  1775,  during  which  time 
I  transacted  his  business,  he  being  absent,  amounting  to  £54.  3.  4. 
*  *  I  am  now  told  my  letter  must  be  sent  in  half  an  hour,  you 
have  my  most  grateful  acknowledgments  for  the  manifold  instances  of 
your  bounty  towards  me,  and  my  most  ardent  wishes  for  your  happiness 
here  and  hereafter.  My  family,  Laura  in  particular,  Joyn  in  the  above 
prayer.  Ned  is  not  yet  returned.  Adieu  my  Friend,  and  believe  me 

Yrs.  most  sincerely, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

Lt.  Col.  Hewlett  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

St.  John's,  Bay  of  Fundy,  29th  Sept.  1783. 

Sir, — Agreeable  to  your  Excellency's  orders  I  have  the  honour  to 
inform  you  that  the  troops  under  my  command  arrived  at  the  River  St. 
John's  the  27th  Instant  except  the  ship  "Martha" }  with  the  Maryland 

*Frederick  William  Gyer  of  Boston  was  a  friend  of  Edward  "Winslow.  He 
was  considered  wealthy,  but  a  few  years  later  failed  for  "an  amazing  amount," 
and  in  his  failure  Ward  Chipman  was  a  heavy  loser.  When  Winslow' s  young 
son,  Murray,  was  sent  to  school  in  England  he  received  a  kindly  welcome  from 
the  Gyer  family. 

tThe  transport  ship  "Martha"  was  wrecked  on  a  ledge  near  the  Seal  Islands, 
and  of  174  persons  on  board  99  perished  and  75  were  saved  by  fishing  boats  and 
brought  to  St.  John. 


1783]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS 


137 


Loyalists  and  part  of  the  2nd  Battalion  DeLancey's  and  the  ship  "Esther" 
with  part  of  the  Jersey  Volunteers,  of  which  ships  no  certain  accounts 
have  been  received  since  their  sailing.  This  day  a  small  party  of  the 
Guides  and  Pioneers  are  landed,  which  proceed  from  the  Falls  up  the  River 
St.  John's  tomorrow  if  the  weather  permits. 

I  have  given  the  necessary  orders  for  the  Troops  to  disembark  tomor- 
row and  encamp  just  above  the  Falls  on  the  River  St.  John's  from  which 
place  they  shall  be  forwarded  with  all  possible  expedition  to  the  place  of 
their  destination,  but  am  much  afraid  the  want  of  small  craft  will  greatly 
prevent  their  dispatch. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 

Rich'd  Hewlett. 

LOSS  OF  THE  MARTHA. 

On  the  23rd  Sept'r  Ult.,  four  o'Clock  of  the  morning  the  Transport 
ship  Martha  —  Willis,  Master,  struck  on  a  ledge  of  Rocks  between  Cape 
Sable  and  the  Seal  or  Tusket  Islands.  The  Master  had  said  the  preced- 
ing evening  that  he  had  seen  Land,  and  of  course  every  Person  on  Board 
supposed  that  he  would  lay  to  in  the  night;  but  as  he  set  off  from  New 
York  in  a  suit  of  old  sails,  some  of  which  he  had  been  obliged  to  change 
before  the  above  unfortunate  day;  the  few  men  who  composed  the  Crew 
(for  he  had  not  on  Board  above  twelve  seamen  and  boys  capable  of  navi- 
gating the  vessel)  were  employed  a  number  of  hours,  rigging  and  setting 
up  a  new  main  top-sail  in  the  place  of  one  which  had  gone  to  pieces  early 
in  the  night,  the  weather  being  tempestuous.  This  employment  of  the 
Crew,  it  is  supposed,  prevented  the  master  from  Standing  off  and  on,  and 
unhappily  at  four  of  the  morning  the  Vessel  struck.  The  Master  after 
fruitless  attempts  of  the  Soldiers,  at  his  request,  to  keep  the  pumps  clear, 
was  solicited  to  get  the  boats  out,  but  he  declined  it,  insisting  that  the  Ves- 
sel could  be  got  off,  even  after  the  water  had  gained  considerably  in  the 
hold.  After  some  time  he  ordered  the  Boats  out.  The  cutter  being  got 
out,  he  ordered  four  Seamen  to  keep  her  at  a  distance,  till  the  long  Boat 
would  be  got  out,  but  unfortunately  after  she  had  gone  into  the  water  the 
mainmast  falling  on  her  suddenly,  stove  her  to  pieces.  The  situation  of 
the  poor  people  on  board  at  this  crisis  became  truly  lamentable  ;  their 
grand  resource  being  lost  the  cutter  and  Jolly  boat  only  remained  from 
which  they  could  possibly  hope  for  safety.  At  this  time  the  Ship  was  full 
of  Water  it  must  be  allowed,  but  she  was  fast  aground  on  the  Rocks  and 
every  sea  beat  over  her  middle  deck,  but  no  material  part  had  given  way, 
the  Mast  only  excepted.  In  this  situation  the  Master  ordered  the  Jolly 


138  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Boat  to  be  launched  over  the  side,  and,  to  the  surprise  of  every  body — after 
repeatedly  proclaiming  that  he  would  be  one  of  the  last  to  leave  the  ship, 
he  jumped  into  her  as  she  went  over  the  side,  rowed  to  the  cutter,  which 
lay  off,  got  into  her,  and  after  taking  in  a  few  Men  who  in  that  moment  of 
desperation  swam  out  to  the  Boat,  he  inhumanly  pushed  off  for  the  shore 
turning  the  Jolly  Boat  adrift  and  empty  in  full  view  of  the  unhappy 
People  on  board,  who  in  vain  called  out  to  him  for  relief,  and  contrary  to 
the  Solicitations  of  the  Commanding  Officer  on  board,  who  requested  him 
to  come  towards  the  stern  of  the  ship  and  concert  some  plan  for  the  Gen- 
eral safety  and  to  comfort  the  poor  Unhappy  Souls  on  Board. 

It  appears  besides,  by  the  Testimony  of  officers  who  were  taken  up  by 
a  Frenchman  at  the  bottom  of  the  Bay  (viz,  Lieut  Laffin,  Lieut.  Henley 
and  Doctor  Stafford)  that  the  Master  of  the  Martha  had  called  at  the  set- 
tlement below  and  declared  that  he  believed  every  soul  on  board  to  have 
perished,  and  that  he  rather  inclined  to  discourage  their  intentions  of 
going  to  look  out  for  the  Wreck  to  save  any  person  who  might  have  sur- 
vived than  to  push  them  forward  to  so  charitable  a  deed  or  to  offer  his 
assistance  to  effect  so  good  a  purpose. 

It  is  further  well  known  to  the  officers  who  survived  that  very  many 
things  of  great  value  might  have  been  saved  to  the  Insurers  by  the  least 
care  or  industry  on  the  part  of  the  Master  of  the  Ship — as  the  French  In- 
habitants at  the  Bottom  of  the  Bay  and  the  People  of  Yarmouth  and  other 
settlements  on  the  Bay  of  Fundy  took  up  Cables,  Anchors  and  many  other 
things  of  considerable  value. 

I  certify  this  to  be  an  exact  Copy  from  the  original  Journal  or  Eela- 
tion  of  Captain  P.  Kenedy,  Commanding  the  Troops  on  board  the  Ship 
Martha  Transport. 

St.  Johns,  Nova  Scotia,  10th  Oct'r,  1783. 

(Signed)  Aug.  Provost, 

D'y  Insp'r-Gen'l,  B.  A.  Forces. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  10th  Oct'r,  1783. 

My  dear,  gentle,  pleasant  tempered,  amiable  Friend  ; — 

********* 

My  Father  and  family  1  thank  God  are  in  a  fair  way  of  being  settled 
tolerably.  The  attention  of  General  Fox,  [Col.]  Small  and  very  many 
other  persons  to  them  has  given  them  vast  pleasure  and  excited  my  grati- 
tude. I  am  determined  not  to  distress  myself  about  their  future  support 
altho'  I  acknowledge  I  feel  some  degree  of  anxiety  on  that  subject.  As 
soon  as  I  am  able  I  intend  preparing  some  kind  of  papers  to  be  forwarded 


1783J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  133 

with  certificate  (by  way  of  claim)  to  England.  Governors  Wentworth  and 
Fanning  are  to  dictate  them.  The  General  has  made  the  most  friendly 
offers  on  this  subject  and  I  flatter  myself  his  interest  will  be  of  some  use. 
Until  I  see  you  Chip  I  will  not  attempt  giving  you  an  idea  of  the  brotherly 
kindness  and  uncommon  friendship  which  I  have  experienced  from  him. 
In  our  late  tour  thro'  this  country  we  have  been  highly  delighted — he  is 
enamoured  with  St.  John's.  He  has  taken  Town-lots  for  himself,  Gen- 
erals Musgrave  &  Clark  in  our  neighborhood  at  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
and  we  have  fixed  on  a  spot  130  miles  from  the  mouth  where  those  Gentle- 
men are  to  locate  one  thousand  acres  each*  in  conjunction  with  you  and 
myseif  who  have  the  same  allowance.  The  Goernor  has  already  assured 
us  that  it  shall  be  done.  It  is  at  the  head  of  the  township  which  is  located 
for  Murray's  regiment,  and  he  has  directed  me  to  make  out  a  power  of 
agency  to  improve  their  tracts,  to  build  houses,  &c,  &c,  &c.  You  may 
laugh  at  what  I  tell  you  as  very  romantic,  but  he  affirms  to  me  in  his  most 
serious  moments  that  if  he  has  interest  enough  to  obtain  a  command  or 
an  appointment  he  will  certainly  remain  in  this  province — but  should  he 
fail  in  this  attempt,  he  swears  that  after  he  has  been  a  little  time  in  Eng- 
land he  will  come  out  and  spend  a  few  years  here.  In  short  it  is  a  hobby 
horse  that  he  will  ride  at  all  events.  It  was  his  wish  that  I  should  go  to 
England  with  him,  but  on  conversing  with  Wentworth  and  Fanning  I 
have  concluded  not  to  go.  They  assure  me  that  both  of  us  have  our  half 
pay  and  the  idea  of  boring  them  for  anything  else  is  really  painful  to  me 
just  now.  If  he  gets  an  appointment  here  (and  they  say  he  certainly  will, 
either  as  Governor  of  the  Province  or  succeed  to  the  appointment  of  Gov- 
ernor of  Annapolis  which  General  Monckton  had)  I  shall  stay  here  with 
peculiar  advantages,  and  I  think  my  Dad  will  have  better  solicitors  than 
myself  for  a  recompence  for  his  losses.  Gen'l  Fox  falls  in  with  this  idea 
and  now  thinks  it  best  to  stay. 

I  have  long  letters  from  Thompson,  Loring,  &c.  My  hand  pains  me 
so  damnably  that  I  can't  write  any  more.  [Hand  writing,  which  had 
been  cramped,  in  the  next  sentence  alters  to  usual  style  and  continues.] 

I  must  touch  on  a  subject  of  some  importance,  I  submit  this  as  every- 
thing else  of  consequence  entirely  to  your  decision.  Major  Prevost  told 
me  that  Sir  Guy  was  determined  to  fill  the  vacancies  in  the  Provincial 
Corps.  By  the  unfortunate  accident  of  Ludlows  [lost  in  ship  "Martha"] 
there  are  many  vacancies.  You  know  how  I  love  my  Boy — If  you  can 
effect  an  appointment  for  him  as  Ensign  in  any  of  their  regiments — the 
half  pay  will  secure  him  an  education  which  I  am  very  ambitious  to  give 
him.  *  *  *  * 

Gen'l  Fox  has  been  very  civil  to  Blowers,  and  on  looking  about  he 

*This  was  in  the  Township  of  Prince  William. 


140  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

seems  tolerably  well  satisfy'd.     He  is  appointed  one  of  the  Board  of  Ac- 
counts here. 

Send  your  mare  whenever  you  please,  I  can  take  better  care  of  her 
than  any  man  in  Nova  Scotia.  Thompson's  William  lives  at  my  house  and 
my  horses  are  all  in  fine  order. 

Adieu,  most  sincerely  yours, 

Edward  Winslow. 

Inclos'd  is  a  lock  which  Pop  desired  me  to  forward  to  you.  My  best 
compliments  to  all  my  friends.  I  have  received  as  yet  no  orders  to  insert 
absent  officers  names  in  the  abstracts  and  I  feel  Fll  be  a  little  puzled  about 
Thompson  and  Philips. 

Deputy  Adjutant  General  to  Brig.  Gen.  Fox. 

New  York,  10th  Oct'r,  1783. 

Sir, — I  am  directed  by  the  Commander  in  Chief  to  inform  you,  that 
he  has  given  orders  for  a  number  of  Stoves  to  be  sent  to  Port  Eoseway, 
Annapolis,  and  St.  John's  Eiver  for  the  use  of  the  Kefugees  at  those 
places,  to  assist  in  securing  them  against  the  inclemency  of  the  approach- 
ing season.  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Sir, 
Your  most  obedient 

Humble  servant, 

Fred'ck  Mackenzie,  D.  A.  Gen'l. 


Capt.  F.  Philips  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  Oct'r  llth,  1783. 

Dear  Ned, — I  wrote  to  you  by  Judge  Blowers  informing  you  of  an 
order  from  the  Commander  in  Chief  by  which  you  were  enabled  to  receive 
my  pay  at  the  same  time  requesting  you  would  remit  it  for  me  to  England. 
I  was  exceedingly  happy  to  hear  of  the  safe  arrival  of  your  Father 
and  Family,  I  hope  they  are  by  this  time  comfortably  settled.  Make  my 
best  respects  to  the  old  Lady  and  Gentlemen  and  my  love  to  the  Girls. 

I  am  at  last  happily  fixed  for  my  Passage  to  England  in  a  transport 
allotted  to  Lt.-Col.  Drummond  of  the  Artillery,  who  gave  me  the  most 
friendly  and  polite  invitation  to  accompany  him.  We  expect  to  sail  in 
about  three  weeks,  or  perhaps  not  till  the  final  Evacuation  of  this  Place. 
If  you  can  write  here  in  that  time  I  would  be  much  obliged  to  you.  It  is 
now  2  o'clock  and  I  dine  at  Hardenbrook's  at  three,  so  Adieu,  God  bless 
you. 

Yours  sincerely, 

Fred  Philips. 

P.  S. — When  you  write  to  Polly,  give  my  love  to  her,  tell  her  to  kiss 
the  young  ones  for  me. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  Hi 

Lt.  Col.  Hewlett  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

St.  John's  Kiver,  13th  Oct.,  1783. 

Sir, — Since  my  last  of  the  29th  September  I  have  the  honour  to  in- 
form your  Excellency  of  the  arrival  of  the  ship  "Esther";  the  "Martha" 
transport  with  the  Maryland  Loyalists  and  detachment  of  the  2d  Battalion 
De  Lancey's  having  been  wrecked  on  a  ledge  of  rocks  off  the  Seal  Islands 
between  Cape  Sable  and  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  Yesterday  arrived  the 
"Bridgewater,"  and  this  day  the  entire  of  the  troops  were  disbanded  and 
are  getting  up  the  river  as  speedily  as  possible.  The  want  of  small  craft 
is  the  only  delay  they  have. 

We  have  had  a  great  confusion  among  the  troops  in  having  small 
hatchets  issued  them  in  lieu  of  axes. 

This  will  be  handed  to  you  by  Major  Prevost,  to  whom  I  and  the 
officers  commanding  corps  are  under  many  obligations  for  his  great  atten- 
tion and  quickness  of  dispatch.  Must  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  him  for 
further  information.  I  have  the  honour  to  be, 

With  much  respect,  &c,  &c, 
Kich/d  Hewlett. 

Commanding  Br.  &  Br.  Am.  Corps. 


Sarah  Winslow  to  Benjamin  Marston. 

Halifax,  October  18,  1783. 

My  Worthy  Cousin,  I  am  very  sure,  will  receive  pleasure  from  hearing 
his  Uncle  Winslow  and  Family  are  once  more  so  Bless'd  as  to  be  together. 
My  Father,  Mother,  Sister,  and  myself  safely  arrived  at  Halifax  the  four- 
teenth of  September.  Our  voyage  was  a  tedious  one.  We  set  sail  with 
every  nattering  appearance,  but  in  a  few  hours  after  the  wind  came  contrary 
and  continued  so  the  whole  way,  which  rendered  it  a  disagreeable  fifteen 
days.  From  the  evening  after  we  left  New  York  untill  the  day  we  landed 
at  this  place,  not  one  hour  good  weather  had  we.  Very  sea  sick  and  ex- 
tremely frightened  were  we  all  except  my  Father  who,  good  man,  was 
neither  sick  nor  afraid  of  anything,  except  that  he  should  not  get  victuals 
enough  to  eat — which  was  rather  an  unnecessary  concern,  for  no  others 
of  the  party  had  any  inclination  to  partake  of  his  delicacies.  His  con- 
tinuing well  and  our  being  favoured  with  one  of  the  best  ships  in  the 
Garrison  of  New  York,  and  the  kindest  and  most  obliging  man  in  the 
world  for  a  commander  was  our  support.  Greatly  are  we  indebted  to  our 
friend  the  Commissary  General*  for  giving  us  a  thousand  advantages  that 
no  other  family  has  had.  His  friendly  attention  continued  to  the  last. 
*Brook  Watson, 


142  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

He  hurried  us  away,  thinking  it  was  the  season  to  avoid  storms,  gave  us 
an  excellent  Vessell,  without  one  passenger  but  those  we  chose  ourselves, 
which  were  only  Mr.  Blowers  and  family.  We  embarked  in  a  most  beau- 
tiful morning.  Friend  Watson  came  off  a  little  way  with  us  for  the 
pleasure  of  a  sail,  returned  delighted  with  our  prospect — but  contrary  to 
his  wishes  and  opinion  when  he  left  us,  instead  of  having  no  storm  we  had 
a  sort  of  one  all  the  passage.  The  Ladys  had  anticipated  every  horror,  but 
I  confess  my  heart  was  so  deeply  wounded  at  parting  with  a  number  of 
tenderly  beloved  friends  that  I  thought  not  of  the  distresses  of  a  voyage 
Numerous  were  the  friends  that  we  left,  but  with 'thankfulness  I  mention 
that  we  find  some  wherever  we  go. 

I  have  now  the  gratification,  my  cousin,  of  seeing  my  Father's  mind 
more  composed  than  for  some  time  past.  Before  we  left  our  delightfull 
retreat  at  the  Bowery,  his  mind  was  greatly  perplext  to  know  what  to  do. 
We  were  sweetly  situated  there  about  two  miles  out  of  the  City.  Our 
very  valuable  Friend  Doctor  Bayley,  with  many  others,  were  extremely 
anxious  for  our  remaining  there  the  winter;  my  Brother  was  equallv  de- 
sirous for  our  going  to  England.  What  was  best  to  be  done  the  good  man 
could  not  tell;  finally  we  determined  to  come  to  this  place.  We  were  a 
little  disconserted  at  not  finding  Edward  here,  but  his  friends  came  imme- 
diately on  board,  and  upon  being  informed  he  had  hired  a  small  House 
for  an  office  we  immediately  took  possession  of  it.  We  were  for  some 
time  deprived  of  the  happiness  of  having  him  with  us  but  enjoyed  the 
real  pleasure  of  finding  him  universally  esteemed  &  beloved.  A  large 
number  of  his  friends  gave  every  proof  of  their  attachment  to  him  by  the 
vast  attention  paid  my  Father  and  the  family.  Every  hour  did  some 
friendly  one  call  to  offer  their  service,  and  seemed  vieing  with  each  other 
who  should  do  the  most  for  us.  Col.  Small  eneavoured  to  prevail  with  us 
to  accept  of  part  of  his  House;  kindly  assured  us  we  should  be  as  entirely 
detached  from  his  family  as  we  chose  to  be.  To  do  justice  to  his  benev- 
olence and  attention  and  that  of  many  others  is  beyond  my  pen.  My 
Brother's  return  has  made  us  happy.  In  addition  to  the  inexpressable 
happiness  his  company  ever  affords,  we  enjoy  that  of  seeing  him  rejoicing 
that  we  are  at  Nova  Scotia. 

Greatly  my  good  cousin  cculd  I  enlarge  upon  the  subject  that  has 
brought  us  all  to  this  uncultivated  country,  but  as  it  can  answer  no  good 
purpose  I  endeavour  to  be  silent — but  must  to  you  so  far  say  that  I  do 
think,  after  everything  else  has  been  done  that's  horrid,  than  any  part  of 
the  only  elysium  the  suffering  ones  have  should  be  called  by  the  name  of 
Shelburne*  is  rather  too  bad.  Strange  that  after  such  a  variety  of  dis- 

*Lord  Shelburne  was  excessively  unpopular  with  the  majority  of  the  Loyal- 
ists because  regarded  as  the  author  of  a  peace  without  honor.  The  Loyalists 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  143 

agreeables  a  matter  of  so  little  importance  should  disturb,  perhaps  you 
will  say.  *  * 

My  Brother,  since  his  tour  with  the  General,  has  had  the  misfortune 
to  have  the  gout  in  his  right  arm,  it  is  now  better  but  still  so  painful  that 
he  only  writes  what  no  one  can  do  for  him.  He  desires  me  to  give  his 
most  affectionate  love  to  you.  The  present  report  is  General  Fox  is  to  be 
Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  but  whether  it  is  to  be  depended  upon  is  not  yet 
known. 

My  Brother  is  undetermined  whether  he  shall  go  to  England  or  re- 
main here  this  winter.  By  Governor  Wentworth  &  [Col.]  Fanning  he  re- 
ceived numbers  of  letters.  His  friends  not  only  urge  but  entreat  his  going 
home,  say  it  would  be  of  vast  advantage  to  him.  Lord  Percy  is  particu- 
larly desirous  for  him  to  be  there.  Should  he  conclude  upon  crossing  the 
Atlantic  how  shall  we  support  being  again  separated  from  him.  *  * 


Brig.  Gen.  Fox  to  Sir  Guy  Carle  ton. 

Halifax,  19th  October,  1783. 

Sir, — In  answer  to  the  private  letter  of  the  5th  of  September  with 
which  I  was  honoured,  I  have  now  the  pleasure  to  inform  your  Excellency 
that  the  fact  respecting  a  number  of  persons  having  settled  themselves  on 
the  Nova  Scotia  side  of  the  Eiver  St.  Croix,  was  not  as  had  been  repres- 
ented but  was  rather,  as  your  Excellency  supposed,  a  few  lawless  vagrants 
without  any  fixed  designs.  I  am  therefore  perfectly  satisfied  that  there 
was  not  a  sufficient  cause  to  send  a  detachment  of  His  Majesty's  Troops  to 
that  place,  and  should  intruders  hereafter  break  into  the  limits  of  this 
province  I  am  well  convinced  that  opposing  them  with  Troops  should  be 
the  last  resort. 

I  am  sensible  of  the  necessity  of  great  vigilance  in  the  Government  of 
Nova  Scotia  at  this  time  and  the  vast  importance  on  her  part  of  being  a 
most  punctual  observer  of  good  faith.  * 

In  my  letter  of  the  3rd  instant  I  did  myself  the  honor  to  inclose  a 
proposal  for  the  Distribution  of  the  Troops  in  this  District.  I  hope  the 
reasons  which  I  have  assigned  for  stationing  Troops  at  Cumberland,  An- 
napolis and  Fort  Howe  will  be  satisfactory  to  your  Excellency.  The  sea- 
son is  now  so  far  advanced  that  hutting  for  the  winter  is  impracticable, 
but  should  it  be  thought  advisable  on  any  future  occasion  I  should  think 
the  high  lands  about  Horton  the  most  eligible  situation  for  the  corps  of 

contended  that  their  interests  had  been  sacrificed  to  those  of  their  enemies 
without  a  single  effective  condition  in  their  favor.  The  British  government 
afterwards  took  steps  to  provide  some  compensation  for  their  losses. 


144  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

the  Troops,  because  the  most  centrical  and  on  the  communication  between 

Halifax  and  Annapolis. 

****** 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Sir, 

H.  E.  Fox,  Br.  Gen'l. 

[The  original  of  this  letter  in  the  Winslow  papers  is  a  rough  draft 
with  erasures  and  interlineations  written  in  Col.  Winslow's  hand,  and 
undoubtedly  drafted  by  him  at  Gen.  Fox's  request.] 


Memorial  of  Edward  Winslow,  Sr. 

[Re  Compensation  for  Losses  in  the  Revolution.] 

To  the  Honorable  the  Commissioners  appointed  by  Act  of  Parliament 
to  enquire  into  the  Losses  and  Services  of  all  such  persons  who  have  suf- 
fered in  their  rights,  properties  and  professions  during  the  late  unhappy 
dissentions  in  America  in  consequence  of  their  Loyalty  to  His  Majesty  and 
the  British  Government: — 

The  Memorial  of  Edward  Winslow,  Esqr.,  late  of  the  province  of 

Massachusetts  Bay  in  New  England,  most  humbly  shews: — 

That  for  a  long  series  of  years  he  has  served  his  Sovereign  with  fidelity 
and  has  discharged  the  duties  of  several  publick  stations  without  censure. 

That  when  the  late  contest  between  Great  Britain  and  America  com- 
menced he  was  first  magistrate  in  the  County  of  Plymouth,  Collector  of 
His  Majesty's  Customs,  Registrar  of  the  Court  of  Probate  and  (jointly  with 
his  son  the  present  Muster  Master  General  of  his  Majesty's  Provincial 
Forces)  Clerk  of  the  Common  Pleas  and  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace. 
The  income  from  these  employments  together  with  his  family  estate 
rendered  his  circumstances  sufficiently  affluent. 

That  in  the  year  1775,  on  his  pointed  refusal  to  take  the  oaths  of 
allegiance  to  the  Rebel  Governments,  he  was  by  their  usurped  authority 
deprived  of  all  his  offices  and  deprived  also  of  any  assistance  from  his  son, 
who  before  that  time  had  escaped  to  the  British  Army. 

Your  Memorialist  will  not  trouble  your  Honors  with  a  repetition  of 
indignities  and  persecutions  almost  as  incredible  as  they  have  been  severe. 
He  only  begs  leave  to  say  that  by  his  attachment  to  the  cause  of  Govern- 
ment he  has  experienced  a  transition  from  the  most  comfortable  situation 
to  a  state  of  poverty  and  distress.  And  that  from  being  as  much  respected 
for  his  family,  property  and  personal  character  as  any  man  in  that  country, 
he  has  been  for  nine  years  last  past  the  butt  of  the  licentious  and  has  re- 
ceived every  species  of  insult  and  abuse  which  the  utmost  rancour  and 
malice  could  invent.  That  worn  out  by  their  inhuman  persecutions  at 


1783]  WINSLOW    PAPERS  145 

the  age  of  sixty  seven  years,  labouring  under  many  infirmities,  he  arrived 
at  the  Garrison  in  New  York  in  the  month  of  December  1781,  with  part 
of  his  family  and  in  a  few  months  after  was  joined  by  the  remaining  part 
of  them. 

That  upon  his  application  to  His  Excellency  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  K. 
B.,  General  &  Commander  in  Chief  of  his  Majesty's  Forces  in  North 
America,  he  granted  your  memorialist  a  pension  of  two  hundred  pounds 
sterling  pr.  Annum,  also  rations  of  provisions  and  fuel  for  himself  and 
family,  and  that  the  same  allowance  has  been  continued  to  him  by  his  Ex- 
cellency Sir  Guy  Carleton  ever  since. 

That  upon  the  thirteenth  of  August  last,  upon  his  being  well  in- 
formed that  the  Garrison  at  New  York  would  be  speedily  evacuated,  he 
with  his  family  consisting  of  an  aged  wife,  two  daughters,  and  three  black 
servants,  imbarked  at  New  York,  and  on  the  fourteenth  of  September  fol- 
lowing arrived  at  Halifax,  where  he  is  an  utter  stranger. 

That  he  has  no  means  of  support  but  a  very  trifling  sum  saved  out  of 
his  pension  from  Government  and  which  will  be  expended  in  a  very  little 
time.  His  age  (being  now  seventy  years  old)  and  infirmities  and  the 
necessities  of  a  family  unaccustomed  to  want,  which  has  no  other  depen- 
dence but  upon  him,  makes  him  look  forward  with  great  solicitude  and 
anxiety  for  some  permanent  source  of  subsistence.  Your  memorialist 
most  humbly  begs  leave  to  suggest  to  honorable  Commissioners  a  true 
state  of  his  situation  and  circumstances  at  the  commencement  of  the  late 
unhappy  war  and  of  the  losses  that  he  sustained  thereby  in  his  property 
and  professions  without  exaggerating  the  same. 

And  he  doth  in  the  most  serious  manner  aver  and  declare  that  his 
propertie  at  that  time  in  the  townships  of  Plymouth  and  Marshfield  were 
of  the  value  of  £1500  stg.,  and  that  the  annual  incomes  he  received  from 
his  said  estate  and  from  the  professions  and  the  offices  which  he  sustained 
amounted  to  the  sum  of  £300  stg.,  and  that  he  was  at  that  time  justly  in- 
debted to  sundry  persons  to  the  amount  of  £500.  That  soon  after  his 
arrival  at  N.  York  the  whole  of  his  property  was  taken  and  sold  for  less- 
than  half  the  value  thereof,  your  memorialist  not  being  suffered  to  return, 
nor  any  attorney  that  dare  to  appear  in  his  behalf. 

Your  memorialist  further  begs  leave  to  say  that  his  continuance  for 
seven  years  among  insulting  and  persecuting  enemies  arose  from  his  ap- 
prehension that  the  war  would  have  been  many  years  at  an  end  sooner  than 
it  was,  and  that  it  would  have  terminated  very  differently  from  what  has 
happened,  as  also  from  the  great  reluctance  your  memorialist  had  of  being 
burthensome  to  Government,  always  relying  on  his  Majesty's  proclama- 
tions and  other  proclamations  held  out  to  the  Loyalists,  that  they  should 
be  protected  in  their  properties  and  professions.  Altho'  your  memorialist 


140  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

has  not  suffered  so  largely  as  many  others  have  done,  yet  he  has  sacrificed 
his  all,  on  account  of  his  loyalty  to  his  Sovereign.  He  therefore  looks  up 
to  your  Honours  for  your  aid  and  assistance  that  such  compensation  he 
made  him  for  the  losses  of  propertie  and  professions  as  in  your  wisdom 
you  may  think  just,  without  which  your  memorialist  must  be  most  miser- 
able the  little  time  he  has  to  live.  \ 

For  the  truth  of  the  facts  above  stated  your  Memorialist  begs  leave  to 
refer  your  Honors  to  the  Lieut,  Governor  Oliver,*  the  Chief  Justice,  the 
Members  of  his  Majesty's  Council  for  the  province  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
and  the  Commissioners  of  his  Majesty's  Customs  who  resided  there,  Eichard 
Harrison  and  Robt.  Hallowell  the  late  Collector  &  Comptroller  of  the  Cus- 
toms of  the  port  of  Boston,  who  are  all  now  in  Great  Britain. 

E.  Winslow. 

Halifax,  N.  Scotia,  22d  October,  1783. 

This  day  inclosed  a  copy  of  the  above  memorial  to  Brooke  Watson,. 
Esqr,  in  my  letter  to  him,  also  another  to  Sir  William  Pepperelf  by  the 
Greyhound  Packett,  Capt.  Dunn,  another  to  Robert  Rashleigh}  Esq'r,  &  a 
fourth  to  Judge  Ludlow. 

Lieut.  Col.  Allen  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Annapolis,  Octo.  24th,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — By  Mr.  Reading  I  send  you  the  Commander  in  Chief's 
dispatches  for  General  Fox.  You  will  see  by  a  paper  enclosed  that  he  is 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Province;  what  to  think  of  the  information  I 
don't  know  as  I  did  not  hear  it  mentioned  by  the  General  before  I  left 

*Lieut.  Governor  Thomas  Oliver,  a  native  of  Cambridge,  Mass.,  and  a 
graduate  of  Harvard  in  1783,  was  the  last  royal  lieutenant  governor  of  Massa- 
chusetts. In  March,  1776,  he  went  with  the  British  forces  to  Halifax,  and  from 
thence  to  England,  where  he  died  in  1S15  at  the  age  of  82  years.  His  son,  Wm. 
S.  Oliver,  was  the  .first  sheriff  of  St.  John,  and  his  grandson,  Wm.  S.  Oliver, 
succeeded  Benjamin  Marston  as  sheriff  of  Miramichi. 

fSir  William  Pepperell,  baronet,  commanded  the  very  remarkable  expedition 
which  in  1745  captured  the  stronghold  of  Louisburg.  He  was  the  only  native 
of  America  to  receive  the  rank  of  baronet  prior  to  the  Revolution.  He  died  in 
England  in  1759.  His  only  son  died  childless,  and  his  estate  and  title  passed 
to  a  son  of  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Nathaniel  Sparhawk,  whose  name  was  William 
Pepperell  Sparhawk.  By  the  terms  of  his  grandfather's  will  he  was  required 
on  coming  of  age  to  procure  an  act  of  the  legislature  to  take  the  title  of  Sir 
William  Pepperell,  baronet.  This  he  did.  He  is  accordingly  the  Sir  William 
referred  to  above.  He  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1766.  Having  been  driven  into 
banishment  by  the  Americans,  he  went  to  England  in  1775,  and  on  the  voyage 
his  wife  died.  His  immense  possessions  in  Maine  and  large  property  in  Massa- 
chusetts were  confiscated.  In  England  he  proved  himself  the  friend  and  patron 
of  the  Loyalists.  A  full  account  of  Sir  William  Pepperell  will  be  found  in 
Sabine's  American  Loyalists. 

JRobert  Rashleigh  acted  as  agent  in  England  for  many  of  the  Loyalists  in 
drawing  their  half-pay  and  other  transactions.  He  died  about  Sept.,  1787,  and 
Brook  Watson  then  joined  the  surviving  partners,  and  the  firm  of  Robert  Rash- 
leigh &  Co.  became  that  of  Brook  Watson  &  Co. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  147 

[New]  York,  1  can  only  say  I  wish  it  were  true,  and  I  assure  you  this  re- 
port gave  great  Pleasure  to  our  Friends  in  N.  York  for  two  reasons,  as 
they  suppose  the  change  would  be  of  service  to  the  Loyalists  in  general 
and  no  disadvantage  to  you.  I  can  assure  you  in  a  conversation  I  had  with 
the  Commander  in  Chiei  just  before  my  departure,  you  were  mentioned 
by  him  as  one  who  must  be  provided  for.  I  find  you  are  the  first  upon  the 
list  with  him  and  I  believe  he  is  not  a  mere  man  of  words.  I  men- 
tion this  for  your  Comfort  which  I  suppose  we  all  stand  in  need  of. 

I  had  very  stormy  distressing  passage,  but  thank  God  have  brought 
my  family  all  safe  and  in  tolerable  health.  Capts.  Campbell*  and  Stellet 
are  come  over  from  St.  John's  to  spend  the  winter  with  me  but  cannot 
draw  their  rations  here  without  a  special  order,  will  you  procure  it  and 
send  it  to  them.  You  know  Mr.  Williams  J  is  very  exact.  I  find  my 
friends  Barclay  and  Eobinson||  have  got  an  order  for  Boards  here.  I  am 
building  at  St.  Johns  and  shall  be  very  much  obliged  to  you  for  an  order 
on  Major  Studholme  §for  such  proportion  as  is  customary.  I  have  made 
no  application  here  as  I  saw  my  boards  on  my  own  land  but  have  found  it 
very  expensive.  One  more  order  and  I  shall  give  you  no  more  trouble  at 
this  present  writing.  My  brother  Will  Allen  came  with  me  to  St.  Johns 
but  as  he  is  no  soldier  he  cannot  draw  his  rations.  Will  you  be  so  kind  as 
to  speak  to  the  General  and  procure  an  order  that  he  may  draw  for  himself 

"The  reference  is  probably  to  Captain  Dugald  Campbell,  late  of  the  42nd 
regiment. 

f  Captain  Edward  Stelle  of  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers.  He  settled  at 
Kingsclear  and  was  one  of  the  members  for  York  County  in  the  first  house  of 
assembly  elected  in  1785. 

I  Thomas  Williams,  ordnance  store  keeper  and  commissary  at  Annapolis 
Royal,  grandfather  of  Sir  William  Fenwick  Williams,  the  hero  of  Kars.  He 
died  April  22,  1789,  "having  served  His  Majesty  during  45  years  with  great  repu- 
tation." 

||  Major  Thomas  Barclay  and  Lieut.  John  Robinson  are  here  referred  to. 
The  latter  was  a  son  of  Col.  Beverly  Robinson  of  the  Loyal  American  Regiment. 
He  came  to  St.  John  after  a  brief  stay  at  Annapolis  and  married  a  daughter  of 
Hon.  George  D.  Ludlow,  chief  justice  of  New  Brunswick.  He  was  deputy  pay- 
master of  the  forces,  a  member  of  the  council  and  for  many  years  mayor  of  the 
city  of  St.  John.  In  1821  he  was  appointed  the  first  president  of  the  Bank  of 
New  Brunswick— the  first  chartered  bank  in  the  province.  He  was  also  pro- 
vince treasurer  and  filled  other  important  offices.  He  died  October  8,  1828,  aged 
67  years. 

§Major  Gilfred  Studholme  was  born  near  Dublin,  where  he  owned  a  small 
estate  and  had  relatives.  He  entered  the  army  and  in  1776  was  given  a  commis- 
sion in  Gov.  Legge's  "Loyal  Nova  Scotia  Volunteers."  (See  Murdoch's  History 
of  Nova  Scotia,  vol.  11.,  p.  581).  He  was  on  July  15,  1776,  gazetted  a  captain  in 
the  Royal  Fencible  Americans  and  rendered  efficient  service  in  repulsing  an 
attack  by  the  mbels  under  Col.  Jonathan  Eddy  on  Fort  Cumberland.  In  the 
autumn  of  1778  he  was  ordered  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  John  river,  where  he 
built  Fort  Howe  and  remained  in  charge  of  the  garrison  as  major  of  brigade 
until  the  arrival  of  the  Loyalists.  He  was  actively  employed  in  assigning  lands 
to  the  different  corps  as  they  arrived,  his  assistant  being  Lieut.  Samuel  Denny 
Street.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  council  of  the  province.  As  a  reward  for 
his  important  services  he  received  a  grant  of  a  large  tract  of  land  in  the  parish 
of  Studholm,  in  Kings  County,  to  which  he  retired  and  where  he  died  in  1792. 


148  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

and  one  Serv't  in  company  with  Mr.  Leonard.  I  am  told  the  Governor  is 
determined  that  Provincial  Officers  shall  have  no  lands  on  this  side  the 
Bay,  can  you  give  me  the  reason?  And  pray  let  me  know  whether  you 
think  General  Buggies  &  Pemberton  will  keep  the  lands  they  have  got  an 
order  of  survey  for.  I  suspect  the  late  order  from  the  King  will  affect 
them.  I  have  made  a  purchase  of  Pemberton  and  should  be  glad  to  be  in- 
formed how  the  title  stands.  I  am  not  yet  fairly  in  quarters  but  have 
some  of  my  family  and  goods  abc  at  nine  miles  up  the  River  where  we  must 
remain  for  some  time  at  one  Longley's,*  give  me  a  call  as  you  come  down 
and  I  will  give  you  a  bottle  of  old  Hock  &  perhaps  a  good  Mutton  chop,  in 
spite  of  Chesterfield,  I  must  say  1  am  in  haste, 

Yours  sincerely, 

I.  Allen. 

[P.  S.]  I  was  desirous  not  to  send  the  dispatches  by  express  unless 
I  met  with  no  opportunity  in  the  course  of  a  week.  It  seems  there  has 
been  one  but  I  was  looking  for  shelter  for  my  Family  at  that  time. 

Rev.  Jonathan  Odell  to  Edward  Winslow. 

New  York,  8th  Novem'r,  1783. 

Sir, — I  know  that  to.  preface  a  request  to  you  with  an  apology  for 
making  it  would  on  my  part  be  no  recommendation — therefore  leaving 
"much  ado  about  nothing"  to  Benedict  and  Beatrice,  my  request  is  in 
three  words,  that  you  will  speak  of  me  in  the  language  of  a  friendly  parti- 
ality to  General  Fox,  a  hint  from  whom  in  my  favour  to  his  Brother  (I  am 
told  by  a  friend  in  England)  might  contribute  much  to  the  success  of  my 
hopes  respecting  an  appointment  as  Assistant  Secretary  to  a  British  Em- 
bassador,  if  such  an  one  is  to  be  sent  to  this  country.  My  present  employ- 
ment in  the  same  station,  under  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  is  unavoidably  to  cease 
in  a  very  short  time,  unless  there  should  be  for  once  an  instance,  rarely 
met  with,  of  "detur  dignissimo,"  in  which  case  I  dare  say  you  will  think 
with  me  that  Sir  Guy  would  himself  be  the  Person  whom,  was  he  to  accept 
the  trust,  I  should  have  to  sollicit  for  a  continuance  of  that  favour  which 
has  so  seasonably  come  to  my  relief  at  the  close  of  a  seven  years  idle  expec- 
tation, during  the  Command  of  his  Predecessors.  If  you  remain  in  Nova 
Scotia  for  the  winter,  I  may  have  the  pleasure  to  see  you  there — but 
wherever  your  lot  may  be,  I  shall  "at  all  times  and  in  all  places,"  with 
your  good  leave,  claim  the  honour  of  being 

Your  affectionate  friend 

&  humble  servant, 
Jon'n  Odell. 

*This  was  the  ancestor  of  Hon.  J.  W.  Longley,  the  present  attorney  general 
of  Nova  Scotia. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  149 

Capt.  Callbeck*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Island  St.  John,  Charlotte  Town, 

21st.  Nov'r,  1783. 

My  dear  Winslow, — Forgive  me  for  not  having  wrote  you  ere  this.  I 
should  make  many  apologies  for  not  having  done  so  if  your  transition  had 
been  announced  by  yourself.  Your  arrival  at  the  delectable  Halifax  came 
to  me  by  hear  say  and  until  lately,  tho'  frequently  enquired  after,  it  re- 
mained a  matter  of  uncertainty  to  me — A  Winslow  was  there  but  I  could 
not  ascertain  whether  it  was  my  friend.  To  congratulate  you  on  your  ar- 
rival would  be  in  my  opinion  a  very  chilly  and  unmeaning  compliment, 
the  Country  you  have  left  is  in  every  respect  (but  as  to  Loyalty)  a  Para- 
dise in  comparison,  the  less  is  said  on  these  very  trying  occasions  the 
better.  If  you  should  range  towards  this  spot  next  year,  believe  me  no 
one  will  be  happier  to  see  you,  and  if  anything  can  be  procured  for  you 
here  inform  me  and  your  commission  shall  be  attended  with  the  sincerest 
pleasure.  Mrs.  Callbeck  is  well,  offers  her  best  compliments.  I  am  with 
sincerity — 

Ever  your  faithful  &  affect. 

PhilTs  Callbeck. 

General  Haldimand  to  Governor  Parr. 

Quebec,  27  Nov.,  1783. 

Sir, — Mercure,t  the  Acadian  who  came  lately  into  this  province  as  a 
guide  to  Mr.  Bliss,  having  informed  me  that  many  of  his  countrymen 
wished  to  emigrate  into  this  Province  for  the  sake  of  enjoying  their  re- 
ligion with  more  liberty,  and  less  difficulty  in  procuring  priests,  I  have 
thought  proper  to  communicate  the  idea  to  your  Excellency  that  in  case 
you  should  approve  of  the  measure  we  should  mutually  assist  in  taking 
steps  to  carry  it  into  execution.  My  plan  is  to  grant  them  lands  at  the 
Great  Falls  on  the  Kiver  St.  Johns,  which  in  time  may  form  settlements  to 
extend  almost  to  the  Kiver  St.  Lawrence,  which  will  contribute  much  to 
facilitate  the  communication  so  much  to  be  desired  between  the  two  Pro- 
vinces, and  which  may  be  attended  with  circumstances  very  favourable  for 
their  mutual  interests.  I  shall  be  glad  to  have  your  opinion  on  this  sub- 
ject, and  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  regard, 
Your  Excellency's  most  obedient 

and  most  humble  servant, 

Frederick  Haldimand. 

*See  biographical  note  under  date  23rd  Aug.,  1783,  in  this  book. 

•(•Louis  Mercure  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Madawaska  settlement  in 
1786.  During  the  Revolution  he  carried  dispatches  from  St.  John  to  Quebec 
for  the  governors  of  Nova  Scotia  and  Canada.  He  lived  at  that  time  at 
Aukpaque,  about  six  miles  above  Fredericton. 


150  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

Sarah  Winslow  to  Benjamin  Marston. 

Halifax,  November  29,  1783. 

My  Dear  Cousin, — This  day  Mrs.  Stanhope  and  Miss  Prince  called 
upon  us.  Hearing  by  Mrs.  Stanhope  that  their  ship*  is  to  sail  for  Port 
Hoseway  tomorrow,  I  attended  the  company  that  dined  here,  at  dinner  and 
tea;  have  now  left  them  very  ehearfully  set  down  to  two  card  tables,  and 
retired  to  thank  you  for  your  affectionate  letter  of  November  eighth 
*  *  *  We  are  not  only  comfortably  but  eligabely  situated  in  a  good 
house  upon  the  Parade,  next  door  to  Col.  Goold,  are  all  in  health  glad  we 
are  here  and  Happy.  When  I  wrote  you  last  we  were  in  the  house  my 
Brother  has  for  an  office,  and  thankful  were  we  when  we  first  arrived  to 
have  so  good  a  place  to  go  to.  We  immediately  took  possession  of  it  and 
remained  there  untill  he  very  fortunately  got  this  for  us,  which  is  as  com- 
fortable a  one  as  we  at  present  have  any  desire  for,  very  warm,  pleasantly 
situated  in  the  most  lively  clean  part  of  the  Town.  I  leave  you  to  judge 
whether  the  rooms  are  not  very  good  when  I  tell  you  that  this  day  week 
General  Fox  with  sixteen  of  our  Friends  dined  with  us  with  great  con- 
venience. I  With  truth  do  I  say  to  you  I  am  not  only  glad  but  exceedingly 
rejoiced  that  we  came  here  instead  of  going  to  Great  Britain.  The  family 
all  enjoy  good  health  and  a  degree  of  cheerfulness  that  we  have  long  been 
strangers  to:  have  quietly  bid  adieu  to  Old  and  New  England — and  all 
endeavouring  to  add  to  the  felicity  of  each  other,  seldome  as  possible  re- 
flect upon  past  disagreeables,  and  strive  never  to  anticipate  any  for  the 
future,  but  enjoy  while  we  can  the  blessings  still  left  for  us.  My  good 
Father  has  not  had  one  hour  ill  health  since  he  has  been  in  the  place,  we 
keep  him  generally  in  spirits — when  we  do  not  make  a  whist  table  for 
him  he  always  can  amuse  himself  at  picket  as  our  friend  Major  Murray 
never  spends  an  evening  from  us.  Every  attention  is  paid  us  by  all  here, 
but  we  seldome  spend  days  abroad,  never  when  we  can  with  any  propriety 
get  excused,  for  we  are  always  certain  that  we  shall  be  cheerful  at  home, 
our  family  being  a  sprightly  one  at  present.  Edward  is  full  of  his  fun  and 
spends  every  moment  thaFhe  can  possibly  get  with  us.  Major  Murray  and 
Captain  Phillips  still  more  belong  to  the  family,  they  lodge  with  him  and 
live  with  us.  Our  very  worthy  friend  Murray's  intention  of  going  to 
England  at  this  late  season  is  at  times  a  damp  to  our  spirits. 

I  am  more  and  more  in  love  with  my  [brother]  Edward.  He  would 
be  greatly  raised  in  your  esteem,  my  Cousin,  could  you  know  the  good  he 
really  does  every  moment  of  his  life.  So  disinterested  is  he  that  his  whole 

"The  ship  of  war  Mercury,  of  which  Captain  Stanhope  was  commander. 
Benjamin  Marston  describes  him  as  "a  very  well  bred  man,  master  of  the 
whole  etiquette  of  polite  ceremony." 

fThe  house  in  which  the  elder  Edward  Winslow  resided  was  the  property 
of  Col.  Arthur  Goold;  the  rent  paid  was  £15,  N.  S.  currency,  per  quarter. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  151 

time  is  devoted  to  the  service  of  others  without  any  other  reward  than 
what  arises  from  the  happiness  of  assisting  the  unfortunate.  I  was  this 
morning,  as  I  very  often  am,  highly  entertained  with  him  and  his  General. 
They  are  in  many  respects  exceedingly  alike,  very  fond  of  each  other  and 
ever  good  company. 

I  wish  it  was  convenient  for  you  to  be  here  this  winter,  we  all  long 
to  see  you.  I  am  sorry  not  to  have  any  acquaintance  with  a  Lady  so  high 
in  your  esteem  as  Miss  C — .  She  did  us  the  favour  of  making  us  a  morn- 
ing visit.  I  returned  it  hoping  for  the  pleasure  of  seeing  her  and  her 
mama  but  the  Ladys  were  not  at  home. 

No  dispute  have  we  as  yet  among  the  great  about  precedence  or  any- 
thing else;  all  goes  on  smoothly  gay,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Parr  very  agreeable,  the 
Commissioners  Ladys  we  have  not  yet  called  upon,  are  told  they  are  pleas- 
ing. Miss  D — *  not  handsome.  Balls  and  assemblys  have  begun,  but  I 
have  not  attended  the  two  first,  am  told  not  again  to  tell  the  reason  why  I 
did  not  but  to  you  give  the  only  one  that  prevented — want  of  inclination. 
I  love  dancing  but  am  no  admirer  of  confusion  and  dust.  Brother  went 
but  joyn'd  our  party  at  home  before  the  evening  was  out;  believe  we  were 
full  as  well  amused  by  his  description  as  we  could  have  been  had  we  joyn'd 
the  crowd.  I  propose  attending  some,  but  as  we  are  to  have  them  every 
fortnight  beg  to  be  excused  attending  all. 

I  am  very  desirous  to  know  whether  my  cousin  White  has  arrived  at 
Shelburne,  the  last  letter  from  him  he  expected  to  have  been  there  long 
before  this.  God  prevent  any  more  misfortunes  attending  that  unhappy 
family.  I  enclose  a  letter  for  you  from  my  unfortunate  cousin  Winslow.  f 
Poor  unhappy  girl;  those  that  ought  to  befriend  her  are  brutes.  As  an 
apology  for  neglecting  her,  and  their  own  bad  conduct,  they  have  flattered 
her  with  impossibilitys.  It  is  utterly  out  of  my  Brother's  power  to  obtain 
land  or  provision  for  her  while  she  remains  there— my  Father  says  the 
whole  thirds  of  the  Marshfield  farm  ought  to  be  hers,  but  I  am  fearful 
they  will  be  so  base  as  to  deny  her  any  part. 

Some  time  before  our  furniture  was  disposed  of  I  wrote  my  mother 
requesting  that  the  picture  in  our  Hall  with  the  Coat  of  Arms  that  my 
Sister  and  myself  worked  might  be  given  to  the  care  of  a  young  Lady  for 
me,  they  being  very  elegant  I  greatly  wished  for  them  for  a  particular 
purpose.  When  my  Mother  came  to  New  York  it  was  not  in  her  power 
to  bring  even  them.  This  week  a  letter  from  the  Lady  informs  me,  that 
about  two  months  ago  Col.  Warren  sent  a  sheriff  to  her  with  orders  that 
she  must  give  oath  that  she  had  nothing  in  her  possession  belonging  to  our 

*Miss  Duncan,  daughter  of  Henry  Duncan,  commissioner  of  the  navy  yard 
fMrs.   Pelham  Winslow,  who  was  a  sister  of  Capt.  Gideon  White.    > 
under  letter  of  Pelham  Winslow  of  May  30,  1778. 


152  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

family.  Not  daring  to  take  the  oath  she  gave  up  the  article,  and  He  had 
.  inipudenc;e  enough  to'  tell  -her  that  be  tooke  them  for" a  'debt  which  he  did 
not:  recollect' when 'He  took'  the  other  things^  I  do"  Kelieye  he  Is  the  cbm- 
pleatest  Devil  that  ever  .was  suffered  to  live..  That  at '  this ' late 'hour  he 
should  be  contriveing  ways  to  torment  his  benefactor  is  a  master  piece  of 
wickedness— I  have  done  with  him  never  again  to  mention  his  name.  *  * 
My  Brother  and  <the  Major  have  just  been  in  to  bid  me  goo'd  night— 
•tjiey  say, the;  party  in  the  next  room  are breaking  up,  and  that 'it  is  full  time 
•  this.! letter- is  -firiiehed.-?  They  are  monstrous  saucy  upon  the  length  of  it, 
think  you  must  have  the  patience  of  rJob  to 'go  through  it,  but  I  care  not 
•for ^  what-- they  say—they  would  either  of  them  be  glad  of  as  long  a  one 
( when  absent:  .Ned -desires  I  would  tell  you  he  intends  to  have'a  road  be~ 
.:••  It^e'en  •  Port  Eos'e  way  and  -Annapolis,*  and  many  other  great  and  wondrous 
[things. is  he  to  do,'  but  he  talks'  so  loud  and  so  fast  I  cannot  tell  any  m'ore. 
"Ajdieu >  my  Gousiii;  .success  and  happiness,  attend  you  wishes  your  affec- 

•.  vijtcmate : Cousin.  y^r^r^v: 

S.  Winslow. 


.Ward  .Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow, 

On-  Board  the  "Tryal"  off  Staten  Island, 

Nov'r.  29th,  1783. 

My "  dear  Winsiow,— -I ;  have  already  written  to  you  previous  to  the 

-Evacuation  of  New  York,  but  have  received  when  ashore  today  at  Staten 

Island  your  letters  of  the  9th  and  15th  inst.,  for  which  I  thank  you  very 

much:  .'.'I.  have  been  a  witness  to  the  mortifying  scene  of  giving  up  the 

r0iiy';of  New  •  York-  to  the  American  Troops.     About  12  o'clock  on  Tuesday 

'the-2  5th.  inst, -'all  our  Troops  were  paraded  on  the  wide  ground  before  the 

'Provost,  where  they  remained  till  the  Americans  about  1  o'clock  marched 

•inUhro'  Queen- Street -and  Wall- Street  to  the  Broad-way,  when  they  wheeled 

off /to  the  hay-wharf  and  embarked  immediately  and  fell  down  to  Staten 

Island.     I  walked  out  and  saw  the  American  Troops  under  General  Knox 

inarch  in,  and  was 'one  of  the  last  on 'shore  in  the  City;  it  really  occasioned 

vjnpst-* painful  sensations  and'I  tho't  Sir' Guy,  who  was  upon  parade,  looked 

•unusually  dejected.      The  'particular  account  of  the  business  of  the  day 

you  wil^find  in  the  news-papers  which  I  have  enclosed  to  Blowers.     I  have 

'  passed'- two  days  since  in  the -City  to  which  I  returned  upon  finding  all :  was 

peace  and  quiet.   .'A  more  shabby  ungentleman-like  looking  crew  than  the 

new"  Inhabitants  'are  I  never  'saw,  tho'  I  met  with  no  insult  or  molestation . 

The  •Council" -for  sixty  days,  which  is  invested  with  supreme  authority  for 

*In  "Cabotia;"  a  series  of  maps  of  British  North  America  published  in  1814,  a 
dotted  line  shows' an  old  road  between  Shelburne  and  Annapolis.  It  is  marked"  Im- 
passable1 Track,  called  Pell's  road,  cutout  in. 1784,  hut  now  covered  with  yon  nir  trees." 

' 


1783]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  153 

that  term,  is  sitting;  what  will  be  determined  by  them  is  uncertain,  many 
are  apprehensive  of  violent  and  severe  measures  against  individuals.  I 
paid  my  respects  to  Generals  Knox  and  Jackson,  the  latter  is  Commandant 
of  the  City;  they  received  me  very  politely.  I  had  the  satisfaction  also  of 
seeing  General  Washington,  who  is  really  a  good  looking  genteel  fellow. 
Scarce  any  of  our  friends  or  any  man  of  respectability  remains  at  New 
York,  they  are  principally  embarked  for  England.  I  am  now  on  board 
ship  for  the  voyage.  We  have  a.  good  set — Col.  Drummond  who  is  very 
civil,  friendly  and  polite  to  me;  Fred  Philips,  who  is  as  good  a  fellow  as 
ever  (I  wish  you  had  mentioned  him  particularly  in  your  letter  for  he 
really  loves  you);  Gilfillan*  whose  facetious  character  you  know,  a  Mr. 
Sinclair  in  the  civil  branch  of  ordnance,  Capt.  Eeid  and  two  subalterns  of 
the  Eoyal  Artillery,  8  in  all  and  I  assure  you  we  make  ourselves  very 
cheerful.  We  expect  to  sail  by  Tuesday  next. 

My  prospects  in  going  to  England  are  upon  the  whole  as  favorable  as 
I  expected.  I  have  as  I  mentioned  to  you,  the  whole  business  of  the  board 
of  claims  t  committed  to  my  management,  and  I  am  not  a  little  pleased  to 
find  that  Harrison,  who  resigned  his  seat  at  the  board  some  time  before  we 
left  New  York,  obtained  a  warrant  from  Corner  in  Chief  for  20s  stg.  per 
day  for  the  time  he  belonged  to  it.  I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  plead  this 
precedent  when  I  have  finished  the  business.  Sir  Guy  has  given  me  a 
letter  of  introduction  and  recommendation  to  Lord  North.  Thompson, 
who  means  to  pass  the  winter  upon  the  Continent  of  Europe,  writes  me  he 
has  left  a  very  particular  recommendation  and  introduction  for  me  to  Lord 
Sackville,  so  that  upon  the  whole  I  live  in  hopes  of  going  to  Halifax  next 
year  with  a  bold  face.  I  consider  the  present  by  far  the  most  important 
period  of  my  life,  and  am  determined  to  exert  every  faculty  to  get  myself 
forward.  I  shall  most  anxiously  expect  the  letter  you  promise  me  by 
Gen'l  F.  I  have  been  explicit,  be  you  so  also  in  communicating  your 
views,  hopes  and  prospects.  I  need  not  repeat  to  you  that  your  welfare  and 
happiness  is  equally  dear  to  me  as  my  own;  my  principal  anxiety  is  for  us 
to  get  together  again  with  some  chosen  friends  and  I  think  we  should  be 
happy  in  a  desert. 

I  immediately  communicated  your  letters  and  enclosures  relative  to 
Cochran  and  little  Weeks  t  to  Mr.  Watson  and  Major  Upham.  Coffin  this 
day  tells  me  the  business  is  satisfactorily  settled  for  .both.  Greet  Mr. 

*He  was  a  deputy  quarter  master  general  at  New  York  in  1783. 

fThis  board  was  appointed  by  order  of  Sir  Guy  Carleton  at  New  York  on 
May  4,  1783.  Its  business  was  to  investigate  claims  for  supplies  furnished  of 
various  sorts  to  the  army.  The  chairman  of  the  board  was  Gregory  Townsend, 
assistant  commissary  general,  and  the  secretary  was  Ward  Chipman. 

I  The  reference  seems  to  be  to  Rev.  Joshua  Wingate  Weeks.  In  the  year 
1783  he  was  chaplain  to  the  King's  Orange  Rangers,  then  stationed  at  Halifax. 
Before  the  Revolution  he  was  rector  at  Marblehead,  Massachusetts.  At  the 
close  of  the  war  he  settled  in  Nova  Scotia,  where  he  died  in  1804. 


154  WINSLOW  PAPERS,  [1783 

Weeks  for  me  and  in  my  name,  he  is  a  worthy  good  Fellow  and  I  both  love 
and  esteem  him. 

I  intreat  you  my  dear  Ned  let  me  know  by  every  opportunity  how  you 
are  and  what  is  going  forward  in  Nova  Scotia.  I  shall  not  lose  sight  of  that 
as  my  determined  place  of  resort  and  shall  of  course  be  very  anxious  to 
know  all  the  particulars  about  the  settlements,  locations,  &c,  &c. — 

To  Tom  Coffin — indisputably  the  very  best  fellow  in  the  world,  and 
to  Townsend*  who  really  loves  you  and  speaks  most  affectionately  of  you 
I  refer  for  all  further  particulars  both  of  a  public  and  private  nature. 
Adieu  my  dear  Fellow  you  shall  hear  from  me  the  moment  I  arrive  in  Eng- 
land. God  bless  you  with  all  good  and  make  you  as  happy  as  you  desire 
and  deserve,  prays  most  fervently  and  sincerely,  your  unalterably  devoted 

&  faithful  friend, 

Chip. 

To  Father,  Mother  and  Sisters,  say  that  Chip  thinks,  dreams  and 
speaks  of  them  perpetually  with  the  warmest  friendship  and  affection. 


Jonathan  Odell  to  Edward  Winslow. 

"Ceres"— off  Staten  Island,  3d  Dec'r,  1783. 

My  dear  Sir, — Our  evacuation  of  New  York  took  place  on  the  25th 
ultimo  without  any  appearance  of  disorder,  and  the  town,  we  hear,  con- 
tinues in  quiet  under  the  American  military.  The  season  being  so  far  ad- 
vanced, I  have  postponed  my  intended  voiage  to  Nova  Scotia  till  next 
Spring,  and  am  going  to  pass  the  winter  in  England.  The  Commander  in 
Chief  having  done  me  the  honor  to  invite  me  to  a  passage  with  him  makes 
this  voiage  the  more  agreeable.  If  I  can  render  you  any  service  on  the 
other  side  of  the  water,  be  so  good  as  to  command  me  without  reserve. 

Two  musters  pay,  as  Chaplain  of  the  King's  American  Dragoons,  I 
understand  have  been  received  for  me  either  by  you  or  Major  Murray. 
The  balance  due  to  me,  whatever  it  may  be,  will  be  very  welcome  in  Eng- 
land. You,  or  the  Major,,  will  therefore  greatly  add  to  past  obligations  if 
you  favor  me  with  an  order  or  Bill  for  the  money,  payable  in  London, 
which  I  hope  to  receive  by  the  month  of  March  next.  Direct  for  me  at 
Mr.  Kempe's,  No.  116,  Jermyn  Street,  St.  James's. 

Wishing  you  all  possible  happiness  in  your  present  and  future  pros- 
pects, I  am,  Dear  Sir, 

Most  sincerely  yours, 
J.  Odell. 

*Gregory  Townsend  of  Boston  was  assistant  commissary  general  at  New 
York  and  president  of  the  board  of  claims.  At  the  peace  in  1783  he  went  to 
Halifax.  He  died  there  in  1798,  and  James  Putnam  and  E.  B.  Brenton  were 
executors  to  his  estate. 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  155 

Sir  Wm.  Pepperrell  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Wimople  Street,  Dec'r.  4th,  1783. 

Dear  Sir, — The  Packet  sails  so  much  sooner  than  was  expected  that  I 
have  only  a  minute  just  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  obliging  letter 
of  the  24th  of  Octo'r  last,  with  your  good  Father's  memorial,  which  I  lost  rio 
time  in  delivering  to  one  of  the  Secretaries  to  the  Commissioners  for  his 
perusal  and  approbation.  I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  see  Mr.  Forster 
since  he  read  it,  but  I  should  have  heard  from  them  before  this,  if  it  had 
not  been  properly  drawn;  I  shall  see  him  in  a  day  or  two  when  I  will  do 
myself  the  pleasure  of  writing  you  again.  I  imagine  that  you  know  already 
that  the  lodging  the  memorial  in  the  Commissioners  office  will  answer  no 
other  purpose  than  just  to  save  the  time  limited  by  Act  of  Parliament,  for 
their  receiving  claims,  and  that  they  cannot  enter  upon  an  enquiry  in  any 
one's  claim  till  the  claimant  personally  appears  before  them.  My  time 
forbids  my  enlarging  at  present  farther  than  to  beg  that  you  and  your 
family  will  ever  command  my  best  services,  and  to  assure  you  I  am  with 
real  esteem  and  respect,  Dear  Sir, 

Your  faithful  friend  and  most  obed't  serv't, 

W.  Pepperrell. 

Do  remember  me  to  Col.  Fanning,  Blowers  and  all  other  friends. 
Please  to  send  any  letters,  papers,  &c.,  for  me  under  cover  of  Evan  Nynan, 
Esq.,  under  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home  Department. 

Lt.  Col.  Gabriel  DeVeber*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  Johns  ye  14th  Dec'r  1783. 

Sir, — Some  time  ago  a  Letter  was  given  me  directed  to  Lt.  Col.  Hulett 
or  Officer  Command'g  the  British  American  Corps  on  the  River  St.  Johns 
wrote  by  Gen'l  Fox's  Brigade  Major.  As  Col.  Hulett  was  not  present  I 
was  induced  to  open  the  Letter,  wherein  I  found  an  order  for  Com'g  offi- 
cers of  Corps  to  make  returns  for  165  days  Bate  &  Forrage  money,  it  having 
been  granted  by  His  Exc'y  the  Com'r  in  Chief,  also  another  return  of 
Officers  with  the  Rank  &c,  &c.  I  immediately  transmitted  these  orders 
to  such  officers  as  were  here. 

I  expect  myself  to  come  to  Halifax,  when  I  shall  do  myself  the  honor 
to  wait  on  the  General,  mean  time  hope  you'll  have  the  Goodness  to  men- 

*Gabriel  DeVeber  of  New  York  saw  much  military  service  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary war.  He  was  commissioned  as  major  in  the  "West  Jersey  Volunteers, 
March  19,  1778.  The  next  year  he  was  in  the  Chasseurs  and  in  April,  1780,  in 
DeLancey's  third  battalion.  In  1782  he  was  promoted  lieutenant  colonel  in  the 
Prince  of  Wales  American  Regiment.  He  was  second  in  command  of  the  troops 
that  came  to  New  Brunswick  in  1783  to  be  disbanded.  He  was  a  grantee  at  St. 
John,  but  settled  in  Sunbury  County,  where  he  was  sheriff  in  1792  and  colonel 
of  militia. 


156  WINSLOW  PAPERS,  [1783 

tion  to  him  the  receipt  of  the  above  Letter  &  what  I  have  done  in  conse- 
quence thereof. 

I  am  still  here,  where  I  have  built  a  small  House,  for  the  present.  I 
have  not  been  up  the  Kiver  yet,  indeed  the  block  No.  11.  which  our  Eegi- 
ment  has  drawn*  is  so  far  up  that  am  totally  discouraged.  The  Numer- 
ous family  I  have  demands  some  Attention  to  the  Education  of  Children; 
at  such  a  distance  they  never  can  hope  for  any,  and  I  should  think  myself 
highly  Culpable,  were  I  not  to  endeavor  to  settle  nearer  to  the  Metropolis, 
or  some  place  where  I  can  attend  to  this  necessary  duty,  I  shall  therefore 
leave  no  Stone  Unturned  in  Sollicitting  my  friends  to  procure  me  if  pos- 
sible some  Lands  nearer  Hallifax.  Pass  McQuadyt  am  told  would  be  an 
Elligible  situation;  if  through  your  Interest  I  Could  be  indulged  to  have 
a  grant  there  sh'd  think  myself  very  happy,  or  any  other  place  you  thought 
would  answer.  Excuse  the  Liberty  I  take;  your  wish  to  serve  with  your 
very  kind  expressions  to  me  and  mine,  have  in  some  degree  emboldened 
me  to  take  this  Liberty,  and  to  think  you'll  serve  me  if  in  your  power,  and 
you  may  rely  that  I  shall  ever  retain  a  due  Sense  of  any  favours  or  indulg- 
ences you  may  procure  me.  God  knows  my  Losses  have  been  great  &  my 
endeavors  to  forward  the  Service,  with  my  exertions  as  an  Officer,  are  in 
some  measure  known  to  you,  and  my  Zeal  and  attachment  to  Government, 
is  I  hope  Generally  known,  therefore,  when  these  are  Considered  I  make 
no  doubt  they  will  induce  you  to  do  all  you  can  to  Serve  me. 
I  have  ye  honor  to  be  Sr. 

Your  most  humble  &  most  obedient  servant, 

Gab.  DeVever,  Lt.  Col.  Pr.  Wales  Am.  Regt. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  19th  Dec'r.  1783. 

My  dearest  Fellow — I  have  just  embraced  our  valuable  Friends  Town- 
send,  Brinley  &  Coffin,  J — You  know  how  a  man  ought  to  feel  on  such 
important,  public  .biuinopo  with  credit  to  yourcolf  and  if  pe&aible-Jg 

*Some  twelve  corps  of  Loyalists  settled  on  the  River  St.  John,  where  blocks 
of  land  were  laid  out  for  them  and  assigned  to  them  by  lot.  The  corps  settled 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  (in  order  ascending  the  stream)  were  the  New 
Jersey  Volunteers,  in  Kingsclear;  the  King's  American  Dragoons,  in  Prince 
William;  the  King's  American  Regiment  from  the  Pokiok  to  the  Eel  river;  and 
DeLancey's  1st  and  2nd  battalions  in  Woodstock  parish.  Those  on  the  east  side 
of  the  river  were  the  Maryland  Loyalists,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary's;  the  42nd 
regiment  on  the  Nashwaak;  the  Prince  of  Wales  American  Regiment  in  the 
parish  of  Douglas;  the  New  York  Volunteers,  just  below  the  Keswick;  the 
Royal  Guides  and  Pioneers,  just  above  the  Keswick;  the  Queen's  Rangers  in 
Queensbury,  and  the  Pennsylvania  Loyalists  and  Arnold's  American  Legion 
in  Southampton  and  Northampton  parishes. 

fPassamaquoddy. 

}  These  gentlemen  had  just  arrived  in  Halifax  from  New  York,  where  they 
had  lingered  until  its  evacuation  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  Gregory  Townsend  has 


1783]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  157 

occasions.  We  are  now  making  regular  arrangements  for  the  Winter's 
amusement — Whist  Club — Saturday's  Club, — &e,  &c,  &c.  I  refer  you  to 
Murray  &  Philips  for  all  circumstances  of  that  nature  while  I  proceed  to 
a  more  serious  subject. 

I  have  wrote  you  in  my  Letters  to  New  York  how  perfectly  satisfied 
I  have  been  during  my  residence  in  this  place — all  attempts  to  describe 
the  attention  &  kindness  of  General  Fox  would  be  vain.  When  I  exert 
my  talents  I  sometimes  can  collect  a  number  of  strong  expressions  and 
make  a  sentence  tolerably  emphatical,  but  by  Heaven  on  this  subject  I 
am  literally  as  the  sailors  say  all  aback. 

You — Ward  Chipman,  never  engaged  with  more  warmth  of  affection 
to  relieve  me  from  distress  than  He  has  done.  You  never  exerted  your- 
self with  more  affectionate  zeal  to  render  services  to  all  my  friends,  than 
he  has  discovered.  And  you  were  never  more  apparently  &  sincerely 
gratify'd  at  any  event  that  increased  my  consequence  or  afforded  me  satis- 
faction than  General  Fox,  has  been.  You  must  of  course — as  you  know 
my  heart  and  that  it  is  certainly  a  grateful  one — be  able  to  judge  what 
are  my  sensations  at  parting  with  him. 

I  am  really  most  keenly  distressed — but  I  must  tell  you  that  I  have 
made  him  particularly  acquainted  with  the  cordial  friendship  that  has 
subsisted  between  us.  I  have  told  him,  what  is  true,  that  I  am  more 
anxious  for  your  success  &  welfare  than  I  am  for  my  own,  and  I  have 
entreated  him  to  become  acquainted  with  you  immediately  on  his  arrival 
in  England,  to  make  the  same  confidential  friend  of  you  as  he  has  of  me. 
He  means  to  solicit  a  Government  &  if  a  separation  takes  place  &  a  new 
government  is  formed  at  St.  John's!  he  will  prefer  it  to  any  other.  In 
effecting  this  he  will  have  occasion  for  the  exertion  of  all  your  talents — 
he  is  perfectly  competent  to  give  the  necessary  information  on  the  subject, 
and  is  in  possession  of  maps,  papers,  &c,  but  it  will  be  necessary  for  you 
to  digest  the  business.  His  own  private  affairs  are  also  much  deranged 
by  the  death  of  Mr.  Powell,  and  he  will  have  occasion  for  your  advice  & 
assistance.  He  has  asked  me  particularly  to  request  it, — and  I  have  most 
solemnly  assured  him  that  you  will  attend  him  as  soon  as  he  arrives  and 
that  he  will  be  spared  the  trouble  of  an  explanation  to  you.  I  have  added 
— that  your  spirit  is  too  independent  to  admit  of  any  offers  of  reward  for 
such  services.  I've  told  him  that  your  object  in  England  is  to  close  some 

already  been  mentioned  in  these  notes  and  Thomas  A.  Coffin  will  be  referred  to 
later. 

George  Brinley  was  formerly  a  Boston  merchant.    Towards  the  end  of  the 
war  he  was  a  deputy  commissary,   and  on  the  death  of  Gregory  Townsend,  in 
1798,    appears    to   have   been    appointed    commissary    general    of    His    Majesty's 
forces  in  British  North  America.    He  died  at  Halifax  in  1809. 
f  Meaning  a  new  province  on  the  River  St.  John. 


158  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1783 

important  public  business  with  credit  to  yourself  —  and  if  possible  to 
obtain  some  Law  employment.  I  have  communicated  the  principal  part 
of  my  conversation  on  this  subject,  I  need  not  dictate  a  line  of  conduct  to 
you.  At  all  events  I  was  determined  you  should  be  acquainted.  I  know 
what  consequences  must  follow.  In  the  hum  of  his  Departure  I  cannot 
write  much. 

I  inclose  you  a  Memorial  for  Land.  I  refer  you  to  the  General  for 
all  particulars  respecting  the  business,  he'll  describe  the  scandalous  im- 
pediments and  shameful  delays  of  the  public  officers  here.  If  you  do  not 
exert  yourselves  in  England  to  effect  some  material  change  in  the  Govern- 
ment here,  I  mean  the  officers  of  it,  the  Country  will  never  be  settled  to  all 
eternity.  If  you  see  Col.  Innes  relate  to  him  the  difficulties  attending  an 
application,  assure  him  that  I  have  not  been  inattentive  to  the  orders  of 
Gen'l  Abercrombie  &  himself,  &  that  I  shall  presevere  until  I  effect  the 
business. 

I  have  an  infinite  variety  of  things  to  say  to  you,  but  in  the  present 
state  of  mind  I  can  add  nothing  more.  I  will  write  a  folio  by  the  next 
conveyance. 

Adieu, 

Everlastingly 
Yours 

Ed.  Winslow. 

I  inclose  you  a  number  of  very  rough  minutes  respecting  our  new 
country.  I  cannot  write  to  Philips.  I  will  next  time. 

Bernard  Graham  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax  5th  January,  1784. 

Sir, — I  hope  you  will  pardon  the  great  liberty  in  writing  you  and 
giving  so  much  trouble  about  so  small  a  matter  as  my  provisions  in  the 
late  Royal  Fencible  American  Regiment;  and  as  I  know  your  honor  has 
greater  affairs  to  attend,  yet  I  am  really  distressed  &  I  am  well  informed 
the  distressed  always  find  relief  from  your  goodness. 

I  have  served  the  King  since  the  year  1756  in  the  45th  Regiment, 
Shirley's,  and  in  the  Royal  Fencible  Americans.  I  was  at  the  Seige  of 
Louisburg,  the  taking  of  Newfoundland  and  at  the  siege  of  Fort  Cumber- 
land. I  am  now  an  old  man,  and  a  taylor  by  trade,  but  my  eyesight  begins 
to  fail  me — however  I  can  work  a  little  at  my  trade  &  as  I  have  an  ac- 
quaintance with  Mr.  Bacon  above  Fort  Sackville  I  mean  to  go  there  and 
spend  the  winter.  And  my  request  is,  honored  Sir,  that  you  will  be 
pleased  to  order  me  to  receive  my  six  month's  provisions  at  one  draught, 
or  monthly  should  it  seem  best  to  your  honor,  as  if  I  receive  it  weekly  I 
cannot  go  to  the  country  and  come  in  once  a  week. 

I  hope  when  your  honor  looks  at  my  gray  hairs  and  my  long  services 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  159 

you  will  not  be  afraid  I  will  sell  my  provisions  or  make  a  bad  use  of  them, 
as  my  experience  in  life  tells  me  other  ways.  Your  honor's  granting  my 
request  will  essentially  oblige  an  old  man,  who  while  he  lives  will  pray  for 
your  honor. 

I  am  Sir,  Your  honor's  most  obedient, 

very  humble  and  obliged  servant, 
Bernard  Graham,  late  Soldier  R.  F.  A. 


Lieut.  Col.  Isaac  Allen  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Wilmot,  January  6th,  1784. 

Dear  Winslow, — The  bearer  Capt.  Beeler  will  deliver  your  letter, 
which  has  been  long  wrote  in  answer  to  your's  respecting  your  Father's 
Grant.  Col.  Delancey  was  to  have  taken  the  letter,  but  he  has  disappoint- 
ed me,  and  I  have  been  confined  by  a  violent  pain  in  my  back  in  addition 
to  my  other  complaints  &  misfortunes. 

I  can  make  no  further  discovery  as  yet  respecting  the  land.  Mr. 
Robertson  made  two  mistakes  in  receiving  the  Bate  &  forage.  Mr.  Cor- 
nelius Thompson,  who  was  struck  out  of  the  Return,  came  with  the  Bat- 
talion and  is  now  at  St.  John's,  and  poor  old  Jenkins,*  who  is  there  with 
a  wife  and  three  children  and  commands  the  Major's  Company,  should 
have  had  the  Company  money.  Suppose  I  was  to  send  a  new  return  in- 
cluding Thompson  &  giving  Jenkins  that  money,  could  the  mistake  be 
rectified? 

Capt.  Beeler  was  of  the  Militia  in  Georgia,  a  Loyal  active  man,  you 
will  be  convinced  I  answered  your  former  letter  pretty  soon,  as  the  one  I 
now  enclose  you  has  all  the  marks  of  antiquity  about  it. 

Yours  &c. 

I.  Allen. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  7th  January,  1784. 

I  am  now  my  dear  fellow  in  a  snug  room  by  a  good  fire  and  deter- 
mined not  to  be  interrupted.  It  is  the  first  time  I  have  been  able  to  make 
such  a  declaration  for  several  months  past.  The  variety  of  business  which 

*The  reference  is  to  Lieutenant  John  Jenkins,  who  received  his  commission 
in  the  3rd  Battalion  of  the  New  Jersey  Volunteers,  February  10,  1777.  He  was 
at  one  time  adjutant  of  the  corps.  He  served  gallantly  throughout  the  war. 
and  at  the  peace  of  1783  settled  on  his  farm  in  Kingsclear,  York  county.  He 
was  afterwards  an  officer  in  the  King's  New  Brunswick  Regiment,  and  in  1793 
commanded  the  post  established  at  Presq'Isle,  on  the  St.  John  river.  His  son 
was  Capt.  John  Jenkins,  who  greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  war  of  1812. 
He  married  a  daughter  of  Col.  Edward  Winslow,  and  we  shall  learn  more  of 
him  in  the  pages  following. 


160  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

I  have  been  obliged  to  perform  has  embarrassed  my  mind,  changed  my 
pleasureable  pursuits,  and  almost  forced  me  to  forget  my  Friends.  * 

When  I  was  called  to  my  present  employment  I  was  surrounded  by 
a  set  of  the  most  unfortunate  men  that  ever  Heaven  permitted  to  as- 
semble. Chagrin  &  Despondency  predominated.  An  uncommon  flow  of 
spirits — a  kind  of  dependence  on  Providence  (or  something  else)  supported 
me,  and  that  Faith — (for  Faith  I  know  not  what  else  to  call  it)  made  me 
anticipate  events  which  should  extricate  me  from  my  difficulties.  You 
know  the  state  of  my  finances  when  I  left  you  and  you  will  of  course 
acknowledge  that  my  confidence  in  Heaven  was  put  to  a  severe  test. 
When  I  received  your  information  of  my  appointment  with  General  Fox 
I  formed  a  resohition  not  to  be  diverted  from  my  duty 
by  any  temptations  and  this  I  religiously  kept.  On  a  nearer  scrutiny  of 
the  character  of  the  man  with  whom  I  was  serving  I  was  not  only  con- 
firmed in  my  first  opinion  that  his  conduct  would  be  dictated  by  an  inde- 
pendent spirit  and  the  most  honorable  principles,  but  I  perceived  that  all 
his  decisions  were  the  result  of  strong  sense  and  sound  reasoning  and  that 
they  were  unalterable.  I  also  found  that  his  benevolence  extended  to  all 
orders  of  persons.  These  grand  traits  being  discovered  a  scope  was  given 
for  the  indulgence  of  my  own  ambition.  The  boldness  of  the  measures 
arising  from  the  conscious  rectitude  of  his  intentions  rendered  it  per- 
fectly safe  to  give  him  an  opinion,  because  (if  right)  it  was  sure  of  prompt 
execution  and  the  darting  penetration  which  he  possesses  secured  him 
against  dangers  from  errors  which  the  rashness  of  my  judgment  might  in 
some  instances  have  exposed  him  to  because  he  always  saw  and  corrected 
them. 

I  shall  pay  myself  the  highest  possible  compliment  when  I  say  that 
a  similitude  of  sentiments  on  almost  every  important  subject  produced  an 
implicit  confidence,  and  we  literally  were  jointly  and  constantly  employed 
in  detecting  the  frauds  of  villains,  long  accustomed  to  cheat  the  public, 
and  in  relieving  the  distresses  of  miserable  &  meritorious  objects.  You 
who  know  my  heart  better  than  any  man  on  earth  can  best  imagine  the 
degree  of  satisfaction  I  must  have  experienced  from  such  a  connection.  I 
forgot  all  my  private  distresses,  the  mortifications  which  I  experienced  all 
vanished.  They  were  succeeded  by  a  kind  of  enthusiasm  such  as  one  feels 
in  the  midst  of  military  triumph  only  more  rational.  God  knows  that  I 
have  no  mercenary  ideas,  I  therefore  did  not  look  for  any  pecuniary  bene- 
fits. The  approbation  of  the  General  and  my  own  conscience  were  the 
only  rewards  I  wanted,  but  I  had  in  addition  the  blessings  of  the  unfortu- 
nate. *  *  * 

I  am  preparing  for  a  tour  to  Annapolis  &  am  manoeuvring  for  Tom 
Coffin  to  go  with  me.  I  have  been  too  long  from  my  family,  but  I  could 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  161 

not  help  it.  They  are  in  the  enjoyment  of  more  comforts  than  ever  they 
possessed,  and  the  mind  of  your  friend  Mary  is  relieved  from  all  its  dis- 
tress. The  General  and  Williamson*  will  be  able  to  give  you  a  particular 
account  of  my  habitation  &  domestic  arrangements,  to  them  and  to  Philips 
and  Murray  I  refer  you. 

The  old  folks  are  delighted  with  Halifax,  they  receive  every  civility 
and  attention — the  Girls  have  a  larger  circle  of  their  friends  than  they 
have  been  accustomed  to  since  they  left  their  home,  they  all  remember 
you  most  gratefully  and  affectionately. 

I  am  very  anxious  to  hear  what  will  probably  be  the  fate  of  my 
Fathers  application  in  England.  With  advocates  so  powerful  as  General 
Fox,  Mr.  Watson  and  the  rest  of  you,  I  think  he  must  succeed. 

When  you  see  Judge  Sewell  tell  him  how  sincerely  and  cordially  I 
esteem  him — don't  let  him  find  fault  with  me  for  dropping  a  correspond- 
ence wilich  afforded  me  infinite  pleasure — explain  to  him  my  situation  my 
embarrassments  &  perplexities  and  swear  for  me  (if  you  dare)  that  I  will 
commence  my  operations  anew  in  that  way.  Remember  me  most  kindly  to 
Mrs.  Sewell,  she  has  not  forgot  me.  If  you  ever  see  Bob  Hallowell  and  his 
family  say  every  affectionate  thing  for  me.  I  received  a  letter  from  Com- 
missioner [Benjamin]  Hallowell  respecting  a  tract  in  this  country.  Tell 
him  how  impossible  it  is  to  effect  any  business  under  the  present  system 
but  that  I  will  do  my  best.  Assure  Col.  Innes  that  I  will  be  attentive  to 
his  matters.  I  have  had  great  pleasure  in  rendering  some  services  to  the 
officers  and  men  of  his  corps  t  since  their  arrival  here  and  I  shall  be  always 
gratified  at  every  opportunity  of  evincing  how  sincerely  I  respect  him. 

I  flatter  myself  that  before  you  receive  this  you  will  be  on  terms  of 
intimacy  with  my  General;  cultivate  that  acquaintance  with  all  possible 
assiduity.  Strike  out  something  for  yourself  under  his  patronage  and 
you'll  never  repent  it,  and  then  well  be  sure  of  being  together  which  is 
one  of  the  first  wishes  of  my  heart.  Let  me  hear  from  you  Chippy  by 
every  opportunity.  I  have  positively  wrote  myself  blind.  Tomorrow 
evening  I  shall  devote  to  my  other  friends. 

*       *       *       May  God's  best  blessings  cover  you  all  over  prays 

Your  faithful  &  affectionate 

Ned. 


*Colonel  George  Williamson  of  the  army  was  at  this  time  acting  in  the 
capacity  of  brigade  major  to  General  Fox.  He  was  an  intimate  friend  of 
Edward  Winslow,  and  we  shall  hear  more  of  him  hereafter. 

fLieut.  Col.  Innes  commanded  the  South  Carolina  Royalists.  They  received 
lands  at  Country  Harbor,  in  Guysborough  County,  N.  S.,  where  they  were 
disbanded  in  1783. 


162  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Governor  Parr  to  General  HaldimancL 

Nova  Scotia,  Halifax,  14  Jan.  1784. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honor  of  your  Excellency's  letter  of  the  26th  No- 
vember by  Mercure,  and  lament  excedingly  that  the  Dispatches  brought 
by  the  "Greyhound"  were  not  immediately  forwarded  from  hence  by  land. 
They  were  sent  the  moment  the  commanding  officer  of  His  Majesty's  ships 
on  this  station  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  it  was  too  late  for  her  to  proceed 
[to  Quebec]. 

I  am  happy  to  find  that  you  persevere  in  your  Idea  of  opening  the 
Road  from  Kamouraska;  our  part  of  that  business,  is  entirely  by  water. 
Some  honest  men  have  already  been  recommended  to  me  to  be  settled  at 
the  several  post  houses.  I  have  submitted  the  whole  [proposition]  to 
Major  Studholme's  judgment,  from  his  being  more  immediately  upon  the 
spot  and  being  better  acquainted  with  the  proper  stages  for  Post  Houses, 
&c,  than  I  possibly  can  be. 

I  have  made  Mercure  very  happy  by  giving  him  the  Island*  he  so 
much  wished  for;  it  gives  me  pleasure  to  have  it  in  my  power  to  assist 
men  of  merit,  and  those  who  behaved  well  during  the  late  Rebellion,  but 
particularly  those  recommended  by  your  Excellency.  The  number  of 
Loyalists  who  have  lately  arrived  in  this  Province  from  New  York  and 
other  parts  of  the  continent  is  very  considerable.  They  amount  to  about 
30,000  souls.  *  *  *  I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  great 
esteem 

Your  most  obedient 

and  most  humble  servant, 

J.  Parr. 

[Endorsed: — "From  His  Excellency  Governor  Parr  at  Halifax  of  the 
14th  of  Jan'y— Eec'd  24th  February  by  Mercure."] 

Edward  "Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Jan'y  20,  1784. 

My  dear  Chip, — Since  I  finished  my  12th  page  1 1  have  seen  a  letter 
from  Col.  Fanning  to  Chief  Justice  Smith  wherein  he  points  out  the  neces- 
sity of  appointing  such  an  officer  as  Receiver  General  of  Quit-Rents  in 
this  Country.  One  of  his  arguments  is  that  the  proprietors  of  large  grants 
would  if  regularly  called  on  be  obliged  to  pay  the  quit  rents  due  or  re- 

*Bagweet  Island,  one  of  the  Keswick  group. 

fThe  length  of  the  original  letter  cannot  always  be  judged  by  the  portion 

that  is  copied  in  this  book.  The  marks  *  *  *  or that  occur  in  these  pages 

indicate  the  omission  of  passages,  so  that  the  length  of  the  original  letter  is 
frequently  greater  than  might  be  imagined.  The  reasons  for  omiting  parts  of 
letters  here  and  there  have  been  already  stated.  See  explanatory  note  after  the 
Introduction  in  this  book. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  163 

linquish  their  title.  If  the  rents  are  paid  government  is  benefited  by  the 
money — if  the  land  is  forfeited  by  non-payment  it  may  be  regranted  and 
will  accommodate  good  subjects.  *  *  *  It  is  an  office  so 
exactly  calculated  for  me  that  I  long  for  it — it  would  give  me  such  an 
opportunity  of  revenging  myself  on  the  nabobs  of  this  country  for  their 
infamous  opposition  to  the  whole  corps,  that  I  should  triumph  in  a  faith- 
ful execution  of  my  duty.  * 

Mongan*  will  show  you  a  production  of  Mr.  Aplin's.i  Do  Chip  be 
industrious  about  the  business  of  Nova  Scotia;  collect  &  exert  all  your 
talents — effect  a  removal  of  the  present  Governor  &  procure  other  alter- 
ations. Write  'em  down.  You  will  have  all  the  materials  and  you'll  get 
much  information  from  Mongan.  Whatever  I  have  written  upon  that 
subject  is  intended  for  the  information  of  all  my  friends.  I  therefore 
don't  write  to  Upham  or  any  of  'em — get  'em  all  together — adopt  vigorous 
measures. 

Adieu,  Eternally  yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 


Benjamin  Marston  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Shelburne,  Feb'y,  6,  1784. 

Dear  Ned, — The  Bearer  of  this  is  my  Friend  John  Miller.     You 
have  already  some  personal  knowledge  of  each  other.     He  wishes  to  be 

*The  Rev.  Charles  Mongan  is  here  referred  to.  He  was  chaplain  in  the 
3rd  Battalion  of  the  60th  (or  Royal  American)  regiment.  He  went  to  England 
at  the  peace.  In  178L  he  was  chaplain  to  the  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland. 

f Joseph  Aplin  was  a  Loyalist  who  played  quite  a  prominent  part  in  the 
agitation  of  the  division  of  the  old  province  of  Nova  Scotia.  Under  date  March 
6,  1784,  he  wrote  a  lengthy  letter  to  Chief  Justice  Smith,  an  abstract  of  which 
appears  in  the  Canadian  Archives  for  1894,  pp.  414,  415.  In  it  he  says  that  policy 
should  have  pointed  out  that  the  utmost  attention  should  have  been  paid  to  the 
loyal  adventurers.  He  had  found  great  uneasiness  at  St.  John  on  account  of 
the  people  not  getting  their  lands.  About  1,500  framed  houses  and  400  of  logs 
afforded  shelter,  but  the  people  had  no  legal  right  to  the  ground  their  houses 
covered.  The  greater  part  of  the  Loyalists  in  the  town  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river  never  meant  to  fix  themselves  there,  but  to  settle  on  their  lands  elsewhere 
and  apply  their  money  to  building  farm  houses,  purchasing  live  stock,  &c.  He 
speaks  severely  of  the  motives  which  had  led  the  Nova  Scotia  house  of  assembly 
to  vote  £500  :to  Governor  Parr  and  Chief  Justice  Finucane  in  connection  with 
the  b\isiness  of  settling  the  Loyalists.  The  assembly  he  asserts  had  lost  the 
confidence  of  the  new  settlers;  it  had  been  called  for  six  or  seven  years  and 
had  lasted  fifteen.  He  remarks  on  the  inequality  of  the  representation;  also 
on  the  mission  of  Chief  Justice  Finucane  to  the  River  St.  John  to  enquire  into 
grievances.  Finucane's  character  is  described  by  Aplin  in  unfavorable  terms. 
The  people  at  St.  John  had  been  betrayed  into  stronger  symptoms  of  discontent 
than  prudence  would  justify,  but  were  grateful  for  what  Sir  Guy  Carleton  had 
done  for  them. 

In  1790  Joseph  Aplin  was  appointed  attorney  general  of  Prince  Edward 
Island,  a  position  from  which  he  was  compelled  to  retire  in  1798  in  consequence 
of  a  quarrel  with  Lt.  Gov.  Fanning  and  his  council.  See  Canadian  Archives  for 
1895  under  P.  E.  I.,  pp.  74-77.  See  also  under  date  27th  Oct.,  1800,  in  this  book. 


164  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

better  acquainted  with  you  and  I  have  given  him  this  to  be  a  means  of 
bringing  you  together.  The  Common  nonsense  of  these  occasions  I  shall 
not  use  with  you.  I  will  only  say  "that  should  ye  get  better  acquainted  I 
think  ye'll  not  dislike  each  other/'  and  I  think  that  is  saying  a  good  thing 
of  you  both. 

For  myself,  I  am  in  as  perfect  good  health  as  a  reasonable  mortal  can 
wish  for.  But  almost  dinn'd  to  death  for  Town  lots  &  Water  lots,  for  50 
acre  and  500  Acre  Lots.  My  head  is  so  full  of  Triangles,  Squares,  Par- 
allelograms, Trapezias,  &  Ehomboidses  that  the  corners  do  sometimes 
almost  put  my  eyes  out.  Howe^  er  I  thank  God  that  they  are  there.  Had 
it  not  been  for  them  I  should  have  by  this  time  starved  to  death,  or  what 
is  ten  times  worse  have  been  the  burden  and  pity  of  my  friends. 

I  hope  you  and  your  good  family  are  well.  Eemember  me  to  them 
most  dutifully  and  affectionately.  Adieu,  God  bless  you  is  the  ardent 
wish  of 

Yours, 

Marston. 

Charles  Morris*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  6th  February,  1784. 

Sir, — I  have  made  a  return  for  a  Grant  to  your  Hon'd  Father,  of  One 
Thousand  Acres  adjoining  General  Buggles's  to  the  Westward;  it  is 
bounded  on  the  rear  of  the  lotts,  Thirty  seven,  Thirty  six,  and  eight  rods 
on  Thirty  five,  in  Wilmot,  and  extends  to  the  Bay  of  Fundy;  Course  North 
ten  degrees  West.  The  grant  will  in  all  probability  pass  before  this  reaches 
you.  I  did  advise  him  to  wait  until  the  Land  could  be  fully  examined, 
and  that  I  would  send  directions  to  my  deputys  to  do  it  while  you  were 
present,  but  he  declined  this  and  rather  chose  to  have  the  Grant  hurried 
thro'  immediately  and  take  his  chance.  I  hope  it  will  turn  out  a  good 
Lott.  Mr.  John  Harris,  Jun'r,  surveyed  Gen'l  Buggies'  and  fixed  a  bound 
at  the  same  corner  where  your  Father's  begins,  being  the  North  Eastern 
corner  of  Lott  number  Thirty  seven.  If  you  think  it  proper,  you  may 
call  on  Him  to  fix  the  other  Western  corner  of  this  Lott  and  examine  it. 
I  have  the  Honor  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  most  obed't  Humble  Servant, 
Charles  Morris. 

*Hon.  Charles  Morris,  surveyor  general  of  Nova  Scotia,  a  very  important 
man  at  this  period.  He  was  son  of  the  elder  Charles  Morris,  the  first  surveyor 
general  of  Nova  Scotia.  He  was  at  one  time  a  representative  of  the  old  County 
of  Sunbury  in  the  Nova  Scotia  house  of  assembly.  There  is  much  concerning 
him  in  Murdoch's  History  of  Nova  Scotia.  See  also  published  volume  of  N.  S. 
Archives,  p.  293.  He  was  a  most  upright  and  capable  officdal. 


1784J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  165 

Benjamin  Hallo  well  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  10th  February,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — Not  having  an  answer  to  my  Letters  which  I  did  myself 
the  pleasure  of  writing  to  you  on  the  30th  July  and  1st  August  last,  I  am 
afraid  by  some  accident  they  miscarried.  The  purport  of  them  was  to  con- 
dole with  you  on  the  loss  of  America  by  Treachery  and  base  management 
both  at  home  and  abroad,  and  to  congratulate  you  that  there  was  left  an 
asylum  for  yourself  where  you  could  render  services  to  other  unfortunate 
sufferers — and  I  thanked  you  for  the  attention  you  were  so  obliging  as  to 
show  my  son  at  New  York,  and  acquainted  you  that  the  young  man  has 
a  grateful  sense  of  his  own  obligations  to  you.  I  also  acquainted  you  that 
Commissioners  were  appointed  by  Parliament  to  examine  into  the  claims 
of  the  American  sufferers,  and  then  made  as  I  now  do,  an  offer  of  best  ser- 
vices in  any  manner  found  to  be  of  use  to  you.  I  also  informed  you  that 
His  Majesty  in  November,  1765,  granted  to  me  20,000  acres  of  land  in 
Nova  Scotia,  that  it  was  surveyed  to  me  in  the  Eastern  part  of  the  Pro- 
vince, that  Mr.  Desbarres  the  Kings  Surveyor,  now  here,  informs  me  that 
it  is  some  of  the  best  land  in  that  Country.  The  conditions  of  the  Grant 
not  being  complied  with,  I  have  wrote  Governor  Parr  &  Governor  Went- 
worth,  who  have  the  management  respecting  the  Grants  and  escheating 
the  lands,  where  the  terms  have  not  been  attended  to,  that  I  might  have 
further  time  allowed  me  to  make  the  settlement.  I  have  wrote  to  Mr. 
Buckley  Secretary  of  the  Province,  who  is  also  Secretary  to  the  Commis- 
sion lately  issued  to  the  two  Governors  for  granting  and  escheating,  re- 
questing his  interest  in  my  behalf.  Lieut.  Gov.  Fanning,  Mr.  Buckley 
and  Mr.  Winston  have  copies  of  the  letter  I  wrote  to  Governor  Parr,  and 
I  have  requested  of  those  gentlemen  to  further  my  wishes  in  this  business. 
Col.  Williard  now  here,  and  Mr.  George  Leonard  at  St.  John's  Eiver  have 
promised  me  their  interest.  What  may  be  a  proper  encouragement  for 
persons  to  hold  lands  under  me  in  so  desirable  a  part  of  the  Country  as 
Gedebucta  Bay*  where  the  land  is  so  proper  for  Cultivation,  and  the 
shores  for  carrying  on  the  business  of  fishing,  I  cannot  pretend  to  say; 
therefore  I  must  leave  the  management  of  the  business  to  my  friends  on 
the  spot,  and  what  they  may  do  for  me  I  am  confident  will  be  for  the  best, 
therefore  their  acts  shall  be  confirmed  by  me  in  the  full  as  if  you  had  my 
power  of  Attorney.  Mr.  Leonard  writes  me  the  12th  December  from  St. 
John's  River  that  people  were  applying  to  him  almost  every  day  for  land 
to  settle  upon,  and  that  he  had  wrote  you  in  consequence  of  my  mention- 
ing that  I  had  requested  your  interest  in  getting  further  time  allowed  me 
for  making  the  settlement  and  getting  the  lands  settled. 

*Chedabucto,  in  Guysborough  County,  N.  S.    See  this  book  under  date  27th 
Feby.,  1785. 


166  WINSLOW   PAPERS  [1784 

I  am  very  happy  to  find  that  General  Fox,  who  is  just  arrived  in  Eng- 
land from  America,  considers  and  puts  a  proper  value  upon  your  merits. 
The  General's  Brother,  who  is  now  forming  an  administration  in  which 
he  must  be  in  a  high  department,  will  have  it  in  his  power  to  be  of  the 
greatest  service  to  the  General  and  his  Friends,  and  if  I  am  rightly  in- 
formed you  are  one  of  the  very  first  upon  the  General's  list.  Such  a  pro- 
spect as  I  think  you  have,  not  only  makes  me  but  all  my  family  very  happy. 

The  revocation  of  the  Patent  appointing  a  Board  of  Customs  in  Am- 
erica having  taken  place  some  time  in  November  last,  the  Commissioners 
who  composed  that  board  in  consequence  of  the  confused  state  of  Public 
Affairs,  are  not  only  destitute  of  what  salary  is  due  to  them  since  April 
last,  but  have  not  any  farther  provision  made  for  them.  We  are  taught 
to  believe  that  we  shall  be  treated  with  Liberal  hand.  The  unfortunate 
people  who  have  come  to  England  and  thrown  themselves  on  Govern- 
ment have  been  dealt  to  with  a  very  sparing  hand,  and  others  who  come 
at  this  late  hour  I  am  sure  will  not  fare  better. 

I  have  been  confined  to  my  house  with  a  severe  fever  since  the  last 
day  of  the  old  year,  and  not  been  able  to  quit  my  chamber  before  Mon- 
day last,  a  circumstance  that  has  prevented  my  being  able  to  see  many  of 
our  friends  lately  from  New  York  and  Halifax. 

Your  worthy  friend  Bobby*  continues  still  at  Bristol  on  account  of 
the  cheapness  of  living,  and  being  amongst  a  number  of  friends  who  use 
every  means  in  their  power  to  be  of  service  to  him,  the  little  money  which 
he  has  been  able  with  great  industry-  to  pick  up  added  to  the  allowance  of 
£120  a  year  Government,  he  is  able  to  rub  along.  A  scheme  by  one  of  his 
friends  had  it  succeeded  would  have  made  my  brother  very  happy  indeed. 
The  failure  of  which  has  sunk  to  his  friend  about  £12,000  in  less  than  two 
years,  and  is  still  a  heavy  tax  on  the  proprietors  shoulders,  owing  to  the 
villiney  of  the  head  manufacturer,  which  ruined  the  whole  of  the  scheme. 

Mrs.  Hallo  well,  the  Lieut,  with  the  other  branches  of  my  family  join 
me  in  best  regards  to  you.     You  will  also  remember  me  verv  kindly  to 
your  very  worthy  father  and  family,  and  if  I  can  be  of  any  use  to  him  or 
them  here  you  will  please  to  say  they  may  command  me. 
I  am  dear  Sir,  Your  most  obedient,  faithful  &c, 

Benjamin  Hallo  well. 

Major  Thomas  Menziest  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Parr  Town,  March  2d,  1784. 
My  dear  Sir, — I  know  not  what  apology  to  make  for  the  freedom  I 


*Robert  Hallowell. 

t  Major    Thomas    Menzies    was    in    1777    a    major    in    the    3rd    Battalion    of 
DeLancey's  Brigade,  but  in  1781  was  transferred  to  Benedict  Arnold's  American 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  167 

am  about  to  offer.  I  must  therefore  trust  to  your  goodness  for  pardon, 
and  beg  leave  to  request  you  to  present  the  enclosed  memorial,  and  (as  I 
am  an  utter  stranger  to  the  Governor)  use  your  good  offices  to  facilitate  its 
success.  Colo.  Deveber  informs  me  that  he  has  obtained  a  grant  of  a 
thousand  acres  at  the  same  place,  and  we  are  very  desirous  of  being  neigh- 
bors. 

I  drew  Block  No.  10  for  the  Corps  under  my  command,  which  com- 
mences 48  miles  above  St.  Annes,  so  that  whatever  becomes  of  me,  it 
would  be  wildness  to  think  of  carrying  my  family  there  for  the  present. 
Should  the  prayer  of  my  Memorial  meet  any  hesitation,  if  you  think  Col. 
Small's  interest  would  be  of  service,  I  beg  you  would  acquaint  him,  I  have 
wrote  him  on  the  subject,  and  I  am  confident  he  will  do  anything  in  his 
power  that  way  to  serve  me.  I  would  wish  to  know  the  success  by  the 
return  of  the  bearer  Mr.  Peters. 

I  am  acquainted  by  Colo.  Deveber  that  your  charge  against  those 
corps  for  whom  you  acted  as  Agent  is  £10  each,  but  that  having  regard  to 
our  numbers  you  have  reduced  our  proportion  to  five  pounds;  for  my  own 
part  I  think  the  charge  very  moderate,  and  shall  cheerfully  endeavour  to 
collect  it  as  soon  as  possible  and  remitt  it  to  you  or  pay  it  to  your  order 
here. 

I  am  with  very  great  esteem,  Dear  Sir, 

Your  most  obed't  Hum'l  Serv't. 

Thos.  Menzies. 

P.  S.  March  the  18th,  1784.  Since  writing  the  foregoing  the  mode 
of  the  proposed  application  to  the  Governor  is  altered,  the  occasion  of 
which  Colo.  DeVeber  will  acquaint  you  with. 

Yours, 

Thos.  Menzies. 

Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  March  7th,  1784. 

My  dear  Winslow, — Your  letter  by  Genl  Fox  gave  me  infinite  pleas- 
ure; that  your  situation  with  him  was  so  pleasant  and  his  friendship  so 
effectually  secured  are  circumstances  peculiarly  fortunate  and  agreeable  in 
themselves  and  I  doubt  not  will  hereafter  be  productive  of  the  most  solid 
advantages.  I  have  attended  him  almost  every  day  since  his  arrival  and 
have  been  of  some  little  service  to  him  in  a  few  trifling  instances.  The 
material  change  in  the  ministry  must  have  deranged  his  business  and  views 
as  much  as  of  all  the  rest  of  us.  There  is  not  a  doubt,  he  informs  me,  but 
there  would  have  been  a  separate  Government  at  St.  John's  had  Lord 

Legion.  He  settled  in  the  parish  of  Lancaster,  St.  John  County,  N.  B.,  where 
he  died  at  1831,  at  the  advanced  age  of  98  years. 


168  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

North  remained  in  office,  and  lie  candidly  confessed  he  should  like  to 
have  had  the  Government.  The  present  administration,  even  if  convinced 
of  the  propriety  of  the  measure,  dare  not  adopt  it;  their  continuance  in 
office  is  so  uncertain  that  they  will  undertake  no  business  but  what  turns 
up  in  the  common  routine  of  office  every  day.  You  may  easily  imagine 
how  disappointed  I  was  upon  my  arrival  tc  find  in  what  a  distracted  state 
this  Country  was.  All  my  views  and  prospects  in  coming  to  England 
vanished  at  once — at  least  were  totally  suspended  for  the  present.  Sir 
Guy  Carleton  went  into  the  Country,  my  letter  to  Lord  North  became  of 
no  avail,  I  could  receive  no  directions  with  respect  to  the  business  of  the 
Board  of  claims,  and  I  have  been  waiting  here  in  London  till  this  day 
expecting  a  change  in  the  ministry  and  some  permanent  administration 
to  be  formed  to  which  I  may  make  an  application  with  respect  to  my  busi- 
ness, for  I  will  not  yet  despair.  Should  Fox  come  in  again  I  think  you 
and  I  might  revive  our  expectations  and  hopes  and  yet  see  the  objects  we 
have  so  much  at  heart  accomplished.  Until  this  happens  or  some  per- 
manent ministry  is  appointed,  we  shall  not  be  able  to  stir  to  any  purpose 
in  the  business  of  a  separate  government. 

Yours  of  the  7th  Jan'y  by  Mr.  Mongan  I  have  received  and  thank  you 
for  it  more  than  I  can  express,  I  really  began  to  despair  of  ever  receiving 
one  of  those  old  fashioned  long  friendly  reviving  epistles  from  you  which 
always  delight  me  so  much,  and  am  rejoiced  that  you  at  last  found  an 
hour  of  relaxation  from  the  severe  attention  to  business  in  which  you  have 
been  so  deeply  involved  to  gratify  me.  Indeed  after  all  the  bustle  of  life, 
however  consequential  or  lucrative  our  pursuits  may  be — however  am- 
bitious our  prospects  and  whether  we  are  successful  or  otherwise,  one  hour 
snatched  from  engagements  of  this  kind  and  devoted  to  the  social  enjoy- 
ments of  friendship  and  affection  is  worth  them  all  in  point  of  solid  and 
rational  happiness  and  satisfaction — this  I  have  richly  experienced  in  the 
pleasure  the  perusal  of  your  letter  has  afforded  me.  The  description  you 
give  me  of  your  situation  under  General  Fox  is  gratifying  beyond  measure, 
— »-the  satisfaction  resulting  to  yourself,  the  advantages  derived  to  your 
friends  and  your  usefulness  to  the  public  while  with  him  are  surely  objects 
of  the  first  magnitude  and  attention.  You  ought  not  I  think  to  give  up 
the  expectations  you  suggest  of  a  further  connection  with  your  friend, 
altho'  the  prospect  of  such  an  event  is  at  present  a  little  removed,  so 
strange  and  so  sudden  are  the  changes  in  this  life  that  we  are  often  nearest 
the  completion  of  our  wishes  when  the  objects  of  them  are  apparently  at 
the  greater  distance.  Altho'  the  representations  now  made  with  respect 
to  the  offices  of  Government  at  Halifax  may  not  be  so  effectual  as  may  be 
wished,  they  will  doubtless  be  productive  of  some  good,  and  you  may  rest 
assured  that  we  are  here  forming  a  plan  of  application  as  soon  as  the  min- 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  169 

istry  is  established  that  will  meet  your  fullest  wishes,  and  if  exertion  per- 
severance and  opportunity  are  of  any  avail  to  secure  its  execution,  they 
will  not  be  wanting.  The  hints  and  papers  with  which  you  have  fur- 
nished me,  have  been  of  great  consequence,  and  I  most  earnestly  request 
you  will  not  cease  the  fullest  communications  on  the  subject.  As  soon  as 
anything  is  done  here,  or  we  have  any  prospect  of  success,  you  shall  be 
made  informed  of  every  particular. 

General  Fox  desired  to  have,  and  I  have  given  him  a  copy  of  that  part 
of  your  letter  which  relates  to  the  conduct  of  your  Governor  and  the  other 
officers,  he  means  immediately  to  show  it  to  Lord  Sydney,  the  present  sec- 
retary of  state  for  the  home  department. 

I  have  written  to  your  Father  on  the  subject  of  his  concerns.  I  do 
not  doubt  but  Mr.  Watson  will  effect  all  his  wishes,  he  is  seriously  and 
warmly  interested  in  the  business  and  I  suppose  writes  to  your  father  on 
the  subject.  I  am  rejoiced  to  find  he  is  so  comfortably  situated  for  the 
present;  to  him,  your  mother  and  the  girls  repeat  the  assurance  of  my  most 
affectionate  remembrance. 

When  you  sort  the  cases  of  Muster  Eolls  I  hope  you  will  take  care  to 
check  all  improper  discharges  and  see  that  none  are  borne  upon  the 
strength  but  effectives,  and  recollect  the  non-effectives  are  not  to  be  con- 
tinued at  the  second  muster.  I  fancy  you  will  not  have  the  same  difficulty 
in  calling  the  names,  various  as  the  colors  are  of  the  uniforms,  as  you  had 
in  mustering  Baron  de  Diemar's  party  colored  Hussars.* 

I  have  not  yet  seen  Judge  Sewell — in  fact  I  dare  not  leave  Town  lest 
some  alteration  should  take  place  and  I  should  lose  an  opportunity  of 
benefiting  myself  or  friends — he  is  however  well,  as  are  the  family.  I  will 
do  you  justice  to  him  and  swear  anything  you  please  to  him,  Bob.  Hallow- 
ell  and  all  your  Friends. 

You  ask  if  the  business  of  the  half-pay  is  settled.  I  think  there  can 
be  no  doubt  of  it,  tho'  it  is  not  yet  specifically  voted;  but  let  me  suggest 
one  thing,  if  you  receive  pay  as  Secretary  from  Government  I  am  told  it 
will  deprive  you  of  your  half  pay  for  the  same  period;  and  this  I  believe 
you  will  find  to  be  the  case. 

Thompson  t  is  one  of  the  wonders  really  of  the  age.  He  has  made 
the  tour  of  Europe  since  last  September;  by  some  strange  good  fortune 

*Baron  Frederick  DeDiemar's  Hussars  were  in  1781  attached  to  the  Queen's 
Rangers.  They  seem,  judging  by  the  muster  rolls,  to  have  included  a  number 
of  Loyalists,  who  probably  joined  the  corps  as  recruits,  or  were  draughted  into 
the  troop  from  other  mounted  corps,  hence  the  variety  of  uniforms.  The  German 
names  doubtless  made  the  roll  call  a  difficult  matter  for  the  muster- master. 

fSee  biographical  note  under  date  8th  dune,  1783,  in  this  book,  on  Col. 
Benjamin  Thompson.  He  had  been  the  commander  of  the  late  King's  American 
Dragoons,  and  Ward  Chipman  had  been  the  paymaster  of  the  corps  as  well  as 
Col.  Ludlow's  battalion  in  DeLancey's  brigade. 


170  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

has  been  so  introduced  to  the  Duke  of  Bavaria,  Elector  Palatine,  one  of  the 
first  Courts  in  Germany,  as  to  be  appointed  his  principal  Aid  de  Camp  and 
Adj't.  General;  has  jumped  across  to  England  to  get  the  King's  leave  to 
go  into  foreign  service,  has  obtained  it,  retaining  his  rank  and  pay  in  the 
British  service,  has  been  knighted  as  a  testimony  of  the  Royal  approbation 
and  recommendation,  and  Sir  Benjamin  Thompson  is  now  preparing  to, 
figure  at  the  Court  of  Manheim  with  one  of  the  most  splendid  equipages 
in  Europe;  he  sets  off  in  about  a  month. 

I  have  written  so  much  and  so  many  letters  to  my  other  friends  that 
I  have  not  patience  to  proceed  any  farther  at  present.  To  those  letters  I 
must  refer  you  for  such  particulars  as  I  have  omitted  in  this — particularly 
to  Tom  Coffin  for  the  history  of  my  Brother. 

Adieu  my  dearest  Fellow — write  to  me  by  every  opportunity  and  be- 
lieve me  most  sincerely,  affectionately  &  unalterably  yours, 

Chip. 

I  am  very  much  gratified  that  your  familv  at  Annapolis  are  so  com- 
fortably situated,  and  that  you  have  at  last  found  leisure  to  make  a  visit 
there,  let  me  be  most  particularly  and  affectionately  remembered  to  Mrs. 
W.  and  the  little  ones. 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  13th  March,  1784. 

Dear  Winslow, — Things  begin  to  wear  a  much  more  favorable  aspect 
respecting  Nova  Scotia.  The  present  ministry  begin  to  find  their  situa- 
tion more  stable  and  permanent.  Your  representations  by  Mongan  have 
had  their  effect.  A  committee  of  the  Council  has  been  sitting  on  the  busi- 
ness two  or  three  days,  Sir  Guy  Carleton  has  been  sent  for  and  is  come  to 
Town  to  give  his  advice  and  assistance  in  the  business.  Col.  Willard,  Dr. 
Seabury,*  and  Major  Upham,  as  Agents  for  the  Loyalists, — have  present- 
ed a  memorial  stating  all  the  grievances  complained  of.  Lord  Sydney  has 
said  "Nova  Scotia  shall  be  made  the  envy  of  all  the  American  States." 

I  am  authorized  to  say,  in  confidence,  there  is  no  doubt  a  separate 
Government  at  St.  John's  will  be  established,  and  that  all  your  wishes  will 
be  carried  into  effect.  Odell,  who  is  with  Sir  Guy,  whispers  this  to  me  for 
your  information  and  desires  a  most  friendly  and  affectionate  remembrance 
to  you.  I  do  not  think  it  improbable  at  all  that  Gen'l  Fox  will  go  out 
Governor  of  St.  John's.  It  is  in  contemplation  to  have  a  Governor  General 
over  all  the  British  Settlements  contiguous, — if  so,  Sir  Guy  will  be  the 

*Rev.  Samuel  Seabury,  D.  D.,  is  here  referred  to.  On  the  14th  of  November 
in  this  year  he  was  consecrated  first  bishop  of  the  Episcopal  church  in  the 
United  States.  During  the  Revolutionary  war  he  was  gazetted  as  chaplain  in 
the  King's  American  Regiment. 


1784]  WINSLOW    PAPERS  171 

man  if  he  can  be  prevailed  upon  to  go  out.  Ponder  upon  these  things 
and  act  accordingly.  Take  care  of  our  Lands,  they  must  now  become 
very  valuable. 

I  was  yesterday  morning  with  L'd  Sackville;  he  wished  to  see  your 
letter  respecting  Nova  Scotia  and  spoke  very  handsomely  of  you.  I  sent 
him  that  part  of  the  letter  and  the  hints  of  arguments  you  enclosed  by 
General  Fox  for  the  separate  Government  at  St.  John's.  Upon  the  whole 
I  think  all  will  go  well.  Sir  Guy  is  warm  for  the  new  Government  and  his 
opinion  will  have  very  great  influence;  entre  nous  I  fancy  Judge  Ludlow 
will  apply  for  the  Chief  Justice-ship.  He  says  I  had  better  get  the  ap- 
pointment of  Attorney  Gen'l  if  I  can,  &c,  &c,  but  not  a  word  of  all  this 
for  a  thousand  reasons.  Whatever  you  may  have  in  contemplation  write 
immediately  to  all  your  friends.  Write  me  such  another  letter  as  your 
last  it  will  be  of  great  service  to  me  as  well  as  you.  You  are  held  up  as  a 
man  of  the  first  consequence  and  intelligence  in  that  country,  and  I  have 
the  honor  tc  be  mentioned  as  your  particular  and  confidential  corres- 
pondent. 

I  hope  now  to  get  my  own  matters,  I  mean  the  Board  of  claims  busi- 
ness, upon  some  footing  or  other.  Don't  forget  my  half-pay  agencies  I 
beseech  you.  Adieu  once  more  my  dear  Fellow  and  believe  me  unalter- 
ably your  affectionate 

Chip. 


Rev.  Chas.  Mongan,  Chaplain  to  Late  3d  Batt.  60th  Regt.  to  Edward 

Winslow. 

London,  23rd.  Mar.  1784. 

My  dear  Sir, — Capt.  Cook  37th  Regt,  just  now  called  upon  me  to  say 
that  he  sails  for  Port  Roseway  tomorrow  morning,  and  tho'  I  have  nothing 
absolutely  certain  to  communicate,  yet  I  cannot  deny  myself  the  pleasure  of 
assuring  you  that  I  bear  in  constant  remembrance  the  great  satisfaction  I 
have  experienced  in  my  acquaintance  with  you  and  your  good  family. 
This  Country  has  been  in  such  a  confused  state  that  no  business  of  any 
kind  has  been  thought  of  till  within  these  few  days — And  I  have  the 
pleasure  now  to  tell  you  that  the  papers  &c.,  which  I  gave  to  the  ministry 
(added  to  Gen.  Fox's  representations)  have  been  tlie  means  of  rousing  the 
government  towards  Nova  Scotia,  and  I  have  now  some  foundation  for 
hoping  that  matters  will  go  on  well. 

Sir  Guy  was  sent  for  upon  the  business,  and  I  find  that  his  opinion 
upon  that  subject  will  be  the  prevailing  one.  So  far  at  least  things  look 
well.  This  morning  I  saw  your  friend  General  Fox;  he  was  just  then 
summoned  to  attend  the  Council  upon  the  same  subject.  He  was  in  vast 


172  WINSLOW  PAPEKS.  [1784 

good  spirits  about  Ihe  matter,  and  I  think  you  will  have  him  with  you 
very  soon  and  in  the  very  situation  you  wish  to  see  him.  The  arrange- 
ments are  not  yet  formed  or  rather  not  divulged.  It  is  supposed  by  the 
knowing  ones  that  Sir  Guy  will  go  out  as  Governor  General  of  the  three 
Provinces.  The  present  Ministry  seems  very  anxious  about  the  welfare  of 
that  Country.  In  a  conference  with  L'd  Sydney  upon  that  subject,  I 
must  acknowledge  that  his  sentiments  were  very  liberal  and  full  of  tender- 
ness towards  the  Loyalists.  As  nothing  is  yet  absolutely  declared  certain, 
I  can  only  give  you  reports  some  of  which  are  that  Gov.  Parr  is  to  be 
recalled,  his  successor  not  named,  but  Col.  F.  to  be  left  in  the  manage- 
ment of  affairs  for  the  present.  Col.  Fox  to  be  Governor  of  our  province, 
and  Sir  Guy  to  superintend  the  whole.  The  Council  &  Assembly  (I  mean 
the  present)  to  be  thoroughly  purged  and  the  outcasts  to  be  succeeded  by 
honest  Loyalists.  In  short  my  dear  Friend  I  now  begin  to  feel  myself 
convinced  that  Nova  Scotia  will  yet  be  the  seat  of  happiness  and  the  resid- 
ence of  honest  Fellows. 

I  hope  to  see  you  in  June  with  many  others  of  my  friends.  I  am 
perfectly  tired  of  England,  it  is  a  cursed  place  at  present. 

Pray  make  my  best  respects  to  Gen'l  Campbell;  his  things  will  sail 
about  ten  days  hence,  when  I  hope  to  be  able  to  write  you  with  more  cer- 
tainty. In  the  interim  I  beg  you  will  remember  me  with  great  affection 
to  the  good  old  Folks  and  give  my  very  sincere  love  to  the  girls.  I  promise 
myself  much  pleasure  to  come  in  their  society.  Capt.  Cooke  is  waiting 
for  my  letter.  God  bless  you,  and  believe  me, 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

Chas.  Mongan. 


Major  John  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Parr  Town,  24  March,  1784. 

My  Dear  Ned, — Your  letter  has  this  moment  come  to  hand,  I  have 
indeed  taken  all  opportunities  to  abuse  you  for  not  answering  my  letter 
with  respect  to  your  Father's  land.  Delays  are  dangerous  and  I  am  dis- 
tressed at  thinking  that  it  will  prove  so  in  this  instance.  Some  hundreds 
of  applications  have  been  made  for  it,  among  the  many  a  Cornet  Merrit 
of  the  Queen's  Eangers. 

By  the  next  opportunity  I  shall  write  you  very  fully,  in  the  mean 
time  I  must  acquaint  you  that  Nase  has  informed  me  you  have  a  Nett  or 
Seine,  which  is  lent  out  to  every  person  and  is  going  to  the  Devil.  I  want 
one  and  am  seriously  distressed  for  it.  My  circumstances  will  not  admit 
of  my  going  to  the  expense  of  it.  If  you  can  spare  it  I  will  make  a  hand- 
some return  in  salmon  for  it  or  will  send  you  the  amount  when  able. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  173 

I  am  in  great  haste  and  De  Veber  is  waiting,  therefore  make  my  hest 
and  most  affect'e  compliments  to  your  father  and  the  Girls.  With  my 
best  love  to  Polly, 

I  give  you  joy  on  the  birth  of  a  Daughter. 
God  Bless  you, 

Sincerely  yours, 

Jh.  Coffin. 


Lt.  Col.  Stephen  De  Lancey  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Annapolis,  28th  March,  1784. 

Dear  Winslow, —  *         *         I  am  unhappy  to  hear  that  the 

Lt.  Governor*  has  given  up  all  Idea  of  a  Settlement  with  us  here.  I  have 
written  to  him  on  a  Subject  that  will  be  entirely  useless  as  I  suppose  he 
does  not  purchase  Rice's  farm. 

I  have  received  a  most  impertinent  letter  from  Capt.  Hutchinson.} 
The  case  is  this:  five  men  of  his  Company  came  to  this  Province  with  me 
in  the  Peggy;  for  those  men  he  rec'd  six  months  pay  at  New  York,  which 
lemained  in  his  hands  without  any  steps  taken  to  remit  it  to  them.  I 
therefore  ventured  to  stop  his  forage  money  in  my  hands  for  the  payment 
of  those  men  which  I  have  actually  paid  to  them — the  money  was  not 
sufficient  to  pay  them  off.  * 

Every  body  well  at  your  house.     Compliments  to  Coffin  &  all  friends, 

Yours 

St.  De  Lancey. 

Col.  J.  H.  CrugerJ  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  March  28th  1784. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  not  only  embrace,  but  thank  the  opportunity 
that  offers  for  opening  a  correspondence  with  a  valuable  friend.  When 
you  are  at  leisure  be  assured  you'll  make  me  happy  by  writing  to  me, 
especially  if  you'll  inform  me  that  you  are  well  and  doing  well.  Our 
friend  Mongan  gives  me  pleasing  accounts  of  your  situation.  I  flatter 

*Colonel  Edmund  Fanning. 

fCapt.  William  Hutchinson  of  the  1st  Batt.,  New  Jersey  Volunteers,  of 
which  Corps.  Lt.  Col.  De  Lancey  was  commander.  He  came  to  New  Brunswick, 
but  afterwards  removed  to  Upper  Canada. 

JLieut.  Colonel  John  Harris  Cruger  was  a  son-in-law  of  Brig.  Gen.  Oliver 
DeLancey.  He  commanded  the  first  and  second  battalions  of  DeLancey's 
brigade  in  the  campaigns  in  the  south.  He  was  as  an  officer  gallant  and 
fearless,  and  especially  distinguished  himself  at  the  siege  of  Fort  "Ninety-six," 
which  he  gallantly  and  successfully  defended  against  the  attack  of  General 
Greene  with  a  much  larger  force.  A  brief  biography  of  him  will  be  found  in 
Sabine's  American  Loyalists,  and  many  additional  particulars  of  interest  in 
Jones'  Loyalist  History  of  New  York. 


m  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

myself  it  will  be  better  with  you  all  before  it's  worse.     The  very  ill  treat- 
ment of  the  worthy  Loyalists  hitherto  has  given  me  much  concern. 

This  letter  will  be  delivered  you  by  Lieut.  Georges  of  the  Navy.  Mr. 
Georges  is  the  son  of  a  particular  friend  of  mine;  he  is  a  very  worthy 
young  GentPn,  as  such  I  beg  leave  to  introduce  &  warmly  to  recommend 
him  to  you  &  your  friends.  Every  civility  and  friendship  you  shall  be 
good  enough  to  shew  him,  be  assured  I'll  give  you  full  credit  for.  Mr. 
Georges  is  pretty  well  versed  in  the  politics  of  this  Country;  to  him  I  beg 
to  refer  you  for  a  more  satisfactory  account  than  I  can  write. 

This  hugh  unwieldy  Town  swarms  with  Americans  grumbling  and 
discontented;  in  two  or  three  years  it  is  said,  we  may  know  what  Govern- 
ment will,  or  will  not,  allow  us  for  the  loss  of  property,  for  services,  &c, 
&c,  &c. 

Mrs.  Cruger  desires  her  best  respects  to  you.  I  beg  to  be  kindly 
remembered  to  Mrs.  Winslow  and  re  Joyce  in  the  little  holyday  you  have 
made  in  heaven,  whose  munificence  I  sincerely  pray  you  may  partake  very 
fully  of,  for  I  am  with  the  greatest  Regard  &  Esteem,  affectionately,  My 
good  Sir, 

Your  friend  &  humble  servt. 

J.  H.  Cruger. 

Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  13th  April,  1784. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  was  in  hopes  before  this  time  to  have  congratu- 
lated you  upon  the  decided  arrangement  of  the  new  Government  of  Nova 
Scotia,  an  event  which  I  do  not  however  think  very  far  distant.  The 
separation  of  the  Province  into  two  Governments  is  determined  upon  in 
the  Cabinet,  that  of  St.  John's  which  is  to  be  called  New  Ireland,*  has 
been  offered  to  Gen'l  Fox.  Halifax  it  is  said  is  to  be  given  to  Gen'l  Mus- 
grave.  A  Governor  General  over  these  Provinces  and  Canada  with  almost 
unlimited  powers,  to  prevent  the  necessity  of  applying  for  instructions 
here  on  all  occasions,  is  to  be  appointed.  This  very  important  appoint- 

*The  name  eventually  chosen  was  not  New  Ireland,  but  New  Brunswick, 
in  honor  of  the  royal  house  of  Brunswick.  In  the  year  1780  William  Knox,  a 
Georgia  Loyalist  then  in  England,  formed  a  plan  to  divide  Maine  and  to  give 
to  the  territory  between  the  Penobscot  and  St.  Croix  rivers  the  name  of  New 
Ireland,  and  to  give  the  administration  thereof  to  Thomas  Oliver  as  governor, 
with  Daniel  Leonard  as  chief  justice.  The  proposal  met  with  favor  on  the  part 
of  the  ministry,  but  notning  at  that  time  was  done.  Wm.  Knox  was  afterwards 
lor  many  years  the  agent  of  the  province  of  New  Brunswick  in  England.  The 
proximity  on  either  hand  of  New  England  and  Nova  Scotia  (or  New  Scotland) 
undoubtedly  must  have  suggested  the  name  of  "New  Ireland"  for  our  province, 
and  it  was  evidently  seriously  contemplated  at  one  time  thus  to  designate  the 
new  province.  Had  such  a  name  been  chosen  there  is  reason  to  believe  that 
the  Irish  immigration  to  our  shores  in  the  "forties"  would  have  assumed 
immense  proportions. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  175 

ment  is  offered  to  Sir  Guy.  Gen'l  Fox  is  this  day  to  give  his  answer  to 
Lord  Sydney:  he  tells  me  he  means  to  make  his  acceptance  conditional 
upon  the  going  out  of  Sir  Guy.  I  do  not  myself  at  all  doubt  that  they 
will  both  go:  A  very  pleasant  circumstance  to  me  is  that  Sir  Guy,  in  a 
very  free  and  confidential  conversation  with  Gen.  Fox,  mentioned  Judge 
Ludlow,  TJpham  and  myself  as  persons  whom  he  wished  to  provide  for  in 
the  Line  of  the  law.  The  Chief  Justiceship  is  fixed  for  Ludlow,  Upham 
is  to  have  a  seat  on  the  same  Bench,  nothing  specific  is  proposed  for  me, 
but  I  know  of  no  office  that  will  be  worth  my  acceptance  in  that  line  but 
of  Attorney  General,  and  here  I  fancy  I  shall  have  many  competitors.  I 
shall  however  patiently  await  the  event.  As  to  yourself,  Gen'l  Fox  will  be 
amply  attentive,  he  tells  me  he  means  to  write  you  a  line  by  this  oppor- 
tunity. These  however  are  all  secrets  which  you  must  not  mention  till 
you  hear  them  from  some  other  Quarter. 

One  thing  of  the  last  consequence  I  can  mention,  that  it  is  deter- 
mined upon  not  to  relax  the  Navigation  Act  in  favor  of  America,  and 
there  will  probably  be  one  or  two  free  ports  in  the  new  Government. 

Great  exertions  are  making  by  some  of  the  Refugees  here  to  secure 
one  of  the  new  Governments  to  Franklyn,*  but  these  will  prove  abortive. 
His  influence,  owing  to  many  causes,  is  at  a  very  low  ebb.  My  own  affairs 
yet  remain  in  statu  quo.  I  have  an  application  now  depending  before  the 
Treasury  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton's  direction,  for  instructions  whether  to  pro- 
ceed and  compleat  the  business  of  the  Board  of  claims.  I  am  promised 
an  answer  in  a  week  or  ten  days  and  in  the  mean  time  intend  to  steal  off 
to  Bristol  to  see  the  Judge t  [Sewell]  and  his  family,  having  not  yet  seen 
one  of  them. 

Mongan  told  me  you  wished  to  have  a  table  service  of  the  best  yellow 
ware  with  a  blue  border,  and  that  you  had  written  to  me  respecting  it. 
There  is  nothing  of  that  kind  in  any  of  your  letters  I  have.  However, 
from  his  description  of  the  kind  you  want,  I  purchased  a  service  and  ship- 
ped them  on  board  the  Tamerlane,  William  Miller,  directed  to  you  at 
Halifax — an  invoice  of  them  is  enclosed.  They  are  the  best  of  the  kind. 

I  have  no  news  to  write;  the  dissolution  of  Parliament  has  engaged 
the  whole  nation  in  electioneering.  Charles  Fox  is  moving  heaven  and 
earth  to  secure  a  seat  for  Westminster,  but  it  is  generally  tho't  he  will  fail 
and  must  come  in  for  some  Boro'  at  last.  The  new  Parliament  will  give 
a  strong  majority  to  the  minister,  so  that  Fox  must  again  exert  his  abilities 
in  a  minority — how  unaccountable  is  the  change  of  popularity1  a  man  a 

*William  Franklin  was  a  natural  son  of  the  celebrated  Benjamin  Franklin, 
and  was  the  last  royal  governor  of  New  Jersey. 

f Judge  Sewell  as  early  at  least  as  1769  was  judge  of  the  admiralty  court 
of  Nova  Scotia,  although  a  resident  of  Boston.  The  appointment  gave  him  his 
title  of  "Judge." 


176  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

few  months  ago  the  idol  of  the  people  now  one  of  the  most  unpopular  men 
in  the  nation.  And  the  whole  Kingdom,  strange  to  tell,  engaged  on  the 
side  of  Prerogative.  No  man  more  popular  now  than  the  King.  I 
send  you  the  News-Papers. 

14th  April.  Col.  Fox  has  this  minute  given  me  a  letter  for  you  which 
I  suppose  explains  the  present  situation  of  the  Nova  Scotia  arrangements. 
It  will  not  I  hope  be  long  before  the  business  is  settled.  A  part  of  your 
letter  I  find  has  been  tho't  too  violent  particularly  that  respecting  the 
instructions  to  the  Eegiments  to  settle  upon  their  lands  at  all  events,  and 
to  oppose  by  force  any  attempts  to  dispossess  them.  Col.  Fox  communi- 
cated this  to  me  and  desires  me  to  caution  you  particularly  upon  this  head. 
Nothing  so  suddenly  alarms  Government,  now  grown  very  skittish,  as  the 
idea  of  an  opposition  to  the  measures  of  its  servants.  So  sore  are  they 
with  the  event  of  the  late  contest,  that  they  instantly  connect  the  idea  of 
rebellion  with  any  such  enunciations:  Sat.  verb.  sap. 

Tom  Coffin  will  I  suppose  be  on  his  passage  from  this  place  by  the 
time  this  reaches  you,  and  our  friend  Townsend  on  a  Matrimonial  voyage 
to  New  York.  To  your  father,  mother  &  sisters,  Blowers  and  family,  to 
Brinley  and  all  my  friends  with  you  make  assurances  of  my  particular 
recollection  and  friendship — Direct  and  forward  the  inclosed  letter  if  you 
know  where:  it  is  about  half  pay  agency. 

Adieu,  Yours  most  affectionately,  and  unalterably, 

'  Chip. 

Brig.  Gen.  H.  E.  Fox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  14th  April,  1784. 

Dr.  Winslow, — In  the  first  place  I  must  talk  to  you  about  the  last 
Letters  you  wrote  here:  you  are  too  warm,  &  your  idea  of  the  Loyalists 
and  Provincials  defending  their  Lands  on  the  Saint  John's  River  was 
by  some  means  communicated  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton  &  at  first  I  believe 
much  displeased  him.  But  everything  has  been  set  to  rights  by  your 
Friends  with  him. 

What  I  told  you  in  my  last  has  happened.  Lord  Sydney  some  days 
ago  sent  an  express  to  me,  being  with  my  Regiment  at  Stafford,  &  offered 
me  the  Government  of  the  New  Province  (which  by  the  way  is  to  be  called 
New  Ireland)  &  informed  me  at  the  same  time  the  Government  General 
was  to  be  offered  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  My  answer  was  that  my  own 
affairs,  in  which  were  involved  those  of  my  Nephew,  were  in  such  a  critical 
situation  that  I  could  not  decide  for  a  few  Days.  This  was  really  the  case 
at  that  time — besides  I  wished  to  know  what  Sir  Guy's  intentions  were, 
which  to  this  moment  I  cannot  find  out.  I  returned  to  London  yesterday 


1784]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  177 

&  this  day  informed  Lord  Sidney,  after  thanking  him  for  his  offer,  that  if 
Sir  Guy  went  I  should  be  extremely  happy  to  attend  him.  Lord  Sydney 
then  surmised  if  no  Governor  General  was  sent  would  I  accept  of  it;  which 
I  gave  in  to  provided  Sir  Guy  or  myself  named  the  Principal  Officers,  or  at 
least  I  should  have  the  power  of  putting  the  Negation  upon  any  proposed. 
All  this  tho'  not  absolutely  promised  seemed  agreed  to.  As  from  the  hurry 
of  Election  no  council  will  be  assembled  for  some  days,  I  asked  Lord  Sidney 
if  he  had  any  further  commands,  as  I  wished  to  return  to  my  Eegiment 
which  he  agreed  to,  saying  he  would  send  an  express  to  me  when  anything 
was  determined  on. 

I  own,  unless  Sir  Guy  Carleton  goes  out  Governor  General,  I  do  not 
see  much  prospect  of  its  going  on  well.  I  think  myself  they  will  tempt 
him  to  go  out,  tho'  he  at  present  does  not  seem  inclined  to  it.  At  any 
rate  if  I  go  Judge  Ludlow  goes  as  Chief  Justice,  that  I  settled  with  Lord 
Sydney  this  morning,  &  from  conversation  I  have  had  with  Sir  Guy  Carle- 
ton — Upham,  Blowers,  &  Chipman  will  be  thought  of.  There  is  also  an 
out  of  doors  report  that  if  Sir  Guy  Carleton  does  not  chuse  to  go,  the 
Government  General  will  be  offered  to  Gen.  Vaughn  or  Christie,  in  either 
which  case  I  stay  at  home.  The  one  I  know  nothing  of,  the  other  I  know- 
too  well.  But  this  I  believe  is  not  true. 

In  case  of  this  [my  acceptance]  taking  place,  I  trust  to  what  you 
promised  me  when  at  Halifax  of  your  acceptance  of  the  Secretaryship  of 
the  Province  which  I  have  accordingly  settled  with  Sir  Guy  Carleton. 

Notwithstanding  all  this,  do  not  be  too  sanguine,  as  there  are  a  thou- 
sand things  may  happen  to  prevent  the  intended  arrangement  taking  place, 
particularly  if  Sir  Guy  Carleton  does  not  go  out  as  Governor  General.  I 
for  one  am  determined  not  to  go  without  him,  unless  everything  is  so 
arranged  before  hand  as  to  have  a  prospect  of  success.  I  had  omitted  in 
the  beginning  to  tell  you  Col.  Carleton  is  thought  of  as  Governor  of  Que- 
bec, &  Musgrave  for  Halifax  as  soon  as  an  appointment  equal  to  the  present 
Governor's  abilitys  can  be  found  for  him.  If  all  this  takes  place  I  cer- 
tainly go  in  good  Company. 

Billy  Bayard  has  opposed  all  this  &  has  handed  about  an  intended 
memorial  for  all  Loyalists  to  sign  requesting  Governor  Franklin  miffht  be 
appointed  Governor;  but  it  met  with  so  little  encouragement  from  them 
that  he  dropped  it  the  second  day  having  got  only  three  or  four  names  to 
it.  For  Heaven's  sake  keep  the  whole  of  this  Letter  to  yourself,  &  be  not 
too  sanguine  or  violent  untill  something  is  determined  upon:  I  will  write 
to  you  the  moment  it  is. 

If  we  go  out  to  you  I  believe  I  shall  commission  you  to  buy  me  some 
Hovel  at  Maugerville  for  immediate  use.  There  was  Perlie'Sj  near  Glasier*s 


178  WiNSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

house,  a  little  below  Peabody's:  if  he  would  sell  I  think  would  do  very  well. 
But  nothing  of  this  can  be  thought  of  at  present. 

Yours  most  sincerely, 
[There  is  no  signature,  but  the  letter  is  endorsed  as  from  Gen.  Fox.] 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

April  17th,  1784— London. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  have  written  to  you  two  days  ago  by  the  Tamer- 
lane, Capt.  Wilson,  in  which  Vessel  your  Table  Service  of  Crockery  was 
gent.  There  is  nothing  new  to  communicate  since  that  time,  but  as  Mr. 
Green  is  going  in  another  ship  I  cannot  omit  scribbling  a  line.  Gen'l  Fox 
is  gone  out  of  Town,  but  is  to  be  sent  for  by  Lord  Sydney,  as  soon  as  a 
Cabinet  Council  shall  be  held,  to  receive  the  terms  upon  which  he  will 
accept  the  Government  of  New  Ireland,  which  will  probably  be  in  a  week 
or  ten  days.  I  find  it  is  doubtful  whether  there  will  be  any  Governor 
General,  unless  Sir  Guy  Carleton  will  go  out — but  it  seems  fixed  beyond 
all  doubt  that  General  Fox  will  be  the  Governor  at  St.  John's  and  Judge 
Ludlow  Chief  Justice;  no  other  part  of  the  arrangement  is  yet  determined 
upon. 

Gen'l  Fox  has  again  and  again  suggested  his  hopes  that  the  triumph 
you  must  naturally  feel  upon  these  new  arrangements  will  not  betray  you 
into  any  unguarded  expressions  of  it  at  Halifax.  It  will  be  of  consequence 
that  the  least  possible  irritation  should  take  place  on  the  nart  of  the  officers 
of  Government  there,  and  the  less  is  said  upon  the  subject  the  better,  till 
we  find  ourselves  established  in  our  new  Government,  and  able  to  defy 
the  attempts  of  our  enemies  to  injure  us.  I  need  not  enlarge  on  this  sub- 
ject I  am  sure:  your  friendship  will  excuse  my  saying  so  much.  I  thought 
it  necessary  to  put  you  upon  your  guard. 

Tomorrow  I  set  off  for  Bristol.  I  am  heartily  tired  of  this  country 
and  anxiously  wish  to  take  you  by  the  hand  in  our  Land  of  promise  the 
New  Canaan. 

Adieu  my  dear  Fellow.  Tell  all  my  friends  I  remember  them  most 
affectionately  and  long  to  be  with  them. 

Your  unalterably  devoted 

Chip. 

P.  S.  There  is  a  letter  from  Gen'l  Fox  for  you  inclosed  in  mine  on 
board  the  Tamerlane. 

Major  John  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Carleton,  Ap'l  20,  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — I  have  rec'd  your  letter  by  Major  Barclay  who  has 
been  with  me  three  days  past,  he  arrived  just  in  time  to  see  little  Hughes 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  179 

put  in  the  ground.  Pray  what  do  you  think  of  my  asking  to  be  Clark  of 
the  court,  or  County,  and  Judge  of  Probates?  *  *  *  Both 
offices  at  present  are  very  ill  attended  to;  Simonds*  is  Judge  of  Probates, 
who  holds  so  many  posts  and  has  so  much  money  that  he's  crazy  half  his 
time,  and  the  other  is  vacant. 

Barclay  informs  me  your  father  is  coming  here  immediatley,  you  must 
inform  the  old  gentleman  it  never  was  my  intention  he  should  come  here 
until  the  middle  of  summer.  By  that  time  my  house  will  be  comfortable 
and  his  placet  on  the  Biver  in  same  order — .  No  time  is  to  be  lost  in 
sending  round  a  power  of  attorney — to  ine  if  you  please  or  any  other  friend 
— to  take  possession  immediately  as  it's  daily  receiving  very  great  injury; 
the  old  Gentleman  must  also  say  what  must  be  done  to  the  place  and  his 
plans  shall  be  put  in  execution  on  as  cheap  a  footing  as  possible;  I  am  very 
near  to  him  and  will  pay  him  every  attention. 

I  am  a  little  disappointed  about  the  seine  J  and  wish  much  you  would 
endeavor  to  get  one  among  some  of  your  friends  that  left  [New]  York. 
At  this  juncture  I  can  not  purchase  and  I  shall  have  no  fish  this  season 
without  one.  On  enquiry  I  find  the  season  lasts  as  long  at  Annapolis  as 
it  does  here,  and  it  would  be  robbing  Polly  of  the  advantage  of  it  on  that 
side.  I  should  not  have  asked  for  it,  but  Nase  represented  that  it  could 
not  possibly  be  of  any  use  to  you. 

*  When  the  annual  Ships  arrive  I  must  beg  you  will 
let  me  hear  fully  from  you  what  we  are  to  expect.  We  shall  be  very 
uncomfortable  if  not  separated  from  Halifax.  Mr.  Finucane§  is  very  busy 
attending  to  the  complaints  of  those  rascals — who  by  G —  deserve  halters 
to  a  man.  He  is  a  prejudiced  man,  or  I  have  formed  a  wrong  opinion — 
in  a  few  days  you  will  hear  of  his  proceedings.  I  like  his  appearance,  but 
his  brother  should  be  hanged  for  his  looks.  We  shall  have  a  keen  eye  on 


*The  County  of  Sunbury  at  this  time  included  the  greater  part  of  New 
Brunswick.  James  Simonds  was  judge  of  probate.  This  gentleman  was  the 
pioneer  settler  at  St.  John,  and  his  biography  is  contained  in  the  articles  on 
"Portland  Point"  in  the  New  Brunswick  Magazine  for  1898-1899. 

fThe  place  here  referred  to  was  on  the  River  St.  John,  near  Westfleld,  where 
Col.  John  Coffin  himself  resided.  The  removal  thither  of  the  elder  Edward 
Winslow  was  prevented  by  illness,  followed  by  his  death,  at  Halifax  on  June 
9,  1784.  His  family  then  took  up  their  residence  at  'Portland  Point. 

I  Col.  Coffin  had  written  to  ask  for  the  use  of  Winslow's  seine,  but  it  was 
doing  such  good  work  for  the  latter  at  Annapolis  that  he  could  not  spare  it. 

§Chief  Justice  Finucane  had  been  sent  by  Governor  Parr  to  the  River  St. 
John  to  investigate  a  variety  of  complaints  that  had  been  preferred  by  the 
lower  orders  against  their  agents,  and  other  matters.  Elias  Hardy,  an  attorney 
of  much  ability,  was  the  champion  of  the  democracy,  and  as  a  consequence 
incurred  the  wrath  of  Col.  Coffin.  The  chief  justice. was  accompanied  in  his 
tour  by  his  brother,  Andrew  Finucane. 


180  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

them  &  they  will  be  acquainted  with  our  sentiments  if  he  does  not  walk 
very  upright. 

God  bless  you.  I  scarcely  know  what  I  have  wrote,  being  in  great 
haste.  My  best  love  to  your  good  Father  &  family.  Don't  forget  me. 

Yours  most  affectionately, 

Jno.  Coffin.* 

Chief  Justice  Finucane's  Investigation  at  Parr  Town. 
The  Honorable  Bryan  Finucane,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Province,  having 
arrived  from  Halifax  to  enquire  into  the  complaints  made  by  Mr.  Hardy 
in  behalf  of  a  number  of  People.  The  first  business  his  honor  proceeded 
to  enquire  into  was  the  complaints  against  the  conduct  of  those  who  had 
the  distribution  of  Town  Lotts,  twenty  nine  charges  having  been  exhibited 
and  delivered  him  in  the  hand  writing  of  Mr.  Dickinson,  brother-in-law  to 
Mr.  Hardy,  and  given  to  Mr.  Leonard  by  his  honor — which  has  since  been 
returned  with  answer  to  each  charge. 

Charges. 

List  of  Persons,  supposed  to  possess  Lotts  in  Parr  Town,  larger  or 
more  in  number  than  their  just  proportion. — 

1.  Mr  Leonard  a  large  Lott  beginning  at  the  point  of  a  Rock,  and 
running  east  about  600  feet;  100  feet  wide  on  the  water,  the  other  side 
something  shorter;  on  the  longest  are  four  Tenants,  viz,  Thos.  Jennings, 
Mr  Smith,  Capt.  Kingston  and  Mr  Barker. 

*John  Coffin  was  a  native  of  Boston  and  a  decided  Loyalist.  He  served  as  a 
volunteer  at  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill.  In  the  early  part  of  1777  he  raised  a 
company  of  fifty  men  for  the  King's  Orange  Rangers;  his  commission  as  captain 
bears  date  Jan.  19,  1777.  His  company  was  engaged  in  the  action  of  Fort  Mont- 
ogmery.  On  July  19,  1778,  he  exchanged  with  Capt.  John  Howard  into  the  New 
York  volunteers,  and  went  with  that  corps  to  Georgia  the  same  year.  He  saw 
hard  fighting  at  Savannah,  Hobkirk's  Hill,  and  at  Cross  Creek  (near  Charles- 
ton). On  various  occasions  his  conduct  won  the  admiration  of  his  superiors. 
At  the  battle  of  Eutaw  Springs  he  was  brevet  major  and  greatly  distinguished 
himself.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he  retired  with  the  rank  of  major  to  New 
Brunswick,  and  settled  on  his  property  at  the  Nerepis,  which  he  called  "Alwyng- 
ton  Manor."  He  was  active  in  political  life,  and  represented  Kings  County  in 
the  house  of  assembly.  He  was  a  warm  partizan:  in  1783  he  fought  a  duel  with 
Col.  Campbell;  on  Feb.  25,  1797,  he  fought  a  duel  near  Fredericton  with  James 
Glenie,  and  on  Aug.  13,  1803,  he  fought  a  duel  near  Fort  Howe  with  Capt.  Foy, 
a  stepson  of  Lt.  Gov.  Carleton.  In  the  year  1797  he  attained  the  rank  of  colonel 
in  the  army,  was  advanced  to  that  of  brigadier  general  in  1799,  major  general 
in  1803,  lieutenant  general  in  1809,  and  general  in  1819.  In  the  war  of  1812  he 
raised  the  New  Brunswick  Fencibles,  in  lieu  of  the  former  Fenoible  regiment, 
which  on  Feb.  4,  1811,  was  incorporated  in  the  line  as  the  104th  regiment. 
General  Coffin  took  an  active  part  in  public  matters,  such  as  education,  improve- 
ment of  highways,  &c.  He  was  appointed  superintendent  of  the  Indian  schools 
established  in  the  province  by  the  "New  England  Company,"  so  called,  for 
educating  and  Christianizing  the  Indians.  A  pretty  full  biography  of  Gen. 
Coffin  is  given  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists.  A  very  unreliable  one  was 
published  by  his  family.  His  descendants  attained  distinction  in  the  army  and 
navy.  He  died  at  his  home,  "Alwyngton  Manor,"  on  the  Nerepis,  in  1838,  at  the 
age  of  87  years. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  181 

2.  Mr.  Harding  one  Lott  of  100  feet  in  front  on  the  water  and  400 
feet  deep. 

3.  Rev.  John  Sayre  one  Lott  100  feet  in  front  on  the  water  and  400 
feet  deep. 

4.  Mr.  Beadle,  Surveyor,  in  front  on  the  water  200  feet  and  400  feet 
deep,  with  three  Tenants,  of  which  one,  a  Baker,  pays  18  Dollars  pr.  an- 
num ground  rent,  and  another  20  Dollars. 

5.  Capt.  Allison  100  feet  on  the  front  and  400  feet  deep,  also  a  water 
Lott  with  a  Tenant  a  Mr.  Jarvis. 

6.  James  Peters  a  Lott  100  feet  on  the  east  side  of  Water  Street, 
running  back  400  feet  and  fronting  on  Germain  Street.     Also  100  feet  on 
the  West  side  of  Water  Street  and  extending  to  the  water,  one  Tenant,  Mr. 
Norroway. 

7.  Col.  Allen  a  large  Lott  100  "feet  on  the  east  side  of  Water  Street, 
400  feet  deep,  extending  to  Germain  Street.     Also  100  feet  on  the  west 
side  of  Water  street,  extending  to  the  water,  lately  purchased  "by  Mr.  Hors- 
field,  two  Tenants,  Mr.  Pamilla  and  Mr.  Beane. 

8.  Mr.  Dibblee  100  feet  front  on  the  east  side  of  Water  street,  400 
feet  deep  to  Germain  Street,  joining  the  water,  out  of  which  two  common 
Lotts  were  given  to  Munson  Jarvis  and  Samuel  Jarvis. 

9.  Col.  Tyng  one  large  Lott  100  feet  front  on  the  east  side  of  Water 
street  and  runs  400  feet  and  fronts  on  Germain  Street.     Also  100  feet  on 
the  west  side  of  Water  Street  extending  to  the  water. 

10.  A  lot  of  equal  dimensions,  reserved  for  Col.  Upham  now  in 
England,  lately  transferred  to  Capt.  Camp,  before  held  5  Lotts  for  self 
and  two  sons,  one  of  which  Lotts  Mr.  Camp  sold  for  30  Guineas,  and  part 
of  said  Lott  given  to  Mr.  Norroway. 

11.  Mr.  Street's  Lott  50  feet  in  front  on  water,  also  a  Lott  on  the 
east  side  of  Water  Street  50  feet  front  and  400  feet  deep. 

12.  Mr.  Arnold,  Town  Clerk,  one  Lott  50  feet  front  on  Water  Street. 
Also  a  Lott  on  the  east  side  of  Water  Street  50  feet  front  and  400  feet 
deep.     A  Mrs.  Hacket  bought  one  half  of  a  Lott  50  feet  by  200  of  Mr. 
Arnold  for  which  she  paid  him  fifteen  Guineas. 

13.  Col.  De  Vebber  a  Lott  150  feet  front  on  Germain  Street  and 
200  feet  deep. 

14.  Major  Murray,  now  in  England,  3  Lotts  50  feet  front  each  and 
200  feet  deep. 

15.  Capt.  Hallet  6  Lotts  for  himself  and  sons. 

16.  Capt.  Jones  4  Lotts  fronting  on  Guilford  Street. 

17.  John  Colville  2  Lotts. 

18.  Charles  Loosely  2  Lotts. 

19.  Thomas  Elms  2  Lotts. 


182  WINS  LOW  PAPERS.  1784] 

20.  John  Menzies  2  Lotts. 

21.  Nathaniel  Horton  2  Lotts. 

22.  Bartholomew  Crannell  2  Lotts. 

23.  Thomas  Clark  a  number  of  Lotts. 

24.  Capt.  Dunbar  2  Lotts. 

25.  Capt.  Campbell  2  Lotts — one  at  Carleton  &  1  at  Parr. 

26.  Elias  Wright  a  number  of  Lotts. 

27.  William  Wright  a  number  of  Lotts. 

28.  Mr.  Lester  2  Lotts. 

29.  Major  Menzies  3  Lotts,  1  purchased  for  his  son  and  another 
drawn. 

April  23,  1784.  

The  answer  of  Mr.  Leonard,  one  of  the  Directors  for  distributing  the 
Lotts  in  the  Town  of  Parr,  to  several  supposed  Grievances  presented  to 
the  Honorable  Chief  Justice  in  an  anonymous  Paper. 

No.  1.  Mr.  Leonard  having  by  a  fair  and  legal  draft  of  Town  Lotts 
drawn  No.  58  &  59,  (being  then  but  one  Lott  and  the  most  valuable  in 
the  Town),  he  having  a  principal  direction  in  settling  and  forming  the 
town — to  avoid  the  appearance  of  Partiality — exchanged  his  Lott  for  one 
at  the  extremity  of  the  Town,  1600  feet  deep  and  100  feet  in  front,  many  of 
same  size  being  drawn  by  others.  The  arrival  of  more  people  from  Xew 
York  than  was  expected  induced  him  with  others  to  reduce  their  Lotts 
from  time  to  time  as  the  fleets  arrived  with  Loyalists  until  he  was  left 
with  only  100  by  250  feet,  fifty  feet  only  being  on  the  water.  There  are 
three  Tenants  on  Mr.  Leonard's  Lott  instead  of  four  mentioned  in  the 
charge,  who  are  all  provided  with  Lotts  in  the  best  and  most  conspicuous 
part  of  the  Town  and  have  therefore  no  cause  for  complaint.  His  situation 
and  improvements  hath  now  become  the  object  of  envy  of  a  few  malicious 
men.  He  is  however  ready  to  give  up  his  Lott  with  all  the  improvements, 
which  cost  him  500  guineas,  on  the  following  condition,  viz.,  to  return  him 
back  the  sixteenth  part  of  his  former  Lott,  which  he  became  lawfully  pos- 
sessed of — or  more,  if  desired  by  a  sixteenth  part  of  the  Gentlemen  and 
others  (who  have  any  pretentions  to  Town  Lotts  or  any  bounties  of  Gov- 
ernment) who  have  been  knowing  to  his  exertions  in  promoting  the  settle- 
ment without  a  prospect  of  compensation.  These  are  the  simple  terms  by 
which  he  will  with  cheerfulness  resign  his  lawful  right,  obtained  in  a  fair 
and  honorable  way,  and  on  no  other  conditions  but  by  an  order  from  the 
Governor  and  Council. 

2.  Mr.  Harding  one  Lott  50  feet  by  200,  never  owned  more. 

3.  Rev'd  John  Sayre,  with  two  sons  in  trade,  owners  of  two  Lotts 
only,  50  feet  by  200,  and  a  Clergyman  his  brother  [owner  of  one  lot]  they 
having  given  up  the  remainder  of  the  100  by  1600  feet. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  183 

4.  Mr.  Beadle  arrived  in  the  first  fleet,  drew  with  the  first  class,  100 
by  1600  feet,  but  has  long  since  given  up  all  except  100  by  200  which  is 
subdivided  between  Joseph  Beadle  Esq,  Joseph  Beadle  Jun'r,  John  &  Paul 
Beadle,  who  are  all  present  and  entitled  to  Lotts.     Has  also  given  permis- 
sion to  a  baker  (who  holds  a  good  lot  of  his  own)  through  a  particular 
desire  to  serve  the  man.     There  is  another  man  in  the  House  of  Mr.  Beadle 
who  are  all  the  Tenants  mentioned  in  the  charge. 

5.  Capt.  Allison  has  one  Lott  50  feet  by  200,  with  a  small  spot  on 
the  water  of  25  feet  front,  having  drawn  a  Lott  100  by  1600  feet. 

6.  Mr.  Peters  has  but  one  Lot,  50  by  200  feet  and  the  water  in  front, 
having  also  drawn  a  Lot  100  by  1600  feet. 

7.  Col.  Allen  drew  a  Lott  1600  feet  deep,  afterwards  it  was  reduced 
to  200  feet,  when  he  had  three  dwelling  houses  erected,  and  now  sold  to 
Mr.  Horsfield. 

8.  Mr.  Dibble  having  drawn  a  Lott  100  by  1600  feet  resigned  all  but 
100  by  200  feet  which  he  afterwards  divided  with  a  Mr.  Campbell,  a  Mer- 
chant, who  left  this  place  late  in  the  fall  for  Europe  to  bring  out  a  quantity 
of  Goods,  reserving  also  a  steep  bank  oposite  to  the  Lott  being  of  little  use. 

9.  Col.  Tyng  having  no  water  Lott;  the  back  part  of  his  Lot  of  little 
use,  being  a  steep  high  rock. 

10.  Col.  Upham  has  no  Lot,  the  one  reserved  for  him  became  for- 
feited with  many  others  in  November  last,  one  half  of  which  was  given  to 
Capt.  Camp,  50  feet  by  200,  who  has  no  other  room  for  a  house.     He  has 
beside  a  small  piece  of  land  on  the  bank  below  the  Lott  unfit  for  any  use 
but  a  store.     Capt.  Camp  sold  no  lot  belonging  to  himself.     The  other 
part  of  Major  Upham's  Lott  was  given  to  Mr.  Norroway  who  has  no  other. 

11.  Mr.  Street  having  drawn  a  Lott  of  100  by  1600  feet  has  with 
others  given  all  up  to  the  number  of  feet  mentioned  in  the  first  charge. 

12.  Mr.  Arnold  having  drawn  one  Lott  50  feet  bv  200,  disposed  of 
one  half  to  accommodate  a  Friend;  the  rest  of  the  charge  against  Mr. 
Arnold  is  preposterous  to  the  last  degree. 

13.  Col.  De  Vebber  having  drawn  only  one  Lot  for  himself,  one  for 
his  son.     The  other  is  a  present  made  by  Capt.  Maxwell  to  his  Family,  of 
which  he  has  informed  the  Chief  Justice. 

14.  Major  Murray  drew  a  lot  100  by  1600  feet  all  bein^  disposed  of 
[to  others]  in  the  month  of  November  last,  except  50  feet  by  200.    Major 
Murray  left  this  place  for  England  in  November  after  doing  everything 
to  promote  the  settlement  by  employing  a  number  of  men*  in  clearing  the 
streets  at  the  first  formation  of  the  Town. 


*The  men  employed   by  Major   Murray  were  soldiers   of  his   regiment,    the 
King's  American  Dragoons. 


184  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

15.  Capt.  Hallet  one  Lot  80  feet  by  100,  the  rest  of  the  Lotts  men- 
tioned were  for  the  people  present  who  apply ed  with  him  when  he  drew 
his  own. 

16.  Capt.  Jones  drew  one  Lot  for  himself  and  three  for  three  men 
belonging  to  his  company  who  are  now  here  and  entitled  to  Lotts. 

17.  John  Colville  drew  one  Lot;  also  twenty  five  feet  on  the  water 
was  given  to  him  to  build  a  wharf  much  wanted  by  the  public,  and  as  an 
encouragement  for  others  to  begin  so  necessary  an  undertaking  for  the 
preservation  of  Boats  and  small  craft. 

18.  Charles  Loosely  drew  one  Lott  and  one  was  given  him  in  another 
part  of  the  town  for  the  purpose  of  its  being  occupyed  for  a  Tavern,  much 
wanted  at  that  early  period,  which  lot  is  now  considered  as  the  public's 
and  he  has  no  right  to  dispose  of  it,  only  the  improvements. 

19.  Thomas  Elms  drew  one  Lott  and  became  possessed  of  another 
by  the  death  of  Martin  Lowick  who  died  in  his  debt. 

20.  Capt.  Menzies,  being  Capt.  of  a  Company  of  Eefugees,  returned 
his  company  to  Mr.  Leonard  for  Lotts,  who  is  not  able  to  say  concerning 
the  distribution  of  them  at  present;  believes  he  has  only  one  Lott  reserved 
for  himself. 

21.  Nathaniel  Horton  has  only  one  Lott.     The  other  mentioned  in 
the  Charge  belongs  to  Mr.  Seymour,  who  left  this  place  this  winter  after 
improvements  were  made  on  the  Lot  for  the  West  Indies,  is  hourly  ex- 
pected with  a  cargo. 

22.  Bartholomew  Crannell  purchased  a  house  and  Lott  on  his  arrival 
to  shelter  his  Family,  and  afterwards  drew  one  in  in  his  own  Name. 

23.  Thomas  Clark,  but  one  Lott  entered  on  the  list;  what  he  has 
purchased  Mr.  Leonard  is  unacquainted  with.     He  lives  opposite  the  Chief 
Justice. 

24.  Mr.  Leonard  is  unacquainted  with  the  circumstances  of  Capt. 
Dunbar's  having  two  Lotts  and  he  being  present  can  answer  for  himself, 
only  one  Lot  entered  on  the  list  for  him. 

25.  The  only  Charge  founded  in    Truth,  except  Mr.  Street's,  Capt. 
Campbell  having  one  Lott  in  Carleton  and  one  at  Parr. 

26.  Elias  Wright,  drawn  one  Lott  only,  what  he  has  purchased,  Mr. 
Leonard  is  unacquainted  with. 

27.  William  Wright,  one  Lott  for  himself.     He  drew  thirty  eight 
for  his  Company,  which  were  justly,  as  he  says,  distributed  to  them. 

28.  Mr.  Lester  drew  one  Lott  and  purchased  another  to  put  a  bake 
House  on,  that  it  need  not  endanger  any  building  near  it. 

29.  Major  Menzies  one  Lott  purchased  for  his  son,  another  drawn 
for  himself. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  185 

Tertullus  Dickinson  to  Chief  Justice  Finucane. 

To  the  Honorable  Bryan  Finucane  Esq'r,  Chief  Justice  of  his  Majes- 
ty's Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  &c,  &c; — 

The  memorial  of  Tertullus  Dickinson  sheweth: — 

That  your  Memorialist,  whose  Loyalty  &  Losses  will  appear  in  the 
certificate  enclosed,  arrived  at  Parr  Town  from  New  York  with  his  family 
in  November  last  and  applyed  to  Mr.  Leonard,  who  conducted  that  busi- 
ness, for  a  town  Lott,  which  he  could  not  then  obtain  and  was  therefore 
obliged  to  hire  a  house  for  himself  &  family. 

That  a  lot  has  been  since  offered  him  but  in  a  situation  which  is  not 
convenient  for  trade  or  navigation. 

That  as  he  proposes  entering  into  business  extensively  as  a  merchant 
he  humbly  requests  your  Honor  to  grant  him  a  Lott  more  conveniently 
situated  out  of  those  which  he  expects  will  appear  to  be  supernumerary  in 
the  hands  of  the  present  holders. 

And  your  Memorialist,  &c,  &c, 

Tertullus  Dickinson. 
George  Leonard's  remarks  on  above  Memorial. 

Mr.  Dickinson  arrived  late  in  November  when  all  the  most  valuable 
Lotts  were  disposed  of  except  the  one  offered  him,  which  being  centrical 
&  in  one  of  the  best  streets  and  but  a  short  distance  from  the  water,  No. 
78*  as  appears  on  the  map.  The  suggestion  of  being  obliged  to  hire  a 
house  is  absurd  in  the  memorialist  as  it  is  well  known  the  season  would 
not  permit  him  to  build  one,  besides  the  shortness  of  the  time  after  he 
had  applyed  before  he  had  a  Lot  appointed  him.  Manv  who  propose  and 
actually  are  in  trade,  whose  pretensions  are  equally  good  with  Mr.  Dick- 
inson and  who  have  done  everything  in  their  power  to  promote  and  facili- 
tate the  settlement,  do  not  unjustly  expect  the  priviledges  and  property 
of  others  taken  and  bestowed  on  them. 

Geo.  Leonard. 

Parr  on  the  Eiver  St.  John,  April  23d,  1784. 

N.  B.  Mr  Dickinson  did  &  said  every  thing  previous  to  his  leaving 
New  York,  which  was  late  in  November,  to  counteract  the  good  intentions 
of  Sir  Guy  Carle  ton  in  sending  the  Loyalists  into  this  province.  He 
reprobated  the  Idea  before  the  first  fleet  sailed  and  continued  to  discour- 
age every  person  of  his  acquaintance  untill  he  left  New  York  himself  for 
this  place  in  a  small  vessel  on  a  tradinsr  voyage  only,  but  finding  that 
money  may  be  obtained  here  in  trade  concluded  to  stay.  This  is  the  short 
history  of  Mr.  Hardy's  brother  in  law,  which  the  Chief  Justice  has  paid 
a  particular  attention  to  in  giving  him  two  valuable  lots,  one  on  the  water 
in  the  centre  of  the  town  and  another  a  few  yards  distance. 

*Lot  No.  78  was  on  the  west  side  of  Germain  street,  near  Queen  street. 


186  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

George  Leonard  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Parr,  April  30th,  1784. 

My  dear  Sir,—  *  *  *  The  Chief  Justice  has  arrived 
here  for  the  purpose  as  he  says  of  enquiring  into  and  redressing  griev- 
ances. Unfortunately  the  complaints  are  greater  and  the  breach  wider 
than  before  he  arrived — which  had  totally  subsided,  the  malcontents  had 
acknowledged  their  folly  and  absurdity  in  attending  to  the  suggestions  of 
a  Mr.  Hardy,  who  has  returned  here  with  him  and  has  scarcely  left  his 
elbow  since  he  arrived  to  the  exclusion  of  a  number  of  gentlemen  (who 
had  no  complaints  preferred  against  them  nor  they  against  others)  who 
would  have  readily  advised  with  him  in  any  matters  that  concerned  the 
Settlements  in  this  part  of  the  Province.  This  would  have  gained  him 
popularity,  and  would  have  supported  the  authority  of  the  place,  so  neces- 
sary at  the  first  forming  of  a  new  settlement,  and  his  conduct  might  have 
been  in  this  consistent  with  perfect  justice.  He  has  unfortunately  lost 
these  advantages,  and  has  thrown  the  Town  into  confusion  by  attending 
to  the  illiberal  insinuations  of  that  man  Hardy.  The  feelings  of  the  gen- 
tlemen are  hurt  and  many  of  the  undeserving  people,  which  are  Hardy's 
connections,  are  benefited  by  his  partial  decisions. 

Those  who  have  hitherto  had  the  direction  of  matters  here  are  in  a 
strange  and  indelicate  way  sent  for  before  him,  and  in  the  presence  of  that 
Man  charged  in  the  language  and  tone  of  a  Bashaw  with  wrong  and  partial 
conduct,  without  any  regular  mode  of  enquiry  into  it. 

The  Town  Lotts,  which  are  the  present  subject  of  dispute,  have  been 
divided  and  subdivided  on  the  arrival  of  almost  every  Fleet,  to  accommo- 
date the  Loyalists  as  they  came,  who  were  more  numerous  than  was 
expected,  until  the  Lotts  of  those  who  came  first  (who  had  gone  to  the 
task  and  expence  in  forming  the  Town)  had  been  reduced  to  one  sixteenth 
part  of  their  former  number  of  feet — which  they  had  obtained  by  a  fair 
and  legal  draft.  At  last  a  few  of  Mr.  Hardy's  connections  arrived,  late 
in  the  fall,  and  are  now  endeavouring  to  push  back  those  who  are  justly 
entitled  to  their  Lotts,  and  themselves  come  in  on  the  front  of  the  Town 
near  the  water.  On  the  above  principle  of  Mr.  Hardy,  supported  by  the 
Chief  Justice,  we  must  on  the  next  emigration  from  New  Gate,  or  else- 
where, divide  and  subdivide  again  and  again.  I  will  if  I  have  time  to 
have  them  copied,  enclose  you  29  of  their  charges  and  answers  to  each.  I 
will  venture  to  say  there  is  not  three  gentlemen  that  approves  of  the  least 
alteration  in  the  place,  but  wish  that  fellow  to  the  D — 1  and  all  his  party 
(meaning  Hardy). 

For  God's  sake  let  us  have  in  our  new-expected  Province  a  Chief 
Justice  that  will  not  give  credit  to  every  idle  report  from  Barbers  and  Grog 
shops,  as  this  man  has  done  since  he  has  been  here.  The  enclosed  letter 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  187 

and  answer  will  shew  the  credulity  of  the  man.  His  instability  also  is 
inconceivable — he  condemned  the  measure  of  having  any  part  of  the  Town 
that  lay  on  the  water  occupied  by  Individuals,  claiming  that  it  should  have 
been  reserved  for  Public  uses,  when  Wharfs  were  so  necessary  for  Trade 
and  for  the  preservation  of  Boats  and  small  craft.  He  ordered  a  Hand 
Bill  to  be  put  up  in  several  parts  of  the  Town  prohibiting  people  from 
going  on  with  their  improvements.  He  was  forewarned  of  the  conse- 
quence, he  however  said  he  would  try  the  matter,  but  was  by  the  experi- 
ment soon  convinced  of  the  impropriety  of  the  measure  and  ordered  them 
to  be  recalled.  *  *  * 

My  dear  Sir,  why  was  not  that  good  man  Lieut.  Governor  Fanning 
requested  to  go  on  this  important  business,  if  it  was  thought  of  such 
importance  by  the  Governor.  The  decrees  of  Colonel  Fanning,  right  or 
wrong,  would  have  been  well  received  from  the  great  opinion  we  have  of 
him  here. 

You  will  see  by  the  14th  charge  the  observations  on  Major  Murray's 
Lott  and  my  answer:  notwithstanding  which  the  Chief  Justice  has  given 
it  away  as  also  yours.  Murray's  is  given  to  a  Mr.  Melvin,*  Secretary  to 
a  committee  of  correspondence  that  Hardy  had  here  during  the  time  he 
was  at  Halifax.  He  was  a  Sutler  to  the  army  at  Kings  Bridge,  was  turned 
out  of  the  Camp  and  his  Hutt  burnt  for  bad  conduct.  * 
Poor  Murray,  who  had  cleared  the  Lott  had  done  more  in  clearing  the 
streets  at  the  first  laying  out  of  the  Town  than  all  the  people  in  the  Town 
at  that  time  besi'des.  This  shews  the  strength  of  his  prejudices  in  favor 
of  Hardy  and  his  attention  to  his  recommendations.  To  a  Mr.  Dickenson, 
a  brother  in  law  to  Hardy,  he  has  given  two  valuable  Lotts — one  on  the 
water  and  another  along  side  of  the  one  that  was  yours. 

How  far  the  Law  will  condemn  me  for  being  so  free  with  the  character 
of  the  first  Magistrate  you  are  the  best  judge,  I  should  notwithstanding 
be  happy  to  be  called  to  the  proof  of  what  I  have  related  and  to  many 
other  matters  that  are  equally  absurd  in  him  during  the  time  he  has  been 
here. 

I  am  &c., 

Geo.  Leonard. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  26  April,  1784. 
You  are  not  to  start  at  the  appearance  of  this  letter.     I  feel  that  it 


*The  person  referred  to  is  probably  David  Melville,  who  in  the  "Royal  St. 
John's  Gazette  and  Nova  Scotia  Intelligencer,"  of  Sep.  9,  1784,  prints  an  elaborate 
prospectus  headed  "Proposals  for  printing  by  subscription  an  accurate  his- 
tory of  the  settlement  of  his  Majesty's  exiled  Loyalists  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Bay  of  Fundy,  formerly  called  Arcadia,  on  the  River  St.  John."  The  prospectus 
shows  David  Melville  to  have  been  in  sympathy  with  Elias  Hardy  and  his  party. 


188  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

will  be  a  long  one.  The  importance  of  the  subject  will  justify  even  cir- 
cumlocution and  prolixity.  Writing  to  you  is  like  having  a  tete-a-tete 
with  myself.  I  am  not  shackled  by  any  vulgar  rules,  I  throw  aside  all 
ideas  of  method  and  connection  and  perfectly  satisfied  that  you  will  find 
out  my  meaning  I  give  you  the  unadorned  language  of  my  heart.  You 
know  how  zealously  I  have  express'd  myself  on  the  subject  of  dividing  the 
province  of  Nova-Scotia  and  forming  a  government  on  the  north  west 
side  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  *  *  * 

I  have  seen,  my  dear  Chipman  (in  the  country  which  I  have  formerly 
described  to  you),  a  vast  collection  of  valuable  men  of  different  orders, — 
men,  respectable  for  their  conduct,  with  their  families  and  the  little 
remains  of  their  property — unattended  to,  and  ungoverned.  I  saw  all 
those  Provincial  Eegiments,  (which  we  have  so  frequently  mustered) 
landing  in  this  inhospitable  climate,  in  the  month  of  October,  without 

(shelter  and  without  knowing  where  to  find  a  place  to  reside.  The  chagrine 
of  the  officers  was  not  to  me  so  truly  affecting  as  the  poignant  grief  of  the 
men.  Those  respectable  Serjeants  of  Eobinson's,  Ludlow's,  Cruger's, 
Fanning^,*  &c.,  (once  hospitable  yeomen  of  the  country)  were  addressing 
me  in  a  language  which  almost  murdered  me  as  I  heard  it. 

"  Sir  we  have  served  all  the  War.  Your  Honor  is  witness  how  faith- 
"  fully.  We  were  promised  land,  We  expected  you  had  obtained  it  for 
"us, — We  like  the  country — only  let  us  have  a  spot  of  own,  and  give 
"  us  such  kind  of  regulations  as  will  hinder  bad  men  from  injuring  us. — 

Think  you  Chipman  that  it  could  be  possible  for  me  to  retreat  from 
a  scene  like  this?  Or  do  you  think  affecting  as  it  was,  that  it  would  dis- 
courage me  from  exertions — No!  It  had  a  contrary  effect — it  stimulated 
me  to  propose  to  General  Fox  (who  was  also  witness  to  their  distress)  the 
plan  of  forming  a  separate  Government,  as  the  only  possible  means  of 
effectual  relief — and  to  contribute  to  that  relief  was  my  ambition  and  my 
:  motive. 

*  That  matter  being  settled  I  shall  go  on. 

You  have  already  received  all  the  arguments  (in  favor  of  this  plan) 
jwhich  arise  from  local  considerations.  Since  our  first  proposal  vast  num- 
bers of  settlers  have  arrived  in  that  country.  Almost  all  the  people  who 
composed  the  Garrison  of  Penobscot,  are  now  at  Passamaquoddy.  The 
late  Fencible  Americans,  D'cr.  Paine  with  a  large  party;  Sam  Bliss t  with 
another  party — are  there,  in  short  the  numbers  are  astonishing.  All  these 


""These  corps,  viz.,  the  Loyal  American  Regiment,  DeLacey's  Brigade,  and 
the  King's  American  Regiment,  were  composed  almost  entirely  of  the  Loyalist 
yeomanry  of  the  old  colonies,  and  included  many  men  of  excellent  reputation. 

fSamuel  Bliss  was  of  Concord,  Massachusetts,  and  a  brother  of  Daniel  Bliss, 
who  settled  in  Sunbury  Co.  He  died  at  St.  George,  March  5,  1803. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  189 

men  are  waiting  with  the  most  eager  impatience  for  some  regulations  in 
their  favor.  All  agree  that  nothing  short  of  a  separate  Government  can 
effectually  serve  them.  Surely  it  must  happen.  It  must  be  for  the 
interest  as  well  as  the  honor  of  the  British  Government,  to  save  from 
despair  so  many  of  its  faithful  subjects.  Consoled  with  this  idea  we  are 
determined  to  expect  it.  The  encouragement  given  in  your  letter  has 
revived  us  beyond  all  description.  For  Heaven  sake  don't  suffer  us  to  be 
disappointed. 

It  has  been  a  question  here,  and  perhaps  may  be  the  subject  of  enquiry 
in  England — Whether  the  British  West  Indies  can  be  supplied  with  the 
articles  they  want  from  Nova  Scotia.  I  have  occasionally,  since  my  arrival 
here,  had  much  conversation  with  merchants  and  other  well  infonn'd 
Gentlemen  on  this  subject,  and  I  am  perfectly  satisfied  in  my  own  mind, 
that  the  Countries  of  Nova-Scotia  and  Canada  can  supply  the  British  West 
Indies  with  every  article  they  want.  But  as  an  ipse  dixit,  in  a  business' 
of  this  sort  cannot  be  satisfactory,  I  will  endeavor  to  give  some  reasons 
for  this  opinion. 

The  articles  usually  exported  from  the  American  Provinces  to  the" 
West  Indies  are  Lumber,  Fish,  Horses,  &  some  Provisions. 

To  form  a  judgment  of  the  quantity  of  Lumber  which  the  country 
produces,  consider  what  has  been  the  last  year's  consumption  in  this  pro- 
vince. The  towns  of  Shelburne,  Digby,  and  those  on  St.  John's  River, 
and  many  inferior  towns  have  been  built  in  the  course  of  last  Year  and 
they  now  contain  many  thousand  houses.  The  materials  for  building' 
those  houses  have  been  supplied  without  any  great  assistance  from  the 
New  Settlers,  and  the  importation  from  the  States  has  been  very  inconsid- 
erable, because  in  most  of  those  places  the  New  Settlers  have  (injudiciously) 
refused  to  traffic  with  them.  It  is  fair  reasoning  to  say — If  such  consid- 
erable quantities  of  Lumber  could  be  supplied  (on  an  emergency)  by  the 
former  inhabitants  (who  God  knows  are  not  remarkable  for  their  industry) 
Surely  it  will  increase  immensely  when  a  multitude  of  spirited  men  shall 
find  it  an  object  worth  their  attention.  The  fund  of  timber  is  literally" ] 
inexhaustible.  Take  the  plan  of  the  River  St.  John's,  trace  it  from  the  ' 
Entrance,  observe  the  prodigious  branches  from  it,  the  vast  lakes  in  the 
vicinity  of  it,  from  whence  those  streams  run,  Consider  the  extent  of 
country  between  that  &  Passamaquoddy,  and  the  other  way  to  Pitcoudiac. 
Realize  that  the  borders  of  those  lakes  &  rivers  are  covered  with  timber  of 
almost  every  kind,  and  that  the  interior  country  as  far  as  has  been  explored 
furnishes  timber  in  the  same  proportion.  Look  also  at  Passamaquoddy 
Bay  and  the  rivers  which  empty  into  that. 

Omnipotence  cannot  effect  the  creation  of  more  perfect  streams  for*~ 
mills  than  are  to  be  found  in  all  these  places,  and  the  transportation  of 


190  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

lumber  from  the  places  of  sawing  to  the  places  of  Export  is  rendered  per- 
YJejctly  easy  because  the  currents  always  sett  towards  the  latter.  There 
was  nothing  wanting  but  labourers,  to  procure  almost  any  quantity  of 
lumber.  The  late  acquisition  of  inhabitants — obviates  that  difficulty. 
The  kind  of  lumber  which  is  used  for  building,  and  which  is  most  essen- 
tial, such  as  Frames,  Joists,  Plank,  Boards,  Clap-Boards,  &  Shingles  will 
be  exported  in  great  abundance  from  hence — immediately.  And  so  will 
Hoops,  the  Birch-hoops  it  is  agreed  are  as  durable  and  valuable  as  any  in 
the  World.  Staves,  are  the  only  article  about  which  there  is  a  doubt,  & 
staves  I  am  told  may  be  had  in  Canada.  In  my  observations  on  this 
business  you!  recollect  that  I  have  confined  myself  principally  to  the 
propose'd  new  province,  and  you  will  take  it  into  consideration  that  there 
are  many  places  on  the  peninsula  of  Nova-Scotia  from  which  large  quan- 
tities of  lumber  have  been  usually  exported,  and  that  the  exports  from 
those  places  will  increase  in  proportion  to  the  increase  of  inhabitants. 
Saw-mills  are  erecting  &  other  improvements  making  in  places  where  the 
old  Nova-Scotians  never  trod.  A  Capt.  Taylor,  of  Stephen  Delancey's 
regiment,*  has  commenced  his  operations  at  St.  Mary's  Bay,  and  he  now 
supplies  all  the  people  who  are  settling  about  that  Bay  &  the  Sissiboo 
river.  New  Mills  are  building  in  the  neighborhood  of  Annapolis  and 
Granville, — &  almost  in  every  other  considerable  town. 

£*"  I  shall  say  but  little  on  the  subject  of  Fish  because  it  must  occur  to 
every  man  of  common  sense,  that  if  the  New-England  Traders  could  find 
a  profit  in  sending  their  vessels  to  this  coast  for  Fish, — those  who  inhabit 
its  borders  can  carry  on  the  business  to  much  greater  advantage.  The 
exertions  now  making  are  very  spirited  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  the 
exports  of  Fish  from  Shelburne  &  the  other  new  places  added  to  the  former 
usual  exports  from  the  old  ports  will  be  an  ample  supply  fdr  the  West- 
Indies  this  year. 

Horses  are  reared  with  more  facility  in  Canada  &  about  St.  John's 

than  in  any  country  I  ever  saw,  and  they  are  the  best  Hacks  in  the  world. 

Beef  &  Pork  is  produced  in  great  abundance  on  the  peninsula  of 

I  Nova-Scotia,  more  than  is  necessary  for  the  inhabitants.     Witness  the 

\  quantities  that  were  brought  to  us  during  the  siege  of  Boston. 

I  cannot  speak  or  write  of  that  country  about  the  river  St.  John's 
without  making  use  of  such  extravagant  expressions  as  have  a  tendency 
to  lessen  the  weight  of  my  testimonies  in  its  favor.  I  acknowledge  myself 
to  be  a  little  romantic,  but  I  will  appeal  to  General  Fox  &  others  who_have 
observed  it  without  being  so  much  in  raptures,  whether  they  ever  beheld 
a  more  delightful  grass  country,  better  cattle,  or  better  grain,  or  more 
abundant  crops. 

*Captain  John  Taylor  of  the  first  battalion,  New  Jersey  Volunteers. 


1784J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  191 

What  then  in  the  name  of  wonder  should  hinder  us  from  supplying 
the  West-India  Islands  with  all  the  articles  they  want  especially  as  the 
privilege  of  doing  it  is  effectually  secured  to  us  by  the  navigation-Act. 
There  has  been  an  idea  sported  here  that  there  would  be  either  a  suspen- 
sion or  a  relaxation  of  that  act  but  this  1  think  can  never  happen.  I 
cannot  imagine  on  what  principle  of  politics  such  a  measure  could  ^be 
adopted^-  If  the  apprehension  of  inconvenience  to  the  islands  from  the 
operation  of  the  act  is  the  argument  in  favor  of  relaxing  it,  it  must  have 
been  suggested  without  due  consideration.  For  (if  the  necessary  attention 
which  the  new  settlers  are  obliged  to  give  to  their  private  matters  during 
the  first  Year,  prevents  any  great  speculations)  the  islands  can't  suffer. 
The  Americans  (if  advantages  result  from  the  traffic)  will  bring  their 
commodities  to  our  ports  sell  them  to  us — or  make  their  vessels  British- 
Bottoms — give  a  spring  to  our  commerce,  and  not  greatly  enhance  the 
price  of  the  articles  at  the  final  market.  This  consideration  will  hold  good 
with  respect  to  any  other  article  which  in  future  we  may  not  be  able  to 
supply.  All  these  circumstances  considered  it  appears  to  me  there  can 
be  no  danger  even  of  a  relaxation  of  the  act.  Such  an  event  would  greatly 
check  the  progress  of  our  settlements. 

Let  me  impress  on  your  mind,  my  dear  fellow,  the  necessity  of  the 
immediate  exertion  of  every  friend  to  this  country  to  effect  the  new 
government.  You  can  have  no  idea  of  the  strange  situation  which  those 
people  on  the  St.  John's  side  are  now  in.,-  The  difficulties  which  attend^  a 
communication  between  that  country  &  the  present  metropolis  have  been 
severely  experienced  this  season.  The  unfortunate  Provincial  Officers*  & 
others,  who  have  from  a  concurrence  of  unaccountable  accidents  been 
prevented  from  the  possession  of  their  lands,  and  have  business  of  other 
kinds  to  negotiate  with  the  officers  of  Government  here,  have  been  led  into 
expenses  which  has  deprived  them  of  the  small  remains  of  their  hard 
earn'd  money,  and  many  of  them  who  have  been  obliged  to  make  the  tour, 
are  reduced  to  distress  from  the  necessary  expences:  Some  of  'em  reside 
100  miles  from  the  mouth  of  St.  John's,  they  have  of  course  (after  per- 
forming that  journey)  to  pass  the  Bay  of  Fundy  and  to  travel  by  land  from 
Annapolis  130  miles  more,  and  they  arrive  at  a  place  where  expences  are 
enormous,  and  the  worst  part  of  the  story  is  that  they  have  generally 
returned  without  effecting  their  business.  They  invariably  complain  of 
the  want  of  an  efficient  and  regular  system  of  Government— they  say, 

*The  Loyalists  were  prevented  from  getting  settled  on  their  lands  for 
reasons  thus  summarised  by  Col.  Robert  Morse: — "First,  their  arriving  very 
"  late  in  the  season;  second,  timely  provision  not  having  been  made  by  escheat  - 
"  ing  and  laying  out  lands;  thirdly,  a  sufficient  number  of  surveyors  not  having 
"been  employed;  but  lastly  and  principally,  the  want  of  foresight  and  wisdom 
"  to  make  necessary  arrangements  and  steadiness  to  carry  them  into  execu- 
"  tion." 


192  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

"their  property  is  insecure  &  the  spirit  of  enterprize  checked."  They  also 
say  that  there  are  suggestions  of  claims  in  consequence  of  former  assign- 
ments of  lands,  and  the  people  are  frighten' d  at  the  idea  of  fixing  a 
residence  on  a  property  which  is  liable  to  contest.  There  are  no  attempts 
to  remedy  these  inconveniences — the  feeble  effort  of  sending  the  Chief 
Justice  with  a  Mr  Elias  Hardy  to  enquire  into  their  grievances.,  can't 
possibly  be  attended  with  any  salutary  consequences.  In  short  Chip,  the 
relief  must  be  speedy.  The  clamour  is  now  so  great  that  (altho'  not  war- 
ranted by  the  information  I  received)  I  thought  it  necessary  to  send  off 
an  express  to  Coffin  &  my  other  friends,  to  acquaint  them  of  the  prospect 
of  a  government  being  established  there.  Late  letters  received  from  men 
not  accustomed  to  enumerate  grievances,  are  filled  with  such  melancholy 
anticipations  that  I  could  not  avoid  endeavoring  to  relieve  them. 

As  I  don't  care  how  long  my  letter  is,  I'll  introduce  another  argument 
in  favour  of  dividing  this  province,  which  (if  not  of  equal  weight  with 
others)  is  of  some  consequence.  You  will  I  think  enter  into  the  spirit  of 
it.  A  large  proportion  of  the  old  inhabitants  of  this  country  are  natives 
of  New-England,  or  descendants  from  New  Englanders,  they,  from  their 
situation,  never  experienced  any  of  the  inconveniences  which  resulted 
from  the  violence  of  political  animosity,  they  remained  quiet  during  all 
the  persecutions  in  the  other  provinces — they  retained  a  natural  (perhaps 
laudable)  affection  for  their  country.  The  rebel  party  were  more  indus- 
trious, and  their  doctrines  and  principles  were  more  greedily  adopted,  than 
those  of  the  other  side,  by  degrees  the  Nova-Scotians  became  firmly 
persuaded  of  the  justice  of  their  cause.  Of  this  complexion  are  the  public 
officers,  generally.  On  our  side  the  principal  people  are  men  who  have 
Served  in  a  military  line — irritable  from  a  series  of  mortifications — scarcely 
cooled  from  the  ardor  of  resentment — jealous  to  an  extreme,  some  of  'em 
illiberally  so.  Either  of  these  kinds  of  men  may  form  useful  societies 
among  themselves — but  they  can't  be  mixed — separate  them,  and  this  very 
difference  of  opinion  will  increase  the  emulation  and  contribute  to  the 
general  good;  together — wrangles  and  contests  would  be  unavoidable. 

Lord  Sydney's  declaration  quoted  in  your  letter,  "That  he  will  make 
Kova-Scotia  the  envy  of  the  American  States,"  has  excited  a  kind  of 
general  gratitude,  I  cannot  describe  it.  Other  ministers  and  Great  men 
have  by  their  patronage  of  new  settlers,  relieved  individuals  from  distress, 
and  rendered  services  to  their  country,  but  it  is  a  Godlike  task  that  Lord 
Sydney  has  undertaken.  Such  an  event  as  the  present,  never  happened* 
before — perhaps  never  will  happen  again.  There  are  assembled  here  an 
immense  multitude  (not  of  dissolute  vagrants  such  as  commonly  make  the 
first  efforts  to  settle  new  countries,)  but  gentlemen  of  education — Farmers, 
formerly  independent — &  reputable  mechanics,  who  by  the  fortune  of  war 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  193 

have  been  deprived  of  their  property.  They  are  as  firmly  attached  to  the\ 
British  constitution  as  if  they  ne^er  had  made  a  sacrifice.  Here  they  stand } 
with  their  wives  and  their  children  looking  up  for  protection,  and  request- } 
ing  such  regulations  as  are  necessary  to  the  weal  of  society.  To  save  these 
from  distress,  to  soothe  and  comfort  them  by  extending  indulgencies  which 
at  the  same  time  are  essentially  beneficial  to  the  country  at  large,  is  truly 
a  noble  duty.  By  Heaven  we  will  be  the  envy  of  the  American  States. 
The  obligation  which  we — St.  John's  men  feel  for  the  proposal  of  giving 
us  a  government  is  greatly  enhanced  by  the  consideration  that  the  man 
proposed  to  be  placed  at  the  head  is  perfectly  calculated  for  the  perform- 
ance of  the  duty.  General  Fox  is  of  a  character  so  dignify'd — he  is  so 
truly  respectable  for  his  services — has  discovered  such  brilliant  abilities, 
such  an  enterprizing  spirit  &  indefatigable  industry,  that  we  anticipate 
the  most  important  benefits  from  his  exertions.  When  the  people  of  the 
neighboring  states  shall  observe  our  operations — when  they  see  us  in  the 
enjoyment  of  a  regular  system  of  Government — protected  by  the  mother 
country — not  sadled  with  enormous  taxes,  and  compare  their  state  with 
ours,  Will  not  they  envy  us?  Surely  they  will.  Many  of  their  most 
respectable  Inhabitants  will  join  us  immediately.  You  have  abilities  my 
friend  of  a  superior  kind,  if  there  are  yet  obstacles  in  the  way,  exert  all 
your  talents  to  remove  them.  The  nobleman  whose  heart  suggested  an 
idea  so  benevolent,  cannot  be  inaccessible  to  men  of  sense.  See  Lord 
Sydney,  expatiate  to  him  on  the  importance  of  the  object — convince  him 
by  fair  reasoning,  of  the  necessity  of  adopting  the  plan.  I  am  so  confident 
of  your  success  in  the  business  that  I  have  been  enquiring  where  will 
probably  be  the  boundaries  of  our  province.  I  find  there  are  three  opinions 
on  this  subject.  With  respect  to  the  western  &  northern  bounds  there 
can  be  no  doubt — the  first  will  be  wherever  the  American  line  is  deter- 
mined to  run — the  other  will  be  the  Canada  line,  so  that  the  difference  of 
opinion  arises  only  with  respect  to  the  southeastern  boundary.  Some 
assert  that  the  peninsula  of  Xova-Scotia  should  run  nearly  in  a  straight  line 
from  the  Bay  of  St.  Mary's  to  Tatamagouche  Bay  in  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence — this  would  throw  all  the  country  to  the  west  of  Onslow  into 
the  new  province,  &  leave  all  the  southern  part  of  the  peninsula  &  the 
island  of  Cape  Breton  in  the  old  province;  and  this  His  said  would  be 
sufficiently  extensive,  and  will  leave  them  more  than  an  equal  proportion 
of  navigable  harbors.  Others  say  that  the  line  should  strike  across  the 
narrow  isthmus  which  runs  between  the  Bays  of  Verte  &  Chignecto,  & 
(by  including  the  island  of  St.  John's)  sink  the  expence  of  that  abortion 
of  a  government.  If  the  metropolis  of  the  new  province  is  fixed  (as  I 
presume  it  will  be)  on  the  river  St.  John's,  the  communication  from 
Cumberland  &  the  places  in  the  vicinity  of  it  will  be  as  convenient  as  the 


194  WINSLOW  PAPERS  [1784 

present  communication  with  Halifax.  Others  contend  that  the  river 
Peticoudiac  should  be  the  boundary,  and  that  Cumberland  &  the  other 
places  must  remain  in  the  old  province.  One  or  the  other  of  these  three 
will  probably  be  the  line. 

I  have  presumed  that  the  seat  of  Government  for  the  new  province 
will  be  on  the  river  St.  John's,  because  that  river  must  be  nearly  centrical, 
;and  I  should  think  it  perfect  good  policy  to  establish  the  metropolis  as 
'high  up  the  river  as  St.  Ann's  point.*  It  would  have  a  tendency  to  extend 
the  settlements  &  enhance  the  value  of  the  land  above,  it  would  facilitate 
communication  with  Canada,  which  is  a  grand  object.  The  situation  is 
delightful — exalted  above  all  Freshets  and  directly  opposite  to  the  beau- 
tiful River  Nashwaagh.  The  country  about  it  is  inconceivably  fertile,  and 
the  navigation  for  small  vessels  not  only  practicable  but  convenient.  The 
great  town  of  Maugerville  is  in  its  neighborhood,  and  so  perfectly  culti- 
vated, even  at  this  time  as  to  afford  an  immediate  supply  for  your  market. 
A  communication  with  Passamaquoddy  over  land  is  easily  effected,  &  the 
distance  not  very  considerable.  All  these  circumstances  render  it  a  very 
eligible  situation.  If  the  towns  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  become  great 
the  Governor  may  prevent  inconveniences  to  them  by  an  occasional  resi- 
dence there. 

You  see  how  serious  I  am  in  my  arrangements.  Don't  dub  me  an 
enthusiast — these  sentiments  are  not  the  effect  of  giddiness — they  do  not 
arise  from  reveries  or  a  propensity  to  castle-building — they  are  the  effects 
of  deliberate  consideration.  They  may  not  be  well  expressed — if  they  are 
intelligible  I  shall  be  satisfy'd. 

Rely  on't  Chip — once  more,  that  if  the  plan  suggested  takes  place — 
If  Sir  Guy  Carleton  comes  out  Governor  General — a  separate  Government 
form'd — and  some  changes  take  place  in  this — Nova-Scotia  will  rise  in 
importance  beyond  the  expectation  of  the  most  sanguine  of  its  advocates. 
Pray  will  Mr.  Watson's  election  to  represent  the  City!  prevent  him  from 
making  an  excursion?  I  hope  not. 

It  is  so  painful  a  task  to  censure  as  a  Governor  a  man  whom  one 
esteems  as  a  gentleman,  that  I  will  transfer  the  duty  of  relating  the  strange 
absurdities  which  are  committed  here,  to  our  friend  Coffin — he  has  had  the 
same  opportunity  that  I  have,  to  make  his  observations — and  he  will  com- 
municate them  with  that  freedom  &  impartiality  which  marks  his  char- 
acter. 

Are  you  tired?  you  have  courted  this  kind  of  dissertation — make  the 
best  of  it. 

*Edward  Winslow's  advocacy  of  this  site  largely  influenced  its  selection  by 
the  governor  and  council.  There  can  be  no  doubt  of  this  in  the  mind  of  any  one 
who  reads  the  correspondence  in  this  book. 

fThe  reference  is  to  the  recent  election  of  Brook  Watson  as  a  member  of 
parliament  for  a  London  constituency. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  195 

Now  for  a  matter  of  a  little  consequence  to  myself.  From  whence 
arose  the  idea  that  I  shall  lose  my  half  pay  while  I  am  serving  as  Secretary 
to  Gen.  Campbell?  Surely  it  would  be  extremely  unjust  to  call  me  from 
my  private  pursuits  into  a  scene  of  expence  and  complicated  labor,  without 
any  allowance.  My  friends  have  been  employed  in  erecting  houses  & 
improving  lands — and  have  been  in  the  uninterrupted  enjovment  of  their 
domestic  comforts.  I  have  been  separated  from  my  family,  I  have  lost 
a  whole  year's  exertion  on  my  land.  I  have  no  house  built — or  improve- 
ment made,  but  I've  been  constantly  confined  to  this  expensive  uncom- 
fortable place.  I  will  not  boast  that  I  have  been  industrious.  I  leave  it 
to  my  friends  to  describe  the  scene  of  business  in  which  I've  been  involved, 
General  Campbell,  in  consideration,  allows  me  10s.  per  day,  &  it's  paid  not 
by  warrant,  but  out  of  the  contingencies  of  the  army.  It  never  can  be 
supposed  that  a  temporary  employment  like  this  is  what's  meant  by  "hold- 
ing an  employment  under  Government."  If  it's  so  construed  I  am  once 
more  ruined  effectually,  for  except  my  10s  a  day  Fll  be  hanged  if  I've  made 
a  farthing,  with  all  the  economy  I'm  master  of  I  am  in  debt  70  or  80 
guineas.  Gen'l  Fox  will  advise  you  how  to  manage  this  matter.  It  would 
be  too  barbarous  to  deprive  me  of  my  half  pay. 

Well  done  Sir  Benjamin!  The  next  news  we  hear  will  probably  be 
that  he  has  mounted  a  Baloon — taken  his  flight  from  Bavaria — and  is 
Chief  Engineer  to  an  Aerial  Queen.  I  hope  he'll  not  take  a  position  over 
the  river  St. /John's,  for  fear  of  accidents. 

The  old  Gentleman  writes  you.  You  will  hear  of  his  late  misfortune. 
I  need  not  say  anything  to  stimulate  my  friends  to  afford  him  their  assist- 
ance. 

I  congratulate  you  Chip  upon  finding  and  saving  an  unfortunate 
Brother.  It  is  a  pleasure  that  will  last  you  a  great  while. 

I  thank  Lord  Sackville  for  mentioning  my  name.  I  have  a  great 
respect  for  Lord  Sackville.  I  intended  doing  myself  the  honor  of  writing 
to  him — and  if  I  thought  it  would  afford  him  amusement,  I  would  certainly 
write. 

As  I  shall  write  you  tomorrow  I  will  make  no  apology  for  the  concise- 
ness of  this,  only  the  ordinary  one — hurry  of  business  &c.  &c. 

If  the  Devil  was  at  the  door  among  the  other  memorialists  he  should 
not  divert  my  attention  from  anything  that  could  contribute  to  your 
interest  or  pleasure. 

Most  cordially  & 

uncommonly  yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 


196  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Dr.  "William  Paine  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Le  Tete  Island,*  Passamaquoddy 

April  the  26th,  1784. 

Dear  Winslow, — By  this  opportunity,  I  have  the  Pleasure  of  informing 
you,  that  I  have  been  particularly  fortunate  in  locating  my  land  at  Passa- 
maquoddy. The  Harbour  of  L'Etang  where  it  is  proposed  to  build  a 
Town,  is  decidedly  the  best  in  America.  It  is  sheltered  from  all  winds, 
and  accessible  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  Last  Winter  was  the  severest 
Season  ever  known  in  America,  yet  at  this  Place  I  was  informed  by  Mr. 
Bliss  and  Grant,  (two  half  pay  Officers)  who  remained  here  with  their 
Familys,  that  they  never  saw  any  ice  in  the  Harbour.  This  is  an  advantage 
that  cannot  be  estimated.  I  have  reconnoitred  the  adjacent  Country, 
which  at  present  is  an  immense  Forest,  with  the  greatest  care  and  atten- 
tion. It  exceeds  any  part  of  New  England  that  I  am  acquainted  with. 
After  leaving  the  Sea  Coast  for  two  or  three  Miles,  you  open  a  Country 
free  from  Stones  and  covered  with  very  fine  Wood.  You  meet  with  a  great 
variety  of  Trees  in  this  Place,  but  the  White,  and  Yellow  Pine,  Rock 
Maple,  Black,  Yellow,  and  White  Birch,  Snruce,  Fir,  Ash,  and  Elm,  are 
the  principal  Trees,  that  will  make  Lumber  for  exportation.  Of  these  we 
have  an  inexhaustible  Fund.  Our  situation  is  equally  eligible  for  carrying 
on  the  Fishery;  as  a  convincing  proof  of  this,  there  is  at  this  time  not  less 
than  Twenty  Sail  of  Fishermen  in  this  Bay,  industriously  employed  in 
catching  Fish,  from  New  England. 

The  inclosed  Letter  from  my  Friend  Mr.  Pagan,  at  St.  Andrews,  will 
make  you  farther  acquainted  with  the  Advantages  of  our  Bay. 

I  am  so  much  engaged,  that  I  cannot  at  present,  be  more  particular, 
but  expect  to  hear  again  from  me. 

Adieu,  and  believe  me, 

Your  sincere  Friend, 
William  Paine,  t 

*This  island  is  now  called  Calef's  or  Frye's  Island.  Its  situation  was  greatly 
admired  by  Colonel  Robert  Morse,  who  speaks  in  the  warmest  terms  of  the 
adjoining  harbor  of  L'Etang.  It  is  indeed  a  fine  harbor,  though  the  anticipated 
town  has  not  yet  been  built  in  that  locality.  The  letters  that  follow  in  these 
pages  were  designed  to  support  the  efforts  of  those  who  were  at  this  time  work- 
ing for  the  division  of  the  old  province  of  Nova  Scotia  and  the  formation  of  a 
new  province  on  the  north  side  of  the  Bay  of  Pundy. 

fDoctor  William  Paine  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  is  here  referred  to.  A  short 
biography  of  him  will  be  found  in  the  Collections  of  the  N.  B.  Historical  Society, 
vol.  1,  p.  273.  He  was  the  first  clerk  of  the  house  of  assembly,  and  was  energetic 
in  the  promotion  of  education.  As  early  as  1785  he  was  a  prime  mover  in  the 
establishment  of  a  provincial  academy.  He  settled  at  Le  Tete  (or  Calef 's) 
Island,  the  situation  of  which  he  deemed  so  admirable  that  he  expressed  his 
conviction  that  it  would  ultimately  become  the  principal  port  in  British  North 
America.  It  is  said  that  at  a  dinner  party  given  by  Dr.  Paine  in  Worcester 
shortly  before  the  Revolution,  some  of  the  Whigs  refused  to  drink  the  King's 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  197 

Lieut.  Col.  Fanning  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  27th  April,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — Hearing  from  our  worthy  Friend  Col.  Winslow  that:  You 
are  in  England,  and?  that  'tis  suggested  a  New  Government  is  likely  to  be 
formed  on  the  Kiver  St.  John's,  of  which  you  will  probably  become  an 
Inhabitant,  I  think  it  but  candid  and  friendly  to  inform  you,  that  You 
may  acquaint  Br.  Gen.  Fox,  whom  I  hear  is  to  be  appointed  Governor  of 
it,  that  there  is  a  Commerce  commencing  from  thence  with  the  West 
Indias.  That  thay  have  actually  loaded  six  large  vessels  with  inch  Boards, 
White  Oak  Staves,  Hoop  poles,  &c.,  for  the  West  Indias.  And  Several 
Capital  Merchants  of  this  province  have  lately  expressed  to  me  their  readi- 
ness and  Wishes  to  contract  to  supply  all  the  West  India  Islands  with 
Lumber  for  Twenty  Years  to  come.  Much  Publick  Benefit  &  National 
Advantage  may  be  reasonably  hoped  from  an  Encrease  of  such  a  Communi- 
cation, if  a  proper  encouragement  is  given  to  the  Inhabitants  of  His 
Majesty's  remaining  Colonies,  and  a  wise  restriction  laid  on  the  Commerce 
from  the  American  States  to  the  Islands.  Notwithstanding  the  immense 
demand  of  the  New  Settlers  on  the  St.  John's,  the  Boards  shipped  in  the 
above  mentioned,  was  purchased  there  for  thirty,  &  five  and  Thirty  Shill- 
ings a  Thousand.  Enquire  for  Mr  John  Maclellan  at  the  New  York  Coffee 
House  for  further  Information  on  this  Subject. 

I  have  only  time  to  request  You  to  present  my  Compliments  to  all  our 
Friends  with  You  &  to  assure  You  that  I  am,  with  much  Esteem  &  Regard, 
D'r.  Sir,  Your  most  Obed't  Servant, 

Edm'd.  Fanning. 

Col.  Beverly  Robinson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Mortlake  "(in  Surrey)  Apr.  29th,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  wrote  you  the  19th  Instant  inclosing  some  Letters  & 
Newspapers  for  Beverly.*  I  also  wrote  you  the  same  day  by  Mr.  Goodall, 
recommending  him  to  your  notice  as  a  friend  of  mine;  he  is  a  Merchant 
in  London  &  is  gone  to  Canada  to  settle  some  matters  there  &  will  visit 
Halifax  about  Aug't  next  when  he  will  deliver  you  my  Letter. 

I  now  again  take  the  liberty  of  troubling  you  with  the  inclosed  letters 

health  until  John  Adams  advised  them  to  comply,  saying  we  shall  be  able  to 
return  the  compliment.  Accordingly,  Adams,  when  asked  to  propose  a  toast, 
gave  "the  Devil."  Doctor  Paine  was  very  indignant,  but  his  wife  with  ready 
wit  turned  the  laugh  on  John  Adams  by  saying,  "My  dear,  as  the  gentleman 
has  been  so  kind  as  to  drink  the  health  of  the  King,  let  us  by  no  means  refuse 
to  drink  to  his  friend."  After  a  few  years'  residence  in  New  Brunswick,  Dr, 
Paine  returned  to  Massachusetts,  where  he  died  in  1833,  in  his  84th  year. 

*The  reference  is  to  his  son,  Lieut.  Col.  Beverley  Robinson,  who  was  at  this 
time  living  at  Annapolis  with  his  family  (in  which  nine  servants  were  included). 
His  biography  is  given  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists. 


198  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

for  my  boys,  and  beg  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  forward  them.  The  large 
package,  marked  newspapers,  you  are  welcome  to  open  &  peruse  if  you 
have  none  by  any  other  Channel  so  late.  What  can  I  say  to  you  about 
Politics?  I  can  say  nothing  but  what  you  will  see  in  the  papers,  and 
therefore  must  refer  you  to  them,  and  they  contain  nothing  but  about 
Elections.  The  Election  for  Westminster  has  now  been  warmly  contested 
for  25  days.-  Lord  Hood  carrys  it  hollow,  but  the  Struggle  is  very  hard 
between  Mr.  Fox  &  Sir  Cecil  Wray:  for  the  first  two  or  three  days  Fox  was 
ahead,  the  next  12  or  14  Sir  Cecil  lead,  for  a  week  past  Fox  got  ahead  again 
&  was  yesterday  41  before  the  Knight,  and  most  people  think  he  will  carry 
it,  mearly  by  Industry  and  Good  Management;  at  any  rate  there  will  be  a 
Scrutiny  demanded  let  who  will  be  foremost  at  the  close  of  the  poll,  &  that 
they  tell  me  will  take  up  six  months,  and  in  that  case  none  of  the  three 
will  sit  in  Parliament  the  next  Session.  The  members  of  the  last  Opposi- 
tion have  lost  their  Elections  almost  everywhere,  and  it  is  thought  Mr. 
Pitt  will  have  a  great  majority.  I  hope  he  will  not  take  Lord  S[helburn]e 
into  the  ministry  which  has  been  talked  of  for  some  time. 

The  Affairs  of  the  Loyalists*  goes  on  but  slowly;  these  troublesome 
Elections  have  taken  up  the  time  &  attention  of  the  Commissioners  for 
some  time  but  they  are  going  on  again:  they  seem  to  take  great  pains  and 
pay  attention  to  our  unhappy  situation,  but  they  have  a  troublesome  and 
difficult  task  to  go  thro'.  Many  very  Extraordinary  Claims  are  given  in, 
such  as  you  would  be  astonished  to  see.  I  have  not  had  my  hearing  yet  & 
don't  expect  it  in  less  than  two  months,  so  many  there  are  before  me;  but 
what  appears  very  extra'y  to  me  they  will  not  enter  upon  Examination  of 
any  Claims  given  by  Attorneys,  but  say  every  person  who  makes  any 
demand  on  Government  must  apply  in  person.  However  they  rec'd  the 
claims  into  their  office  in  order  to  keep  them  alive,  that  they  may  not  be 
totally  excluded  according  to  the  Act  of  Parliament,  and  the  matter  of 
hearing  them  by  the  Attorneys  will  be  determined  hereafter,  which  they 
certainly  must  do,  there  are  so  many  claims  given  in  by  Attorneys  that  it 
would  be  a  very  unjust  thing  to  throw  them  out  unless  the  principal  came 
here.  As  the  matter  is  like  to  be  so  very  tedious,  the  Commiss'rs  have 
recommended,  I  believe,  most  that  have  applyed  for  a  temporary  support 
from  £40  to  £200  a  year,  which  is  the  highest  they  can  go.  I  have  been 
under  the  necessity  of  asking  for  such  a  support  and  they  have  allowed  me 
£200  a  year  commencing  ye  5th  of  Jan'y  last  in  addition  to  my  half  pay, 
which  makes  me  nearly  full  pay. 

I  have  the  pleasure  to  tell  you  we  are  all  hearty  and  well  and  join  in 

*The  reference  is  to  the  investigation  of  their  claims  for  compensation  for 
losses  incurred  in  consequence  of  the  war  by  commissioners  appointed  for  the 
purpose. 


1784]  WINSLOW    PAPERS  199 

our  respects  to  you,  and  pray  remember  us  to  Gen.  Campbell  &  Captain 
Addenbough  &  believe  me, 

Your  sincere  friend,  &c., 

Bev.  Robinson. 

[Addressed  "Col.  Edward  Winslow,  Secretary  to  Gen'rl  Campbell, 
Halifax/7] 

Major  Barclay  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Wilmot,  30th  April,  1784. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  have  the  pleasure  to  assure  you,  your  dear  Mary 
and  Children  are  well;  on  my  return  home,  I  waited  on  her  to  know  if  she 
had  any  commands,  but  she  had  already  sent  them  to  Captain  Thompson 
who  will  deliver  them. 

The  Chief  Justice,  I  fancy,  has  found  most  of  the  complaints  at  St. 
John's  frivolous,  and  many  groundless.  The  only  one  he  attends  to  is  the 
extent  of  the  Water  Lots.  He  by  no  means  pretends  to  dictate  and  carries 
himself  much  better  than  I  imagined  he  would.  His  wish  is  to  reconcile 
parties;  an  impossibility,  and  in  the  pursuit  of  which  he  will  displease  both. 

The  death  of  Mr.  Hughes  (Sam  Hughes)  the  Evening  of  our  arrival, 
gave  me  immediate  possession  of  my  office  (Collector  of  Excise  at  St. 
John's.)  From  his  papers,  no  knowledge  of  the  Business  of  the  Office  can 
be  obtained.  Will  you  be  so  good  as  to  make  yourself  Master  of  it,  by 
applying  at  the  Office,  and  send  me  a  detail,  as  circumstantial  as  possible. 
The  worthy  Col.  Goold*  will  afford  you  every  assistance.  I  wish  my  return 
to  this  place  may  not  be  mentioned  untill  the  Chief  t  arrives  by  whom  I 
shall  write  most  particularly.  I  have  made  Col.  Tyng  my  deputy  untill 
my  return,  which  totally  must  depend  on  a  Letter  from  you.  Mary  told 
me  the  contents  of  your  last  letter.  Should  that  wished  for  event  take 
place,  I  shall  move  bag  &  baggage  immediately;  without  which  the  world 
would  not  induce  me  to  reside  there.  If  an  immediate  Government  is  not 
established  at  St.  John's,  every  species  of  disorder  and  confusion  will  ensue. 
The  Justices,  unexceptionable  as  their  Characters  are,  do  not  command 
sufficient  respect,  and  superior  Courts  are  so  remote,  they  laugh  at  the 
Idea  of  a  citation  from  them.  Pray  write  me  by  the  first  conveyance,  and 
on  what  ground  your  hopes  of  seeing  General  Fox  stand.  I  am  so  unwell 
with  a  head  Ache,  I  write  this  in  bed.  Believe  me  dear  Winslow, 
With  the  sincerest  Affection 

Ever  Yours, 

Tho.  Barclay. 
P.  S.     When  will  the  Brandywine  come  round. 

"Colonel  Arthur  Goald,   secretary  of  the  province  of  Nova  Scotia. 
fChief  Justice   Bryan   Finucane. 


\ 


200  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Edward  Winslow  to  Lt.  John  Robinson.* 

May,  1784. 

Dr.  John, — I  may  have  led  you  into  a  scrape,  but  terminate  how  it 
will  my  intentions  were  good. 

General  Campbell  has  discovered  that  the  most  infamous  frauds  have 
been  committed  and  the  most  scandalous  impositions  attempted  in  the 
Eeturns  fo'r  Eations  from  the  Disbanded  Corps  &  Loyalists,  and  he  has 
determined  to  put  an  end  to  those  abuses  if  possible,  and  as  the  readiest 
way  to  effect  a  reformation  he  has  ordered  that  all  the  Corps  and  Classes 
shall  be  immediately  mustered,  and  he  has  appointed  very  respectable 
gentlemen  to  superintend  the  business  and  assigned  to  every  one  his  dis- 
trict. He  has  given  them  ample  powers  and  furnished  them  with  particu- 
lar instructions. 

He  desired  me  to  name  a  man  to  perform  the  duty  in  the  district  of 
Annapolis  and  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  mentioning  your  name.  As  It 
is  that  kind  of  an  appointment  which  cannot  interfere  with  your  half-pay, 
and  as  it  is  really  confidential  and  important,  I  flatter  myself  you  will  have 
no  objection  to  accept  it.  The  allowance  will  be  10s.  a  day  while  on  duty. 
My  advice  to  you  is  that  you  proceed  immediately  to  Annapolis  and  have 
a  consultation  with  Mr.  Williams  t  and  the  Officer  commanding,  to  whom 
you  will  communicate  your  Instructions;  that  you  divide  your  district  into 
four  or  five  tracts  and  after  fixing  your  route,  publish  your  advertizements 
in  succession. 

I  shall  inclose  you  a  number  of  memorandum  books  which  you  will 
use  for  the  different  classes  and  after  having  collected  the  several  Lists 
you  will  consolidate  'em  into  one  general  Return.  Your  instructions  will 
point  out  the  intention  of  the  appointment.  By  them  you  will  see  that 
the  General's  principal  wish  is  to  obtain  an  accurate  account  of  the  number 
and  description  of  persons  who  have  settled  in  the  different  districts  and  i 
am  sure  you  will  be  able  to  give  it.  You  cannot  be  too  minute.  You  will 
have  it  in  your  power  to  do  justice,  &c, 

[The  above  is  a  rough  draught  &  lacks  signature.] 

William  Pagan  to  Dr.  William  Paine. 

St.  Andrews,  2d  May,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  have  just  learned  of  your  arrival  at  Harbor  PTang  and 
am  in  great  hopes  before  your  return  to  Halifax  you  will  find  time  to  pay 

*Son  of  Colonel  Beverley  Robinson,  gazetted  ensign  in  the  Loyal  American 
Regiment,  November  15,  1777,  and  lieutenant  in  June,  1781.  After  living  for  a 
while  at  Annapolis  he  came  to  St.  John,  and  was  deputy  paymaster  general  of 
the  forces.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Chief  Justice  Ludlow;  was  a  member  of 
the  council  of  the  province,  mayor  of  the  city  of  St.  John,  and  first  president 
of  the  Bank  of  New  Brunswick.  He  died  in  1828,  aged  67  years. 

fThomas  Williams,  Esq.,  ordnance  storekeeper  and  commissary  at  Anna- 
polis. He  was  grandfather  of  Sir  Wm.  Fenwick  Williams,  the  hero  of  Kars. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  201 

our  new  Settlement  a  visit.  You  will  find  us  in  a  state  of  infancy,  but 
when  it  is  considered  that  there  was  not  a  single  house  erected  till  last 
October,  you  will  not  think  light  of  our  exertions. 

We  have  now  about  Ninety  Houses  up,  and  great  preparations  making 
in  every  quarter  of  the  Town  for  more.  Numbers  of  Inhabitants  are  daily 
arriving  and  a  great  many  others  are  hourly  looked  for  from  different 
quarters.  Agents  are  now  here  from  the  neighboring  States  on  the  look 
out  for  Lands  for  a  number  of  valuable  Inhabitants  who  wish  to  emigrate 
here  being  tired  of  their  new  Government. 

I  have  not  been  in  your  part  of  the  Bay,  but  from  information  the 
Lands  are  Good.  I  early  this  Spring  made  one  of  an  Exploring  Party. 
We  went  all  round  Oak  Point  Bay,  and  up  Scudock*  Eiver  a"s  far  as  the 
Indian  Settlement  a  little  above  the  Falls.  These  are  part  of  the  Lands 
laid  out  for  the  Associated  Loyalists  from  Penobscot,  and  I  can  with  plea- 
sure assure  you  that  the  Land  in  general  is  very  good,  abounding  with 
large  Quantitys  of  hard  wood,  all  kinds  of  Pine  Timber  of  a  large  growth 
and  very  handy  to  the  water  where  most  vessels  can  safely  anchor.  There 
are  a  number  of  Falls  of  water  where  Saw  Mills  can  be  erected,  but  only 
two  on  Scuddock  yet  up.  The  Mill  Privilidges  on  Oak  Point  Bay  have 
been  lately  sold  to  defray  the  charges  of  the  Town,  the  purchasers  are 
making  preparations  to  erect  Saw  Mills.  The  Timber  is  very  handy  to 
the  Mills  and  no  end  to  the  quantity. 

There  is  a  large  growth  of  White  Pine  fit  for  Masts  &  Spars  of  any 
dimensions.  In  fact  from  my  own  observation  and  from  the  information 
I  have  had  from  undoubted  authority  I  am  fully  convinced  that  the  Grand 
Bay  of  Passamaquoddy  alone  can  supply  the  whole  British  West  India 
Islands  with  Boards,  Plank,  Scantling,  Eanging  Timber,  Shingles,  Clap 
Boards  and  every  species  of  Lumber  that  can  be  shipped  from  any  part 
of  New  England,  oak  staves  excepted.  Masts,  spars  and  square  timber, 
suitable  for  the  British  Market,  can  be  furnished  to  any  extent  from  here, 
and  nothing  prevents  all  these  articles  from  being  now  furnished  in  the 
greatest  abundance,  of  the  best  quality  and  on  at  least  equal  terms  with 
any  other  part  of  the  Continent,  but  the  want  of  Inhabitants  and  Saw 
Mills,  in  both  which  we  have  the  most  promising  prospect  of  cutting  a. 
very  respectable  figure  in  the  course  of  this  year. 

The  [easy]  navigation  to  this  Town  exceeds  any  I  have  seen;  no 
person  of  any  observation  will  want  a  Pilot  after  being  once  up,  and  we 
are  accessible  at  all  seasons  of  the  year. 

The  Fishery  in  this  Bay  you  are  no  doubt  sufficiently  informed  as  to 
the  great  extent  it  can  be  carried  on. 

Excuse  the  liberty  I  have  taken  in  giving  my  opinion  of  our  new 
*  Saint  Croix. 


202  WINSLOW    PAPEKS  [1784 

Settlement.  I  know  you  are  interested  in  its  prosperity  and  will  be  pleased 
with  the  accounts  I  have  given,  espetially  when  I  assure  you  that  I  am 
not  governed  by  my  own  opinion  alone,  but  also  by  the  opinion  of  every 
person  who  has  taken  any  pains  to  explore  this  part  of  the  country. 

Should  your  time  not  permit  you  to  pay  us  a  visit  now,  I  am  in  hopes 
to  have  the  pleasure  of  meeting  you  at  St  Johns  where  I  shall  set  out  in 
a  few  days  on  my  way  to  Halifax. 

I  am  dear  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 

Will.  Pagan, 

\ 

William  Hazen  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Fort  Howe  the  3  May,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  rec'd  your  favour  20th  April;  am  very  happy  to  find  that 
General  Fox  will  be  Placed  at  the  head  of  a  new  government  on  this  Side 
of  the  Bay.  I  hope  it  will  be  very  soon. 

Every  information  will  be  collected  with  Kespect  to  Lumber  &c.,  for 
the  West  Indies  by  your  Friends  at  this  Place  &  forwarded  to  England  to 
Prevent  the  navigation  act  from  being  Repealed.  I  have  not  the  Least 
Doubt  but  there  will  be  sufficient  of  Every  kind  after  this  year  if  there  is 

proper  encouragement. 

I  am  Dear  Sir, 

Your  most  ob't  Humbl.  Servt. 

Wm.  Hazen.* 

John  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Carleton,  5th  May,  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  20th  Ap-1,  the  one 
from  Upham  did  not  attend  it  as  mentioned,  but  I  can  easily  form  an 
opinion  of  its  contents.  Every  thing  in  my  power  shall  be  done.  I  cannot 
boast  of  many  friends  in  power  at  home,  but  old  Sir  Guy  shall  have  an 
address  from  this  Town  with  as  handsome  an  invitation  as  we  are  capable 
of  penning.  And  as  to  the  Act  mentioned  I  cannot  suppose  our  friends 
at  home  ever  will  suffer  it  to  be  repealed;  it's  an  absolute  fact  that  we  can 
supply  the  West  Indies  with  what  Lumber  and  fish  they  can  consume, 
excepting  staves  which  are  to  be  got  from  Canada  in  great  abundance. 
The  prospect  of  our  becoming  a  separate  Government  has  elated  me  to  that 

*William  Hazen,  sr.,  was  the  business  partner  of  Simonds  and  White  at 
Portland  Point.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  council  of  the  province.  His 
house,  built  at  Portland  Point  in  1773,  is  still  standing  (1901)  and  in  good  repair. 
For  biographical  sketch  of  Hon.  William  Hazen  see  New  Brunswick  Magazine  for 
Dec.  1898,  pp.  316-324. 


1784]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  203 

degree  as  to  render  me  totally  unfit  for  any  kind  of  business.  By  the  day 
our  letters  and  papers  are  ready  for  England  a  vessel  will  sail  from  hence 
for  Europe.  Mr.  Campbell  has  informed  me  he  has  some  direction  about 
your  Father's  place.  I  wish  he  had  been  a  little  more  explicit  in  his  direc- 
tions to  me.  One  Merritt  is  at  present  on  the  place  and  will  leave  the 
buildings  that  he  has  erected  for  fourteen  guineas.  It's  a  great  price 
for  them,  as  they  will  only  serve  for  out  houses,  and  not  for  any  length  of 
time.  But  the  Kefugee  that  drew  the  lot  had  agreed  to  give  that  sum,  so 
1  don't  know  how  the  old  Gentleman  can  be  off.  As  the  season  is  now 
advancing  very  fast,  and  as  there  is  about  ten  acres  of  Land  clear,  I  have 
concluded  to  hire  a  man  to  plant  by  the  halves  and  quit  the  place  in  the 
fall.  During  this  time  a  house  can  be  erected  and  made  comfortable  for 
him  and  the  old  Lady  against  the  winter  should  he  chuse  to  reside  there 
a  I,  that  season.  Give  my  best  love  to  him  and  the  old  Lady  with  the  Girls. 
Eequest  him  to  write  me  fully  what  he  would  have  done  together  with  the 
size  of  the  house  and,  as  I  mentioned  to  him  before,  my  attention  and 
utmost  exertions  shall  not  be  wanting  to  make  him  happy.  *  *  * 

My  business  is  settled  with  Mr.  Hecht,*  and  I  have  no  doubt  it  will 
appear  as  I  have  represented  it.  I  have  been  with  Mr.  Finucane  and 
understand  your  lot  and  Murray's  are  taken  from  you  in  part.  If  I  dare 
give  you  a  detail  of  his  conduct  I  would,  but  what  I  have  already  wrote 
about  matters  here  to  your  quarter  has  taken  such  a  turn  that  I  dare  not 
at  present  say  anything.  The  time  I  hope  is  not  far  distant  when  I 
expect  to  see  every  thing  undone  and  Mr.  Hardy  thrown  neck  &  heels, 
with  his  party,  into  the  Kiver.  Its  infamous  and  disgraceful  to  a  degree. 

Pray  my  Dear  Ned  see  if  you  can't  hear  of  some  letter  from  Nath. 
[Coffin]  t  for  me.  *  *  * 

Our  good  friend  Thomas  has  left  us  ere  this.  I  should  have  wrote 
him  a  very  long  letter  but  was  up  at  the  farm.  Pray  make  our  most 
affectionate  regards  to  him  should  he  be  with  you,  which  I  much  doubt. 
I  shall  write  him  fully  by  the  vessel  that  sails  soon  from  hence. 

With  our  most  sincere  love  to  the  old  Gentleman,  Lady  &  Girls,  We 
are  forever, 

Yours,  John  Coffin. 

P.  S.  Eeturn  our  sincere  thanks  to  Mrs.  Cotnam  for  her  kind  remem- 
brance of  us. 


*Frederick  Wm.  Hecht,  at  this  time  in  charge  of  the  commissary  general's 
office  at  Fort  Howe.  He  hired  the  store  and  some  other  buildings  belonging 
to  Hazen,  Simonds  and  White  at  Portland  Point,  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  commissariat  department 

fBrother  of  John  Coffin. 


204  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Major  Studholme  to  Edward  Winslow. 

'  Parr  Town,  9th  May,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — Being  absent  when  the  Lands  of  Conway  were  drawn  foiv 
Mr.  Street*  forgot  a  memorandum  of  reserve  I  left  in  the  office  respecting 
the  part  of  those  lands  joining  Glazier  Manor,  t  which  were  directed  to 
be  reserved  for  your  Family,  and  the  bearer  Mr.  Dalzel  has  drawn  those 
lands,  and  as  he  is  a  very  good  and  useful  man  I  have  recommended  him 
for  a  Grant  some  where  else  and  shall  thank  you  for  your  assistance  in 
procuring  it  for  him.  I  beg  you  will  excuse  this  trouble  and  attribute 
this  mistake  to  its  true  cause  and  not  to  any  neglect  or  inattention  of  mine. 
The  impatience  of  the  bearer  leaves  me  only  time  to  congratulate  you  on 
the  late  good  news  we  have  had  from  England  and  to  assure  you  that  I 
am  with  true  esteem, 

Dear  Sir, 

Your  obliged  and  obed't  Humb'l  SerVt. 

G.  Studholme. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  12th  May,  1784. 

My  dear  Fellow, — The  inclosures  are  this  instant  received  from  St. 
John's.  I  forward  'em  because  they  will  give  you  the  best  idea  of  the 
present  State  of  matters  here. —  The  operations  of  the  Chief -Justice  have 
terminated  exactly  as  we  expected — the  hauteur  and  parade  which  distin- 
guished him  had  not  the  intended  effect — such  men  as  our  old  friends 
Hewlet,  Deveber,  Coffin,  Leonard,  Tyng,  &c.,  are  not  easily  dazzled  by  such 
superficial  nonsense,  and  they  have  treated  him  with  perfect  contempt 
I  have  endeavored  to  soothe  these  men  by  repeated  assurances,  that  a 
Government  will  be  immediately  established  there,  &  I  verily  believe  that 
unless  that  event  takes  place  immediately,  that  Country  will  exhibit  such 
scenes  of  desperation  &  distress  as  were  never  before  read  of. 

*Samuel  Denny  Street,  here  referred  to,  was  an  Englishman  by  birth  and 
a  lawyer  by  profession.  He  was  gazetted  a  lieutenant  in  the  Royal  Fencible 
Americans,  and  rendered  important  services  during  the  Revolution.  At  the 
close  of  the  war  he  was  at  Fort  Howe  with  Major  Gilfred  Studholme,  and 
assisted  in  the  settlement  of  the  Loyalists  on  the  River  St.  John.  He  took  up 
a  grant  of  land  in  Sunbury  County,  near  the  Oromocto  River,  which  he  named 
the  "Elysian  Fields."  He  represented  Sunbury  County  for  some  years  in  the 
house  of  assembly.  His  son,  George  Frederick  Street,  became  a  judge  of  the 
supreme  court,  and  another  son,  Hon.  Ambrose  Street,  was  a  prominent  legis- 
lator and  attorney  general.  The  Rev.  Samuel  Denny  Lee  Street,  for  41  years  rec- 
tor of  Woodstock,  N.  B.,  was  his  youngest  child.  He  died  at  Burton  in  1830,  in  his 
79th  year,  having  outlived  every  member  of  the  first  council  of  the  province, 
as  well  as  every  member  of  the  first  bench  and  bar. 

fGlasier's  Manor  was,  in  the  first  instance,  granted  to  Lieut.  Col.  Beamsley 
Perkins  Glasier  of  the  4th  battalion  of  the  60th,  or  Royal  American,  Regiment, 
on  Oct.  15,  1765.  He  sold  it  to  General  Coffin.  The  manor  included  about  5,000 
acres,  lying  on  both  sides  of  the  Nerepis  river. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  205 

I  do  not  write  to  any  other  person,  there  is  no  passenger  going  in  the 
Camel  to  whose  care  I  can  commit  my  budget,  I  therefore  address  to  Mr. 
Watson. 

I  cannot  help  indulging  the  hope  that  General  Pox  is  by  this  time 
preparing  to  come  out — He  cannot  realize  how  important  it  is  to  be  expe- 
ditious in  this  business.  My  anxiety  increases  every  hour. 

What  in  the  world  are  you  about? — not  a  packet  arrived — a  General 
without  Commission  or  Instructions — 37,000  people  crying  for  provisions 
— Magazines  empty — &  no  provisions  at  Market.  That's  the  situation  of 
the  Country  at  present.  Add  to  this  a  Governor  without  abilities — a 
Council  of  Eepublicans — combating  with  every  weapon  in  their  reach  the 
whole  corps  of  Loyalists,  &  embarrassing  them  by  every  possible  impedi- 
ment. 

This  is  a  pretty  picture,  but  alas  it  is  a  true  one. 

I  hope  before  this  reaches  you,  you  will  have  embraced  our  friend 
Coffin.  I  miss  him  terribly.  God  forever  bless  him. 

I  really  feel  too  dull — to  attempt  writing  anything  for  your  amuse- 
hent.  I  am  extremely  agitated  and  shall  continue  so  until  I  hear  from 
you.  Write  for  Heaven's  sake. 

All  your  connections  here  &  at  Granville  are  well. 

Adieu, 

Affectionately, 

Your  Ed.  Winslow. 

The  bearer  is  a  Survivor  from  the  wreck  of  the  Martha  where  poor 
Doughty,*  &c.,  were  drowned.  He  is  highly  recommended  by  his  officers. 
His  name,  Owens. 


Major  John  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Carleton,  May  15,  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — Some  days  past  I  wrote  you  a  long  letter  to  which  no 
answer  as  yet  has  arrived.  The  refugee  that  drew  the  lot  your  father  has 
got,  left  Town  a  few  days  past  for  Halifax  in  high  Dugeon  about  its  being 
granted  away.  *  *  * 

Would  to  God,  General  Fox  was  arrived  as  we  should  then  recover 
from  our  present  confusion.  I  gave  you  a  sufficient  hint  how  matters  were 
going  on  in  my  last.  I  need  not  inform  you  that  your  lot  with  Upham's, 
Murray's  and  many  others  are  given  away,  as  I  know  you  are  informed  of 
it — one  of  the  Damdest  Eascals  of  the  set  has  received  yours  and  I  am 
io formed  a  grant  is  to  be  given  to  him  immediately.  After  the  fatigue 

"Captain  Bartholomew  Doughty  of  DeLancey's  3rd  Battalion,  who  was 
drowned  in  the  transport  ship  Martha,  with  many  of  his  men.  See  under 
date  13th  Oct.,  1783,  in  this  book. 


206  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

and  trouble  Studholme  has  been  at  for  the  settlement,  to  have  this  Chief 
with  Brother  Toady/  lay  violent  hands  on  everything  and  condemn  every 
body  he  thinks  proper  and  derange  all  our  affairs  without  a  candid  hearing 
is  too  much.  However  Studholme  I  trust  has  both  spirit  and  ability  to 
rectify  matters,  if  you  and  your  General  do  not  relieve  us  before  that 
should  take  place.  At  present  I  am  on  very  good  terms  with  the  Chief: 
do  not  let  what  I  have  said  on  this  subject  take  air,  other  ways  the  Gov- 
ernor, together  with  yourself  may  probably  conceive  I  am  going  to  raise 
another  insurrection  on  the  Eiver.  (I  have  you  l;here  my  boy.) 

Our  memorials  are  going  forward  with  all  the  expedition  we  are 
masters  of.  I  have  heard  that  Mr.  Hardy t  is  forming  a  party  against  it, 
and  have  no  doubt  will  throw  everything  in  its  way.  He  is  I  assure  you 
a  very  troublesome  fellow,  but  I  hope  we  shall  soon  unhorse  the  Dog.  My 
best  love  to  your  father,  mother  &  sisters,  also  to  Mrs.  Winslow  when  you 
write  her,  I  wrote  some  little  time  past  but  have  had  no  answer,  hope  she's 
we1!.  God  Bless  you  my  dear  fellow  and  am 

Truly  yours, 

John  Coffin. 


Representation  of  the  Inhabitants  of  St.  Andrews. 

St.  Andrews,  26  May,  1784. 

Gentlemen, — We  had  the  honour  to  receive  your  favor  of  the  18th 
current  with  the  inclosures  and  have  laid  them  before  the  Inhabitants  of 
this  town  at  a  Meeting  called  for  the  purpose  of  considering  the  same. 

We  have  the  Pleasure  to  acquaint  you  that  the  Meeting  were  unani- 
mous in  the  opinion  of  the  inconveniency  and  disadvantages  arising  to  the 
Inhabitants  on  the  North  side  of  the  Bay  of  Funday  by  the  distance  from 
Halifax,  the  present  seat  of  Government,  and  sensible  of  the  great  advan- 
tages which  would  attend  the  Establishment  of  a  New  Province  to  com- 
prehend all  the  settlements  on  the  North  Side  of  the  Bay,  and  they 

*The  reference  is  to  Bryan  Finucane,  chief  justice  of  Nova  Scotia,  and  his 
brother,  Andrew  Finucane. 

fElias  Hardy  was  born  at  Farnham,  in  Surrey,  England,  in  1744,  and  was 
admitted  attorney  and  solicitor  at  Westminster  Hall.  He  came  to  America, 
and  in  1783  was  in  law  practice  at  New  York.  He  was  an  active  opponent  of 
the  designs  of  the  "Fifty-five"  petitioners  who  strove  to  obtain  grants  of  5,000 
acres  each  in  Nova  Scotia,  in  consideration  of  their  services  to  the  Crown.  He 
was  employed  by  the  government  of  Nova  Scotia  to  promote  the  escheat  of 
unsettled  lands  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Loyalists.  He  became  to  some 
extent  a  leader  of  the  democracy,  and  gained  in  consequence  the  ill-will  of  the 
provincial  officials.  He  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  New  Brunswick  house  of 
assembly  for  the  County  of  Northumberland  at  the  first  election.  As  a  lawyer, 
tradition  says  that  Elias  Hardy  was  well  nigh  without  a  peer.  He  and  Ward 
Chipman  were  usually  opposed  to  one  another  in  important  cases.  Hardy  was 
an  active  Free  Mason.  He  died  in  St.  John  in  1798,  at  the  comparatively  early 
age  of  54  years. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  207 

earnestly  wish  that  the  application  for  that  purpose,  which  appears  to  be 
the  general  voice  of  the  Inhabitants,  may  be  attended  to  by  the  British 
Legislature. 

We  have  likewise  the  satisfaction  to  acquaint  you  that  in  the  Grand 
Bay  of  Passamaquoddy  alone  a  sufficient  Quantity  of  Board  and  other 
Lumber  can  in  a  short  time  be  furnished  to  supply  the  greatest  part  of 
the  British  West  India  Islands:  likewise  large  quantitys  of  masts,  spars  & 
other  Lumber  suitable  for  the  European  Market.  Altho'  the  first  of  our 
Settlers  only  arrived  here  in  October  last,  yet  we  have  already  sent  a 
number  of  Cargoes  of  Lumber  to  the  West  Indies  and  several  ports  in  Nova 
Scotia,  and  as  more  Saw  Mills  are  now  erecting  our  Exports  of  Lumber 
will  rapidly  increase. 

There  being  no  doubt  that  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia  &  Canada 
can  amply  supply  the  British  and  West  India  Markets  with  all  the  kinds 
of  Lumber  generally  exported  from  North  America,  all  our  Inhabitants 
earnestly  wish  that  the  British  Legislature  may  in  their  wisdom  think 
proper  to  continue  to  these  provinces  the  exclusive  priviledges  of  supplying 
the  British  West  Indies  with  Fish  and  Lumber,  and  also  grant  to  them 
Bountys  on  the  Exportation  of  those  articles,  which  will  greatly  add  to 
the  encouragement  of  our  Trade  and  Fishery. 

We  have  wrote  you  thus  fully  at  the  unanimous  desire  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  St.  Andrews  at  their  Meeting  this  day, 

And  have  the  Honour  to  be,  Gentlemen 

Your  most  obedient  Hum.  Servants, 

Robert  Pagan, 
Colin  Campbell, 
Wm.  Gallop, 
Jer.  Pote. 

To  Messrs  Frederick  Hauser,  George  Leonard,  William  Tyng,  Thos. 
Horsfield,  Bartholomew  Crannel,  James  Peters  &  William  Hazen;  Agents 
for  the  Loyalists  on  St.  John  River. 

Thomas  Brown*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Cornwallis,  28th  May,  1784. 

Sir, — I  have  long  since  wanted  to  communicate  to  you  my  Friend, 
sentiments  you  may  think  salutary  (perhaps  otherwise),  that  a  sufficient 
number  of  Issuing  Commissaries  should  be  appointed  and  paid  by  Govern- 
ment to  distribute  to  the  disbanded  Officers  and  Soldiers  under  the  denomi- 
nation of  Refugees  settled  in  this  province,  to  give  out  provisions  agreeable 
to  Order  or  discretionary,  which  will  in  all  probability  not  only  forward 
*Thomas  Brown  was  a  Boston  Loyalist. 


208  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

the  settlements  but  answer  every  purpose  of  the  King's  Bounty.  I  have 
been  well  informed  that  at  St.  John's  Eiver  numbers  have  sold  their  six 
months  provisions  for  a  trifling  sum,  as  well  other  places,  consequently 
must  become  persons  of  Charity  or  addicted  to  bad  courses  injurious  to  the 
public  at  large  and  not  answer  the  intention  of  Government. 

Any  business  you  may  have  this  way  command  me  who  has  the  honor 
to  be,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Thos.  Brown. 


"Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  6th  June,  1784. 

My  dear  Winslow, — I  have  just  now  received  yours  of  12th  May  with 
the  inclosures,  by  the  Camel,  and  am  seriously,  most  seriously  distressed 
at  the  description  you  give  of  the  situation  of  matters  on  the  St.  John's, 
the  more  so  as  there  are  such  unaccountable  delays  in  compleating  the 
arrangements  for  the  new  Government.*  Everything  is  at  a  stand  here. 
Whether  administration  have  yet  any  doubts  of  the  expediency  of  a  separ- 
ate Government  there  or  whether  they  must  have  the  sanction  of  Parliament 
before  the  matter  is  divulged  I  know  not,  but  alas  from  these  delays 
another  year  will  be  lost  and  from  your  letters  I  fear  the  most  fatal  conse- 
quences to  the  settlements  from  such  a  circumstance. 

I  will  communicate  all  your  intelligence  in  such  channels  as  will  most 
probably  have  a  good  effect  to  expedite  our  views  and  wishes,  but  indeed 
such  is  the  situation  of  things  here,  so  undecided  and  indeterminate  the 
conduct  of  ministers  that  you  can  depend  upon  nothing;  so  important 
however  to  this  nation  is  the  object  now  in  contemplation  that  it  is  not  to 
be  supposed  but  that  it  will  finally  be  adopted. 

Gen'l  Fox  went  out  of  Town  a  week  ago,  he  had  been  there  three 
weeks  during  all  which  time  not  a  syllable  was  said  to  him  respecting  the 
new  Government  by  the  Minister.  He  will  come  to  Town  again  tomorrow 
when  I  will  have  free  communication  with  him  and  let  you  know  the  result 
if  possible  by  this  opportunity. 

Some  time  ago  I  made  a  specific  application  to  the  Secretary  of  State 
for  the  Office  of  Attorney  General  in  the  new  Gov't.  I  was  told  those 
offices  (meaning  I  suppose  of  Att'y  &  Solic'r  Gen'l)  were  already  disposed 
of  to  Persons  taken  from  the  same  line — from  this  I  imagine  Blowers,  thro' 
the  interest  of  Sir  Wm.  Pepperell,  is  appointed  Att'y  Gen'l,}  but  I  under- 

*By  "  the  new  Government"  Chipman  means  the  proposed  new  Province  north 
of  the  Bay  of  Fundy. 

t  Sampson  Salter  Blowers  was  named  as  attorney  general  of  New  Bruns- 
wick, but  relinquished  the  position  immediately  on  receiving  a  like  appointment 
for  Nova  Scotia.  See  letter  in  Lawrence's  "Foot  Prints,"  page  13,  also  the 
Canadian  Archives  for  1895,  under  New  Brunswick. 


1784]  WINS  LOW  PAPERS.  209 

stand  Blowers  will  not  quit  Halifax,  in  which  case  Sir  Wm.  promises  to 
use  all  his  influence  and  interest  to  get  the  appointment  transferred  to  me. 
This  or  something  else  I  must  obtain  immediately,  my  stock  is  nearly 
exhausted,  and  I  have  totally  failed  in  all  my  pursuits  and  prospects  in 
coming  to  England,  most  heartily  regret  that  I  did  not  go  immediately  to 
Halifax  from  New  York.  Of  all  countries  in  the  world  this  is  the  worst 
to  be  in  without  a  great  deal  of  money  and  even  then  has  not  half  the 
rational  social  enjoyments  and  pleasures  that  our  own  Country  affords,  or 
rather  of  an  American  Society  such  as  we  have  been  used  to.  I  am 
greatly  relieved  by  Coffin's*  arrival.  We  take  lodgings  together  tomorrow, 
and  I  shall  of  course  make  myself  tolerably  happy  till  I  embark  which  God 
grant  I  may  speedily  do. 

Murray  and  Upham  are  in  Wales  at  Col.  Murray's,!  but  are  expected 
soon  in  Town — the  former  I  believe  has  not  been  successful  in  any  of  his 
applications  here,  what  they  were  I  know  not.  He  is  very  much  embarr- 
assed and  distressed  poor  Fellow,  and  what  he  will  do  to  extricate  himself 
I  know  not. 

Judge  and  Col.  Ludlow  have  taken  advantage  of  this  interval  of  delay 
in  the  arrangements  for  our  new  Country  to  make  an  excursion  to  see  the 
manufacturing  Towns,  &c.  I  am  however  to  summon  them  immediately 
back  if  anything  requires  their  attendance.  I  will  now  close  this  to  save 
the  opportunity  by  Col.  Brownlow  if  possible.  If  he  does  not  go  I  will 
write  you  again  tomorrow.  Adieu.  God  bless  you  forever  prays  your 
faithful  and  devoted, 

Chip. 

*Thomas  Aston  Coffin,  a  native  of  Boston.  He  was  a  warm  personal  friend 
of  Ward  Chipman  and  of  Edward  Winslow.  The  latter  named  his  second  son 
Thomas  Aston  Coffin  after  his  friend  and  comrade.  Thos.  A.  Coffin  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1772.  He  was  private  secretary  to  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  In  1783  he 
was  at  Halifax  as  paymaster  of  army  contingencies.  He  visited  England  and 
returned  soon  afterwards  to  Halifax.  He  was  afterwards  with  Sir  Guy  Carleton 
at  Quebec.  Here  he  filled  the  positions  of  secretary  of  the  province  and  comp- 
troller of  accounts.  Returning  to  England,  he  was  knighted  and  became  a 
baronet.  He  was  influential  and  wealthy.  See  Winslow's  references  to  him 
under  date  7th  June,  1806,  and  Chipman's  reference  under  date  20th  May,  1810. 
He  died  in  London  in  1810,  at  the  age  of  fifty-six. 

tColonel  John  Murray  of  Rutland,  Massachusetts,  is  here  meant.  He  was 
at  this  time  living  in  England.  He  was  quite  a  remarkable  personage.  In 
height  about  6  feet  3  inches,  well  proportioned  and  of  fine  appearance.  His 
portrait  by  Copley  is  now  in  possession  of  J.  Douglas  Hazen  of  St.  John.  He 
was  four  times  married  and  had  a  very  large  family  of  children.  His  estate, 
abandoned  in  the  old  colonies  and  confiscated  by  the  Americans,  was  valued  at 
£23,367.  He  came  to  New  Brunswick,  where  he  died  in  the  year  1794.  Two  of 
his  daughters  married  respectively  Judge  Upham  and  Hon.  Daniel  Bliss.  His 
son,  Daniel  Murray  (who  with  Joshua  Upham  is  mentioned  in  the  letter  above), 
came  to  New  Brunswick  in  command  of  the  King's  American  Dragoons:  he  was 
one  of  the  members  for  York  County  in  the  first  house  of  assembly. 


210  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Major  John  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Carleton,  June  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — This  is  my  third  or  fourth  letter.  There  have  been 
many  direct  opportunities  to  this  place  but  not  a  line  from  you  or  your 
Father.  My  House  has  been  vacant  these  ten  days  for  his  family. 

*  *  *  The  sight  of  his  place  just  now  would  increase  his 
health  &  spirits  to  that  Degree  as  to  enable  him  to  take  hold  of  the  plough. 
Mr.  Hazen  who  delivers  you  this  will  inform  the  old  Gentleman  particu- 
larly. He  brought  trout  caught  at  the  Landing  weighing  two  pounds  and 
more.  Salmon  he  will  have  in  the  greatest  abundance. 

We  have  all  exerted  ourselves  to  the  utmost  in  forming  and  forward- 
ing the  letters  and  memorials  to  our  good  and  worthy  friends.  Why  don't 
you  give  me  assurance  of  our  new  Government's  being  fixed,  you  are  not 
explicit  enough  on  that  head.  Our  Town  (Carleton) 

are  in  raptures  with  the  plan  and  bore  me  to  death  for  news.  You  must 
know  my  good  fellow  that  I  am  of  some  little  consequence  among  the 
vagabonds.  No  people  in  the  world  could  have  behaved  better  than  they 
have  during  the  late  disturbance  which  I  hope  will  induce  our  new  Gover- 
nor, God  Bless  him,  to  reside  with  them.  I  know  your  partiality  for  that 
side  of  the  water,  apropos — prepare  your  Father  &  Family  for  the  house 
they  are  to  come  into  when  they  get  here.  *  *  *  My  best 
love  to  the  Girls,  your  Mother  and  the  old  Gentleman  with  all  other 
friends.  Pray  has  Aplin  led  himself  or  me  into  a  scrape?*  Write  me  fully 
my  dear  friend  on  that  head.  Dr.  Payne  can  inform  you  fully  of  the 
circumstances  of  my  conduct.  Compliments  to  all  friends.  God  Bless 
you, 

John  Coffin. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

16th  June,  1784. 

My  dear  fellow, — When  I  began  my  letter  of  the  9th  inst  my  good  old 
Father  was  very  ill.  The  inclosed  paragraph  will  convey  to  you  the  melan- 
choly tidings  of  his  death,!  but  my  distress  &  that  of  the  Family  cannot  be 
described.  Chipman!  What  shall  I  do? 

Excuse  me  to  my  friends,  Coffin,  Mr.  Watson  &  every  body.     I  cannot 
write.     I  thought  I  could  bear  anything — but  by  Heaven  this  is  too  much. 
Adieu  my  best  of  Friends, 

Yours  ever, 
' Ed.  Winslow. 

*Joseph  Aplin  had  made  some  strong  accusations  against  the  Nova  Scotia 
officials,  charging  them  with  neglect  and  partiality  in  their  conduct  towards 
the  Loyalists.  He  associated  Col.  Coffin  with  himself  in  the  matter.  The 
latter  did  not  appreciate  Aplin's  action,  and  would  not  assume  responsibility 
for  his  utterances. 

fThe  elder  Edward  Winslow  died  at  Halifax,  June  9,  1784. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  211 

Messrs.  Kennedy,*  Hauser  t  &  Hazen  to  Edward  Winslow. 

June  19,  1784. 

Whereas  in  a  Protest  published  in  the  Publiek  News  Papers  of  the 
8th  June,  1784,  at  Halifax,  it  is  suggested,  That  the  plan  of  forming  a 
new  Government  on  the  River  St.  Johns  was  made  by  a  small  Humber  of 
the  Inhabitants  of  Parr-town  not  duly  authorized  for  the  Purpose — That 
they  refused  to  take  the  Sense  of  a  very  numerous  Body  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants— and  That  they  obtained  signatures  fraudulently  &  without  acquaint- 
ing the  Subscribers  of  the  nature  of  the  Business.  We  beg  leave  to  inform 
you  that  from  our  general  Acquaintance  with  the  Inhabitants  at  Parrtown 
on  the  River  St.  Johns,  &  at  Passamaquoddy,  we  look  upon  ourselves  as 
competent  Judges  of  the  Sentiments  of  the  body  of  the  People,  and  We 
are  convinced  that  there  is  no  Person  of  any  consideration  or  consequence 
on  the  River  St.  Johns  or  at  Passamaquoddy  who  is  not  perfectly  satisfied 
of  the  absolute  necessity  of  forming  a  new  Government  on  the  other  Side 
of  the  Bay  of  Fundy,  as  the  very  existence  of  the  Settlements  there  depends 
upon  it. 

And  We  beg  further  to  assure  you  that  we  know  the  Inhabitants  of 
that  District  of  Country  in  general  to  be  highly  pleased  with  the  Steps 
taken  by  you  and  your  Friends  towards  the  attainment  of  so  desirable  an 
object,  from  a  full  conviction  that  you  have  in  every  instance  studied  the 
Publiek  Welfare  of  the  Settlements  there  and  been  unwearied  in  your 
endeavors  to  serve  them.  We  further  know  the  Address  mentioned  in  the 
said  Protest  to  have  been  dictated  agreeable  to  the  general  Sense  of  the 
Inhabitants  of  Parr-town  on  the  River  St.  Johns,  and  at  Passamaquoddy, 
that  the  Officers  present  represented  the  Corps  which  they  formerly  com- 
manded, and  that  it  was  signed  by  upwards  of  one  thousand  respectable 
persons  who  were  fully  acquainted  with  its  Nature  and  Contents. 

In  behalf  of  the  Settlers  on  the  River  St.  Johns  and  at  Passamaquoddy 
we  request  you  to  accept  our  sincere  thanks  for  your  spirited  exertions  in 
our  behalf.  And  we  hope  that  the  triffling  opposition  of  a  few  obscure, 


*Captain  Patrick  Kennedy's  commission  in  the  Maryland  Loyalists  is  dated 
October  14,  1777.  He  was  of  Baltimore  and  by  profession  a  physician.  Those 
of  his  regiment  who  survived  the  wreck  of  the  "Martha"  settled  on  the  Nash- 
waak  river  opposite  Fredericton. 

fFrederick  Hauser  was  in  1781  a  captain  in  the  Loyal  Foresters,  but  his 
company  never  amounted  to  anything,  only  a  handful  of  men  appearing  at  any 
muster.  He  came  to  Annapolis  in  October,  1782,  with  Amos  Botsford  and  other 
Loyalists,  and  was  one  of  the  exploring  party  who  visited  the  St.  John  River 
the  winter  following.  (See  their  report  in  Murdoch's  History  of  N.  S.,  vol.  Ill, 
p.  13.)  He  was  by  profession  a  surveyor  and  laid  out  the  grants  at  Kingston 
and  elsewhere  for  the  Loyalists. 


212  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

interested  People,  will  not  prevent  you  from  continuing  to  interest  yourself 
in  our  favour. 

Given  under  our  hands  at  Halifax  the  19th  Day  of  June  1784. 

Patrick  Kennedy,     ,"; 
Sen'r  Officer  &  Com'r  late  Maryl'd  LoyaFts. 

Fred  Hauser, 

Agent  for  the  Loyalists  at  St.  John  River. 
Win.  Hazen. 


Thomas  Knox  to  Major  Gen.  Campbell. 

Fort  Howe,  River  St.  John,  24th  June,  1784. 

Sir, — The  late  arrival  of  a  number  of  Families  from  the  American 
States,  who  profess  an  intention  of  settling  in  this  part  of  the  Province 
and  most  of  whom  produce  certificates  of  Loyalty  to  the  King,  has  brought 
upon  me  many  applications  for  the  Royal  Bounty  of  Provisions  which  I 
could  wish  to  have  evaded  until  I  receive  your  orders  concerning  them. 
But  upon  a  Representation  of  their  extreme  indigence  and  a  strict  inquiry 
into  the  merits  of  their  claims  I  have  been  induced,  as  a  temporary  relief 
to  their  necessities,  to  give  my  certificates  on  the  Commissary  for  fourteen 
days  Provisions  in  favor  of  69  men,  18  women,  21  children  about  ten,  16 
children  under  ten — named  in  the  Returns  accompanying  them.  They 
have  been  mustered  by  me  in  separate  classes,  and  I  have  given  directions 
to  the  Persons  commanding  them  to  detain  the  Provisions  in  their  own 
hands  until  a  certificate  is  produced  from  each  family  according  to  a  form 
which  I  have  given  them  (a  copy  of  which  I  inclose)  and  to  account  with 
me  for  the  whole  quantity  when  I  return  from  the  River.  I  shall  then 
have  more  leisure  to  enquire  into  their  claims  individually. 

I  also  take  the  liberty  to  interfere  in  behalf  of  Children  who  have 
been  born  since  the  arrival  of  the  Loyalists  in  this  Province.  Their  num- 
bers are  few  and  the  necessities  of  the  new  Settlers  require  every  aid — I 
have  included  them  in  my  Returns  to  the  Commissary,  who,  I  am  informed 
has  refused  to  allow  them. 

Having  closed  my  Business  at  Parr  &  Carleton  and  the  Settlements 
in  the  Neighborhood,  I  shall  set  off  tomorrow  for  the  River  St.  Johns. 
From  the  dispersed  state  of  the  People  and  the  necessity  of  seeing  every 
Individual  it  is  not  possible  to  say  what  time  the  duty  on  that  River  and  its 
different  Branches  may  require.  I  shall  use  every  exertion  to  accomplish 
it  in  as  short  a  time  as  the  nature  of  the  business  will  allow. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  &c., 

T.  Knox. 
Major  Gen'l  Campbell. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  213 

Sir  John  Wentworth  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  8th  July,  1784. 

My  dear  Sir, — The  inclosed  letters  came  in  the  Kesource — 8  weeks  & 
5  days  from  Spithead.  I  can  learn  nothing  of  public  arrangements;  prob- 
ably none  were  completed  for  this  Province,  Neither  will  much  be  done 
untill  late  in  June.  Mr.  Fox  has  carried  his  election  for  Westminster.  A 
passenger,  last  from  London,  says,  it  was  reported  that  Changes  were  still 
expected,  and  a  junction  of  partys  in  contemplation. 

Sir  Charles  Douglas's  voyage  to  Quebec,  begins  to  be  very  doubtful. 
I  shall  embark  on  board  the  Bonetta  for  St.  Johns  river,  on  Sunday  next, 
wind  &  weather  permitting. 

Forrest  arrived  to  day  from  New  London;  Mr.  Wilkins  &  20  in  family 
arrived  yesterday.  A  Ship  with  many  refugees  arrived  from  Florida.  No 
other  news. 

As  to  public  business  here — I  fear  it  progresses  from  bad  to  worse. 
Every  succeeding  day,  furnishes  new  cause  of  astonishment  to  me — of 
complaint  and  resentment  to  others.  I  cordially  wish  the  arrangement  for 
St.  Johns  was  effected,  and  that  district  in  possession  of  the  good  Govern- 
ment we  wish,  for  their  sakes.  In  truth  I  have  enthusiasm  eno7  to  forsee 
that  Province  rescuing  the  honor  of  Gov't  from  Prostration — and  nourish- 
ing thro7,  or  by  means  of,  a  well  directed  administration. 

Your  Kitchen  Furniture  is  arrived,  it  was  packed  in  two  cases,  for 
the  convenience  of  travelling;  I  hope  it  is  as  good  as  I  ordered,  and  will 
meet  your  approbation.     It  is  sent  to  your  House  in  this  town. 
Your  sincere  affect.  Friend; 

J.  Wentworth. 

Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  9th  July,  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — I  intended  to  have  devoted  this  forenoon  to  writing 
to  you  but  have  been  interrupted  so  frequently  that  I  am  now  confined  to 
half  an  hour.  Coffin,  however,  who  is  in  the  same  lodgings  with  me,  has 
been  writing  to  Mr.  Townsend,  and  between  us  both  you  will  get  what 
intelligence  there  is  to  communicate.  I  shall  confine  myself  to  one  subject, 
the  only  one  which  has  taken  up  my  attention  for  a  long  time,  as  it  so 
materially  effects  us  both,  I  need  not  say  it  is  the  new  Government  on  the 
River  St.  Johns.  We  were  all  very  much  disappointed  in  Col.  Fox's  refusal 
of  the  Government — his  reason  was  that  he  found  a  Governor  General  was 
to  be  appointed,  tho7  not  immediately,  and  that  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  was  not 
going  out,  he  would  not  therefore  risque  there  being  appointed  a  General 
Vaughan  or  any  other  officer  under  whom  he  would  not  serve,  which  would 


214  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

create  a  necessity  of-  his  resigning  perhaps  within  a  very  short  time  of  his 
going  out.  He  therefore  told  Lord  Sidney  he  would  accept  the  office  if 
Sir  Guy  was  to  be  appointed  Governor  General,  otherwise  not.  The  Gov- 
ernment was  then  offered  to  your  Friend  Col.  Musgrave,  who  declined  it 
assigning  the  same  reason  and  making  the  same  declaration  to  the  Secre- 
tary of  State. 

Col.  Carleton,  Sir  Guy's  brother,  is  at  length  appointed  and  has  accepted. 
The  arrangements  so  far  as  they  are  known  are,  Judge  Ludlow  Chief 
Justice.  Col.  Putnam*  Major  Upham,  and  Lt.  Col.  Isaac  Allen,  Judges 
on  the  same  bench:  Jonathan  Bliss,  Attorney  General,  and  Sir  Guv  told 
Mr.  Watson  that  I  was  put  down  as  Solicitor  Gen'l.  Had  either  Fox  or 
Musgrave  accepted  the  Government,  you  would  have  been  the  Secretary 
with  the  concomitant  offices.  But  Mr.  Odell  has  this  appointment  under 
Col.  Carleton.  I  am  at  a  loss  indeed  to  determine  whether  it  would  have 
been  prudent  for  you  to  resign  your  half  pay,  as  you  must  have  done,  for 
the  emoluments  of  that  office.  You  I  understand  are  one  of  the  Council. 
I  am  now  to  tell  you  a  secret  not  by  any  means  to  be  again  mentioned, 
which  I  have  in  confidence  from  Mr.  Watson  this  morning,  with  permission 
to  mention  it  to  you  only,  in  a  very  private  letter.  Col.  Carleton's  is  but 
a  temporary  appointment,  he  goes  on  Governor  to  Quebec  and  will  take 
Mr.  Odell  with  him,  both  Sir  Guy  and  Mr.  Watson  say  that  Col.  Fox  will 
yet  succeed  him  as  Gov'r  of  New  Brunswick,!  (the  name  of  our  new  Pro- 
vince) from  which  I  conjecture,  I  think  with  ^reat  reason,  "that  Sir  Guy  is 
still  to  be  the  Governor  General.  Sir  Guy  and  Mr.  Watson  have  concluded 
upon  your  appointment  as  Secretary  in  that  case,  if  worth  your  acceptance, 
which  will  be  in  some  degree  ascertained  by  Odell's  experiment  of  it.  The 
place  was  unsolicited  by  Odell,  but  you  may  easily  conceive  that  Sir  Guy  felt 
himself  obliged  to  provide  for  him|  and  there  was  no  other  way  of  doing 
it.  I  believe  Judge  Sewell  will  be  one  of  the  Council.  I  confess  for 
myself  I  am  not  a  little  disappointed  with  respect  to  the  office  of  Att'y 
General,  tho'  Bliss  is  certainly  a  very  good  Fellow,  but  as  he  was  receiving 
a  pension  of  £150  per  ann.  this  is  saved  to  Government  by  appointing 
him — there  will  be  no  salary  to  the  Solicitor  General,  at  least  none  that 
will  be  equivalent  to  my  half  pay.  I  shall  therefore  depend  upon  my 
practice  for  support. 

"James  Putnam  of  Worcester,  Massachusetts.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Har- 
vard in  1746.  He  was  banished  and  proscribed  on  account  of  his  loyalty.  He 
was  considered  by  his  contemporaries  as  an  exceedingly  able  lawyer.  John 
Adams  was  his  law  student  and  boarded  in  his  family.  He  died  at  St.  John  in 
3789,  aged  64  years.  There  is  a  handsome  monument  over  his  last  resting  place 
in  the  old  grave  yard.  In  the  Putnam  vault  are  buried  also  the  elder  Jonathan 
Sewell  and  the  Rev.  George  Bisset. 

fThis  plan  evidently  was  seriously  contemplated,  but  was  never  carried 
into  execution. 

JRev.  Jonathan  Odell  seems  to  have  been  one  of  Sir  Guy  Carleton's  secre- 
taries. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  215 

Col.  Carleton  kisses  the  King's  hand  this  day  on  his  appointment, 
and  I  should  suppose  the  whole  arrangements  will  be  out  in  a  few  days 
and  that  we  shall  all  be  hurried  off  very  suddenly.  Col.  Ludlow  talks  of 
taking  passage  in  the  Adamant,  which  sails  the  1st  Aug't.  It  is  not 
improbable  that  I  shall  accompany  him.  Tell  Mr.  Townsend  I  shall  in 
that  case  certainly  avail  myself  of  his  very  friendly  offer  of  Quarters  for  a 
few  days.  I  have  failed  altogether  in  my  expectations  from  the  Board  of 
Claims,  the  business  of  which  remains  unnoticed  to  this  moment.  I  have 
expended  nearly  all  my  money,  and  am  heartily  sick  of  this  country.  We 
shall  at  least  have  a  good  society  and  live  chearfully  in  our  new  Govern- 
ment if  we  are  poor.  Won't  my  half-pay  Agency  pursuit  come  to  some- 
thing in  time? 

I  am  called  upon  for  my  letter.  Remember  me  most  particularly  to 
your  Father  and  the  Girls,  tell  them  they  will  now  soon  be  delighted  with 
my  warbling  some  of  the  most  improved  airs.  To  your  dear  Mary  and 
the  little  ones  make  my  most  affectionate  remembrances,  there  is  no  cir- 
cumstance about  which  I  feel  more  anxious  than  seeing  them,  a  pleasure 
which  I  hope  will  not  be  much  longer  delayed.  I  presume  Murray  will 
be  on  his  passage  very  soon  don't  fail  to  send  him.  Coffin  will  take  care 
of  him  in  my  absence.  Adieu,  God  Almighty  for  ever  bless  you  prays 
most  sincerely, 

Your  friend, 

Chip. 

Torn*  incloses  the  Papers  under  cover  to  you  and  Mr.  Townsend — say 
to  him  for  me  every  thing  affectionate  and  grateful. 


Thomas  Knox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  Anns,  25th  July,  1784. 

D'r  Colonel, — You  can't  condemn  me  so  much  as  I  do  myself  for  not 
having  wrote  to  you  before.  I  have  been  engaged  it  is  true,  but  I  had 
predetermined  not  to  let  any  engagements  prevent  my  acknowledging  the 
civilities  I  received  from  Mrs.  Winslow;  the  truth  is  I  expected  from  dailv 
Reports  to  have  seen  you  on  this  side  the  Bay. 

I  am  proceeding  by  slow  stages  thro'  my  present  journey,  God  knows 
when  I  shall  get  thro',  I  meet  with  difficulties  as  unwelcome  as  they  are 
unexpected.  I  have  finished  I  hope  at  Saint  Ann's  the  Settlements  above 
and  the  Naashwaake.  The  impossibility  of  assembling  the  Corps  at  any 
particular  place,  which  would  be  attended  with  so  much  inconvenience  to 
the  Families  of  Women  and  Children,  and  their  importunities  so  great 
to  be  seen  at  their  own  Houses,  that  I  have  been  obliged  to  consent  to  take 

*The  reference  is  to  Thomas  Aston  Coffin. 


216  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

account  of  them  wherever  I  met  them.  This  has  induced  delay  and  will 
prevent  my  return  as  soon  as  I  hoped. 

I  have  received  from  Capt.  Ovens,  late  commanding  officer  at  Fort 
Howe,  and  Capt.  Balfour  the  present,  every  assistance.  Capt.  Balfour  was 
good  enough  to  order  me  the  Boat,  without  which  I  should  have  been  put 
to  great  difficulties  in  coming  up  the  River.  The  business  will  now  I  hope 
be  done  effectually;  every  man  will  have  justice  done  him  and  at  the  same 
time  I  have  reason  to  believe  many  thousand  Rations  will  be  saved  to 
Government. 

The  officers  of  Disbanded  Corps  make  great  complaints  against  me 
for  striking  off  nominal  servants,  which  they  say  was  an  allowance  made 
them  by  Sir  Guy  Carleton  in  his  arrangements  for  settling  this  Province 
and  afterwards  by  Major  Provost  when  the  Regiments  were  disbanded.  As 
I  am  ignorant  of  any  such  allowance  and  consider  the  Rations  of  Provisions 
as  promised  only  to  Persons  who  settled  in  the  Province,  I  have  allowed 
only  such  as  came  under  the  description  pointed  out  in  my  orders,  and  no 
servants  but  those  who  drew  in  their  own  right.  Not- 

withstanding all  attention  to  prevent  impositions  I  have  no  doubt  many 
people  will  be  fed  by  Government,  who  do  not  mean  to  settle  in  the  Pro- 
vince, and  many  I  believe  have  already  left  after  having  partaken  of  the 
Bounty.  I  would  be  glad  to  be  informed  by  you 

whether  I  am  to  go  to  Passamaquoddy — it  is  reported  that  the  people  there 
have  been  mustered.  I  at  the  same  time  wish  to  know  whether  Merrima- 
shee  is  considered  in  this  District.  If  I  go  there  I  cannot  expect  to  return 
in  less  than  a  month;  at  all  events  I  must  finish  the  business  on  this  River 
before  I  think  of  it,  and  by  that  time  I  hope  to  hear  from  you. 

I  am  sorry  to  find  the  Settlers  on  this  side  the  Bay  warmly  engaged 
in  opposing  each  other,  to  the  great  detriment  of  the  Province  as  well  as 
themselves.  They  go  on  building  notwithstanding.  Both  Parr  &  Carleton 
exhibit  proofs  of  industry  scarcely  to  be  related,  but  very  few  have  got 
upon  their  Lands.  I  have  been  40  miles  above  St.  Anns  but  am  sorry  to 
say  that  few  of  the  Soldiers  have  reached  the  Lotts  laid  out  for  them. 
They  generally  complain  that  they  are  neglected,  and  express  a  strong 
desire  to  have  their  Lotts  pointed  out  to  them,  when  thev  say  they  will 
immediately  go  upon  them. 

The  Town  of  St.  Anns  is  marked  out  but  no  house  as  yet  makes  its 
appearance. 

A  report  has  been  lately  circulated  that  Governor  Fox  has  arrived  at 
Halifax.  It  gave  great  pleasure  to  every  body  here.  I  wish  it  may  soon 
take  place  as  the  Settlement  of  this  River  requires  more  and  more  the 
assistance  of  an  able  manager. 

The  Governor   [Parr]   condemns  the  measure  of  carrying  the  New 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  217 

Corps  so  high  up  the  Elver,  says  the  idea  was  born  and  bred  at  New  York 
.&  carried  into  execution  by  their  Agents.  I  have  a  copy  of  his  letter  to 
shew  you. 

I  hope  to  leave  this  place  tomorrow  on  my  return  to  Parr.  I  have  a 
number  of  People  to  see  below  Majorville  which  I  hope  will  not  delay  me 
more  than  ten  days. 

I  am,  &c., 

T.  Knox. 
Colonel  Winslow. 

Gregory  Townsend  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  29th  July,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — Your  kind  favor  from  the  Mount,*  of  the  19th,  found  its 
way  to  me  yesterday.  The  intelligence  from  home  respecting  your  Gov- 
ernment, being  so  uniform  from  every  quarter,  gives  great  reason  to  confide 
in  the  hope  of  seeing  the  separation  take  place  to  your  wishes. 

The  Majort  and,  his  coadjutors  have  declared  war  against  the 
G[overnor]  &  C[hief]  Jfustice];  are  to  have  a  pitched  battle  tomorrow  in 
the  Council  Chamber.  Fanning  is  the  Hero  of  your  party,  and  as  I  think 
the  cause  he  has  engaged  in  is  just,  I  most  heartily  wish  success  and 
redress  may  crown  their  laudable  endeavors. 

Poor  Adam  and  Eve,+  does  Adam's  anxiety  lessen  his  Diameter.  Your 
social  friend  the  Major  and  some  of  the  comforts  from  the  Maria  will 
afford  great  consolation.  If  Morris  has  not  disposed  of  himself  as  you 
premise,  he  ought  to  be  here  in  a  few  days.  Solitary  woods  is  the  most 
dangerous  situation  that  a  man  so  far  gone  can  place  himself  in.  Where 
there  is  such  a  Damp  on  the  spirits  the  poor  Victim,  among  such  a  choice 
of  Limbs,  may  be  tempted  to  choose  one  to  hang  himself  up  to  dry. 

I  fear  your  small  stock  of  choice  Madeira  will  suffer  by  your  being  so 
great  an  economist  of  your  Port,  keep  some  of  that  in  case  of  sickness  or 

*  Winslow  facetiously  called  his  place  in  Granville  "Mount  Necessity." 

fThe  major  here  referred  to  is  John  Coffin;  his  coadjutors  were  Gilfred 
Studholme,  William  Tyng,  George  Leonard  and  James  Peters.  A  remonstrance 
had  been  forwarded  by  the  discontented  people  at  St  John  to  Governor  Parr, 
early  in  1784,  against  the  agents  for  the  settlement  of  Parr  Town.  Chief  Justice 
Finucane  was  sent  by  the  governor  to  enquire  into  the  matter,  but  this  did 
not  satisfy  the  discontented.  Another  complaint  was  made  to  the  governor, 
specifying  in  detail  certain  alleged  grievances,  upon  which  the  agents  volun- 
tarily repaired  to  Halifax  and  submitted  themselves  to  trial  before  Governor 
Parr,  Lieut.  Gov.  Fanning  and  the  council  of  Nova  Scotia,  assembled  for  the 
purpose,  Chief  Justice  Finucane  being  also  present.  After  a  public  hearing  of 
two  days,  the  following  was  the  decision: — "The  council  are  of  opinion  that 
"  Gilfred  Studholme,  William  Tyng,  George  Leonard,  John  Coffin  and  James 
"  Peters,  magistrates  and  agents  on  the  River  St.  John,  have  acquitted  them- 
"  selves  in  their  conduct  with  fairness,  impartiality  and  propriety." 

"  (Signed)  RICHARD  BULKELEY,  Secretary. 

"  Halifax,  3rd  August,  1784." 

jThe  reference  seems  to  be  to  Colonel  Winslow  and  his  wife. 


218  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

other  misfortune  such  as  the  visit  of  an  old  Commissary,  &c.,  such  things 
may  happen.  Make  haste  back,  your  family*  here  wanf  much  to  see  you. 
Mrs.  Winslow  will  amuse  herself  with  your  little  fat  Tribe  and  readily 
forego  the  satisfaction  of  your  company  while  you  attend  so  amiable  and 
necessary  a  duty.  Where  is  New  Ireland  to  be  placed?  is  that  to  be  the 
name  of  your  new  Government?  I  hope  the  new  settlers  will  not  encrease 
so  fast  but  that  we  may  have  all  the  Posts  t  well  supplied  for  the  winter 
before  Nov'r.  What  has  yet  arrived  does  not  exceed  4  months  and  a  half 
for  our  numbers.  Not  a  word  yet  of  Vessels  from  Cork.  Two  Vessels 
are  gone  to  Quebec  for  another  Cargo  and  two  others  it  is  said  are  yet 
expected.  I  think  another  year's  full  allowance,  and  half  for  next,  would 
put  the  new  settlers  on  their  legs,  at  least  all  that  deserve  to  stand. 

I  wish  heartily  to  see  the  growth  and  prosperity  of  this  Country.  It 
will  certainly  be  the  happiest  part  of  North  America  if  not  Dam'd  by  bad 
men  &  bad  measures. 

Daniel  Bliss  will  call  to  see  you  with  Dr.  Prince  and  party.  My 
respects  to  Mrs.  Winslow.  I  want  to  know  Mr.  &  Mrs.  Williams  and  must 
come  to  Annapolis.  My  compliments  to  Hailes,J  tell  him  I  have  tapped  a 
pipe  of  Madeira  better  than  the  last — shall  be  happy  to  give  him  a  taste. 

Your  faithfull  Friend, 

G.  Townsend. 

[P.  S.]  If  the  General  and  Lieut,  have  not  left  you,  My  respects  to 
the  General,  Col.  Morse,  Addenbrookejl  and  Gordon.  § 

Thos.  Aston  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  4th  Aug%  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, — Mr.  Watson  has  this  moment  informed  me  that  a 
Paquet  will  sail  tomorrow  morning  for  Halifax,  and  has  desired  me  to 
acquaint  you  that  he  had  received  your  letters  but  thro'  the  hurry  of  busi- 
ness cannot  write  you  at  this  time.  He  with  me  sympathizes  with  you  in 
the  loss  of  the  good  old  Gentleman  for  whom  he  had  obtained  an  allowance 
of  £120  p.  ann.,  and  was  fearful  that  with  him  it  would  have  ceased.  He 
however  has  obtained  a  promise  that  £30  stg.  p.  ann.,  each,  shall  be  con- 
tinued to  your  mother  &  sisters  till  the  American  claims  are  decided  upon. 
This  being  unprecedented,  as  the  whole  family  are  on  the  other  side  of 
the  Atlantic  and  no  one  of  them  having  been  examined  here,  Mr.  W.  begs 
it  may  not  be  communicated. 

'Referring  to  his  mother  and  sisters. 

fSupplies   were  sent  to  various  outlying  posts,   as,   for  example,   St.  Anne's 
Point,   for  distribution  tp  the  Loyalists. 

JHarris  W.  Hailes  was  fort  major  in  1784. 

|| Captain  Addenbrooke  was  aide-de-camp  to  the  general  commanding. 

§Hugh  Mackay  Gordon  was  at  this  time  major  of  brigade. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  219 

Colonel  Carleton  has  received  his  Commission  and  taken  the  oaths 
and  I  suppose  will  leave  this  about  the  end  of  the  month.  Chip,  Judge 
Ludlow,  &c.,  will  embark  about  the  same  time.  Colonel  Ludlow  has  taken 
passage  in  the  St.  Lawrence  which  sails  in  about  a  fortnight. 

The  Letters  and  Kepresentations  from  your  good  Friend  the  Gover- 
nor* and  his  virtuous  Council  will  make  no  further  impression.  The 
business  of  the  division  of  the  Province  having  been  settled  before  Mr. 
Andrew  Finucane  arrived;  the  official  people  here  have  other  things  to 
attend  to  than  the  Chief  Justice's  petty  disputes.  Besides  Halliburton 
having  arrived  first,  stated  the  whole  business  before  the  other  one  got  to 
Town.  *  *  * 

Eemember  me  to  Blowers  and  family  and  all  Friends.  Adieu  and 
God  bless  you  says,  Your  affectionate  Friend, 

Thos.  Aston  Coffin. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Jonathan  Odell. 

[August,  1784.] 

D'r.  Odell, — There  is  not  a  man  on  earth  who  more  sincerely  rejoices 
at  any  event  that  contributes  to  your  advantage  than  myself.  I  therefore 
cordially  congratulate  you  on  your  appointment  to  the  Secretaryship  of 
New  Brunswick,  and  although  I  had  anticipated  the  same  appointment  for 
myself  and  had  made  arrangements  for  the  comfortable  enjoyment  of  it, 
I  declare  I  feel  no  regret  that  it  has  fallen  to  a  friend  for  whom  I  have  so 
great  an  esteem. 

This  is  "multum  in  parvo." 

Tired  of  the  province  of  Nova-Scotia — its  Governor — its  inhabitants — 
&c,  I  had  seriously  determined  to  remove  my  family  to  St.  John's  this 
winter  and  had  hired  a  house  of  Mr.  Hazen  for  that  purpose.  I  cannot 
relinquish  the  idea  without  very  disagreeable  sensations.  But  there  is  a 
bar,  which  need  not  be  insuperable  if  my  friends  exert  themselves.  I  am 
literally  extremely  poor.  The  two  families  which  I  have  been  obliged  to 
support  have  involved  me  very  considerably,  and  I  depended  on  some 
appointment  in  the  new  province  to  assist  me  in  their  future  support.  I 
cannot  help  nattering  myself  that  my  friend  Gen.  Fox  may  have  mentioned 
me  to  Col.  Carleton  in  such  a  way  as  to  mak~e  him  my  friend.  Now  as  I 
cannot  reconcile  myself  to  a  separation  from  the  society  of  my  old  acquaint- 
ance I  mean  in  great  confidence  to  request  of  you,  that  in  the  first  arrange- 
ments of  civil  employments  I  may  be  considered.  There  will  be  various 
offices  in  the  gift  of  the  Governor  and  Council — such  as  Provincial  Eegis- 

*Andrew  Finucane  had  been  sent  to  England  by  Governor  Parr  and  his 
council  in  1784  to  counteract  the  agitation  of  the  Loyalists  for  a  division  of  the 
old  Province  of  Nova  Scotia. 


220  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

trar,  Judge  of  Probate,  &c.,  &c.  These  are  offices  which  I  formerly  held 
in  my  own  country  and  for  which  I  boldly  say  I  am  qualified,  and  will  dash 
across  the  Bay  of  Fundy  the  ins't  an  appointment  by  which  I  can  exist  is 
announced  to  me. 

I  acknowledge,  and  I'll  take  the  credit  for  it,  that  I  have  other  motives 
for  wishing  to  be  early  at  St.  John's.  I  have  with  great  pains  explored  the 
country,  I  have  collected  the  most  particular  information  respecting  its 
inhabitants,  soils,  productions  &c.  My  former  appointments  with  the 
Provincial  Army  gave  me  an  opportunity  of  knowing  the  principal  char- 
acters among  the  officials  now  settled  at  St.  John's. 

All  these  circumstances  give  me  a  kind  of  knowledge  which  may 
render  me  useful  there,  more  so  than  almost  any  other  individual,  and  I 
am  anxious  to  contribute  everything  in  my  power  to  forward  the  settlement 
of  it.  Having,  as  I  observed,  expected  to  be  employed  in  the  office  which 
you  now  hold,  I  had  formed  a  kind  of  system  which  I  wish  to  communi- 
cate. [Breaks  off  here,  the  letter  is  a  rough  draft  without  signature.] 


Brig.  Gen.  II.  E.  Fox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Brighthelmstone,  5th  August,  1784. 

Bear  Winslow, — My  only  excuse  for  not  writing  to  you  sooner  is  that 
I  did  not  know  what  to  inform  you  of  as  determined.  I  will  now  begin 
from  my  last  Letter,  soon  after  the  writing  of  which  Lord  Sydney  sent  to 
me  &  told  me  the  Province  [Nova  Scotia]  was  to  be  divided  and  offered 
me  the  Government  of  New  Brunswick.  *  *  *  It  was  then 
generally  understood  that  Gov.  Parr  was  to  come  home  &  Musgrave  to  be 
appointed  Governor  of  Halifax  &  Col.  Carleton  of  Canada.  Gov.  Parr's 
friends  (I  believe  Lord  Shelburne)  have  averted  his  being  recalled. 

About  six  weeks  ago  Lord  Sydney  sent  for  me  again  &  acquainted  me 
that  the  Government  of  N.  Brunswick  was  arranged  in  Council  and  made 
me  the  offer  of  it,  observing  that  Sir  Guy  Carleton  was  not  to  go  out,  that 
no  Governor  General  was  for  the  present  to  be  appointed  but  in  time  some 
one  would  be  found  that  would  be  agreeable  to  every  body.  I  found  also 
that  Gov.  Parr  was  not  to  be  recalled  nor  Gen'l  Haldimand  from  Canada. 
It  is  necessary  to  mention  in  the  mean  time  I  had  found  it  absolutely 
necessary  for  my  Nephew's  affairs  and  my  own  for  me  to  take  out  Letters 
of  Administration  to  my  Father's  will. 

This  consideration,  and  the  very  different  situation 

I  should  find  myself  in,  Sir  Guy  Carleton  not  being  Governor  General,  in- 
duced me  to  decline  it,  upon  which  it  was  offered  to  Musgrave,  who  also 
declined  it,  and  then  to  Col.  Carleton  who  at  first  did  the  same,  b~ut  has 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  221 

since  accepted  it,  as  I  understand,  upon  a  promise  of  his  going  to  Canada 
next  year;  but,  however,  next  year  is  a  long  while. 

Upon  determining  not  to  go  myself,  I  immediately  thought  of  your 
interests,  but  found  that  Mr.  Odell  was  fixed  upon  by  Col.  Carleton  at  the 
recommendation  of  his  Brother.  Sproule  had  before  been  appointed  Sur- 
veyor General  and  there  was  nothing  your  friends  could  think  of  for  you 
that  was  not  already  filled  up.  Odell  goes  to  Canada  when  Col.  Carleton 
does.  I  have  had  some  conversation  with  Carleton  and  have  talked  much 
of  you,  indeed  I  found  him  already  prepossessed  in  your  favor  thro'  Odell, 
who  I  believe  is  much  your  friend. 

I  have  received  a  letter  from  Governor  Parr  in  very  civil  terms  but  at 
the  same  time  he  appears  very  much  hurt  and  accuses  you  of  being  the 
author  of  a  foolish  advertisement  of  Mr.  Aplin,  who  I  must  own  I  should 
have  been  better  pleased  with  had  he  not  made  use  of  my  name  or  brought 
me  in  his  squabble.  I  have  answered  the  Governor's  Letter,  saying  in 
pretty  near  as  plain  terms  as  he  accuses  you  that  I  hope  and  believe  he  is 
misinformed  with  respect  to  you.  I  hope  he  will  shew  my  letter  as  it  at 
least  will  give  full  testimony  of  my  opinion  of  you,  which  believe  me,  dear 
Winslow  I  shall  ever  retain  the  highest  and  hope  fortune  will  still  by  some 
means  or  other  bring  us  together  again.  Pray  let  me  hear  from  you,  and 
if  by  any  means  1  can  do  anything  for  you  in  this  country  pray  command 
me.  *  *  * 

Please  to  direct  to  me  at  my  Brothers  in  St.  James  Street,  London, 
and  believe  me 

Most  sincerely  yours, 

H.  E.  Fox. 


William  Chew  to  Gideon  "White.* 

Maugerville,  August  23,  1784. 

D'r  White, — I  am  now  settled  in  the  above  mentioned  Township 
about  80  miles  up  the  river  St.  John's,  the  Country  equal  to  any  I  ever 
saw.  You  speak  highly  of  Shelburne  but  Mr.  J.  Seaman,  who  had  the 

*Gideon  White  was  a  native  of  Plymouth,  Massachusetts,  and  a  cousin  of 
Edward  Winslow.  He  took  part  with  the  British  as  a  volunteer  at  the  battle 
of  Bunker  Hill.  Later  in  the  war  he  held  a  commission  as  captain  in  the  Duke 
of  Cumberland's  Regiment,  commanded  by  Lord  Charles  Montagu.  The  corps 
was  composed  of  Carolina  Loyalists.  They  arrived  in  Halifax  from  Jamaica 
on  Dec.  13,  1783,  and  were  hutted  for  the  winter.  The  next  spring  they  were 
sent  to  the  lands  at  Chedebucto,  Guysborough  County.  Capt.  Gideon  White 
was  assigned  lands  there  with  the  others  of  his  corps,  but  in  the  muster  of 
settlers  made  on  June  20,  1784,  by  General  Campbell's  order,  he  is  returned  as 
"at  Shelburne  with  his  three  servants  upon  business."  He,  however,  did  not 
return  to  Guysborough,  but  remained  in  Shelburne,  where  he  became  a  leading 
citizen;  was  a  magistrate  and  elected  a  member  of  the  house  of  assembly.  He 
died  in  1833  at  the  age  of  81  years.  His  sister  Joanna  married  Pelham  Winslow, 
a  Loyalist. 


222  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

goodness  to  pass  a  few  days  with  me,  says  there  is  no  comparison  between 
the  land  of  Shelburne  and  the  Township  of  Maugerville.  Your  Town  ex- 
ceeds ours  I  believe  in  size,  &c,  but  what's  a  fine  house  without  something 
to  put  in  it.  Give  me  leave  to  tell  you,  we  have  a  fine  crop  at  this  time 
of  wheat,  oats,  pease,  corn  and  potatoes  with  every  other  vegetable  as  food 
and  in  as  great  variety  as  any  place  I  ever  saw.  This  place  is  capable  of 
being  made  the  first  Township  in  the  Province,  the  land  up  the  river 
equally  good  when  improved,  which  will  soon  be  the  case  as  the  officers 
and  soldiers  are  very  industrious. 

Captain  Atwood*  of  the  Kings  American  Regiment,  was  at  my  house 
a  few  days  ago  and  informed  me  that  he  had  cleared  forty  acres  of  land 
thirty  miles  above  St.  Anns  and  says  the  land  is  as  good  if  not  better  than 
below. 

Captain  Haws  Hatch,  Lyman  and  Maxwell,  of  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
are  up  the  Nashwalk  and  have  very  good  farms.  I  have  no  doubt  but  this 
will  be  the  first  place  in  the  world  for  half  pay  officers  if  it  should  be  made 
a  separate  Government. 

General  Campbell  and  his  suite  have  paid  us  a  visit.  Colonel  Wins- 
low  was  with  him.  The  General  has  ordered  a  Captain's  command  af  St. 
Ann's,  also  barracks  and  provision  store  to  be  erected  there.  *  *  * 
Captain  Eyerson  and  his  brother  are  here.  I  think  you  had  better  c6me 
to  this  country  and  settle  your  affairs.  I  should  be  particularly  happy  to 
see  you  at  my  house  for  the  winter  or  as  long  as  convenient  to  you.  I  am 
happy  to  inform  you  that  I  and  my  family  are  well.  Nothing  will  add 
more  to  my  happiness  than  hearing  of  your  health  and  welfare,  which  I 
hope  I  shall  by  every  opportunity  and  believe  me  D'r  White, 

Yours  most  sincerely, 
Wm.  Chew.t 

*Captain  Isaac  Atwood  was  in  command  of  a  company  in  the  King's  Ameri- 
can Regiment  in  1776,  and  served  through  the  war.  His  was  a  company  of 
Dragoons,  though  nearly  all  of  the  regiment  were  infantry.  He  was  the  senior 
officer  of  the  corps  who  settled  on  the  St.  John  River.  The  tract  assigned  the 
King's  American  Regiment  lay  between  the  Pokiok  and  Eel  rivers.  Captain 
Atwood  was  a  New  Jersey  Loyalist.  He  was  elected  a  member  for  York  County 
in  the  first  house  of  assembly  of  the  province.  He  owned  a  tract  of  700  acres 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Eel  River,  also  the  island  called  Fall  Island,  now  known 
as  Brown's  Island.  Like  many  other  Loyalist  officers,  he  became  involved  in 
debt.  An  old  newspaper  contains  the  advertisement  for  sale  by  public  auction, 
on  Monday,  Oct.  1,  1810,  at  Gabriel  Van  Home's  tavern  in  Fredericton,  the 
mortgage  title  to  the  late  Captain  Atwood's  property,  consisting  of  Belviso  Fall 
Island  and  his  estate  at  Maductic.  He  probably  died  this  year  in  the  United 
States.  The  name  of  his  estate  seems  to  be  perpetuated  in  "Belvisor  Bar," 
well  known  to  the  lumbermen  of  the  St.  John  River. 

fWilliam  Chew  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  3rd  New  Jersey  Volunteers  in  1777. 
He  served  through  the  hard  campaigns  in  the  south  with  much  credit  and  was 
severely  wounded.  (See  letter  of  Edward  Winslow  to  Lieut.  Gov.  Wentworth 
under  date  4th  August,  1793.)  He  settled  in  New  Brunswick.  On  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  King's  New  Brunswick  Regiment  he  received  a  commission  in  it. 
He  died  at  Fredericton  in  1812,  aged  64  years. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  223 

Thomas  Knox  to  Frederick  Win.  Hecht. 

Fort  Howe,  Sept.  1st,  1784. 

Sir, — Major  Gen'l  Campbell  having  submitted  to  my  decision  the  pro- 
priety of  victualling  children  (of  the  Disbanded  Corps  and  Loyalists)  born 
in  this  Province — you  will  be  pleased  in  future  to  issue  half  Eations  of 
Provisions  to  all  such  as  may  be  certined»by  me,  commencing  the  1st  July, 
1784,  excepting  where  particular  dates  to  the  contrary  are  specified. 

I  am,  sir,  &c, 

Thomas  Knox, 
Dy.  Commissary  of  Musters. 
To  F.  Wm.  Hecht,  Esq 

Asst.  Comm'y  Gen'. 

Mrs.  Catharine  Beading*  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Granville,  September  2,  1784. 

Dear   Sir, —  It   is   not   in   my   power  to   make 

amends  for  the  daily  favors  from  your  hand,  still  I  shall  watch  with  atten- 
tion when  it  may  in  any  way  be  in  my  power.  Your  wife  and  dear  little 
ones  are  all  well.  As  for  Miss  Pen  she  is  still  sweeter  every  day.  Mrs. 
Winslow's  happiness  would  be  compleat  had  she  but  you  with  her.  *  * 
I  must  beg  the  favor  of  you  to  admonish  Austin  in  his  Duty  in  every 
respect,  as  being  among  strangers  and  no  one  to  caution  him.  Our  family 
are  all  well  and  join  in  affection  to  yourself. 

I  am  Sir, 

Your  affectionate  Friend, 

Catharine  Reading. 

Gregory  Townsend  to  "Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax  3d  September,  1784. 

Dear  Chipman, — *  I  have  some  doubts  of  this  finding 
you  in  England  and  it  is  my  earnest  wish  &  hope  that  you  may  be  on  your 
way  to  some  good  appointment  in  New  Brunswick.  General  Fox's  not 
coming  out  as  Governor  is  a  great  disappointment  to  Ned,  tho'  I  endeavor 
to  console  him  with  the  assurance  that  Sir  Guy  will  influence  his  Brother 
in  his  favor  and  procure  the  place  he  expected.  We  hear  Mr.  Odell  is 
Secretary,  but  our  sanguine  hopes  have  construed  that  into  a  private  secre- 
tary. I  shall  be  heartily  mortified  if  he  should  be  left  unprovided 
for.  *  *  * 
G.  Townsend. 

*Mrs.  Reading  was  a  friend  and  neighbor  of  the  Winslow  family  when  they 
lived  at  Granville.  Her  son  Austin  seems  to  have  been  under  Winslow's  super- 
vision. 


224  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Edward  Winslow  to  His  Wife. 

[Extracts  from  a  Note  Book  in  size  3  3-4  by  5  3-4  inches.  The  first 
seven  pages,  and  probably  as  many  at  the  end,  are  missing.  Written  about 
Sept.  15th,  1784.] 

********** 

I  cannot  at  this  time  enter  upon  the  subject  of  our  Son  so  largely  as 
I  could  wish.  But  only  tell  you  in  general  terms  that  I  love  him  as 
ardently  as  yourself  &  that  I  am  perfectly  convinced  of  the  goodness  of  his 
disposition  &  the  other  good  qualities  which  you  enumerate  with  so  much 
maternal  pleasure;  these  considerations  make  me  anxious  for  his  future 
and  induce  me  to  exert  myself  to  the  utmost  to  place  him  where  he  can 
obtain  that  greatest  of  all  blessings  (a  good  education)  and  altho'  it  grieves 
us  both  to  part  with  him;  yet  let  us  for  a  moment  anticipate  the  pleasure 
of  seeing  him  return  to  us  a  few  years  hence  a  fine  accomplished  youth. 
How  happy  will  we  then  be  at  the  recollection  of  the  hour  when  we  con- 
sented to  part  with  him.  He  has  behaved  with  perfect  propriety  and,  if 
you  could  see  him  now  pacing  across  the  parade  between  the  General  & 
Addenbrooke,  you  would  be  more  than  delighted  with  him.  He  has 
already  been  over  half  the  town  &  visited  all  the  people  in  it.  His  Scotch 
Boy  attends  him  like  a  shadow,  moves  when  he  moves  and  stops  when  he 
stops.  *  *  * 

Don't  grow  too  vain  on  the  compliments  I  pay  you.  All  the  elo- 
quence of  Mr.  Brittain  could  not  prevail  on  me  to  attempt  to  sign  my 
name,  even  to  a  paper  of  importance,  but  when  the  idea  of  writing  you 
entered  my  mind,  I  instantly  contrived  a  bolster  to  rest  my  hand,  &  Fve 
already  filled  a  number  of  pages.  I  have  wrote  John  Eobinson  to  request 
his  assistance  in  fixing  the  house.  It  will  be  absolutely  necessary  to  have 
some  male  friend  to  superintend  the  business,  and  I  think  he  will  exert 
himself. 

I  shall  send  some  cloathing  and  other  matters  round  which  may  be  of 
some  use. 

My  Mama  &  Sally  are  already  so  attached  to  Blacky*  that  I  shall  be 
as  much  puzzled  to  separate  him  from  them  as  I  have  been  from  you.  His 
Aunt  Pen  is  on  a  visit  to  Dr.  Haliburton's  and  has  not  yet  seen  him — 
altho'  several  pressing  messages  have  been  sent:  it  is  rather  too  far  till  he 
is  more  rested.  Think  of  the  rascal's  telling  me  "That  He  did  not  come  to 
Halifax  to  read.  It's  time  enough  for  that  (says  he)  when  I  get  to  Eng- 
land." 

Morris  thinks  he  shall  stay  here  about  a  month  &  I'll  keep  Murray  till 
then.  You  may  rely  on  it  that  he  shall  not  stir  without  every  comfort 

*"Blacky"  is  evidently  a  nick-name  given  to  little  Murray  on  account  of  his 
dark  complexion. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  225 

which  your  fondness  can  wish  him.  I  hope  before  he  embarks  to  see 
Chippy,  and  that  we  can  together  make  every  necessary  arrangement  for 
him.  Mr.  Byles*  presents  compliments.  He  will  send  another  piece  of 
ribband  by  next  conveyance.  Remember  me  to  Blowers — be  very  civil 
to  him. 

Adieu,  most  affectionately, 

Yrs.  Edward. 


Edward  Winslow  to  His  Wife. 

[Contained  in  small  Note  Book  33-4x5  3-4'  inches,  with  stiff  cover, 
containing  28  pages  and  about  2,500  words.  Book  marked  Vol.  VI.] 

Halifax,  Monday  20,  Sept'r.  1784. 

What  do  I  care  whether  it's  the  fashion  for  men  to  write  long  letters 
to  their  wives  or  not.  No  man  on  earth  looks  with  more  sovereign  con- 
tempt on  what's  called  Common  Customs  than  I  do.  In  matters  where 
my  own  feelings  are  concerned  I  will  not  be  shackled  by  any  of  the  rules 
which  bind  the  generality  of  mankind.  I  have  said  that  in  my  present 
state  of  inaction  I  cannot  enjoy  a  pleasure  equal  to  that  of  writing  to  you, 
and  that's  sufficient  reason  for  writing.  If  other  men  do  not  experience 
the  same  sensation  they  have  not  the  same  degree  of  sensibility  nor  the 
same  degree  of  affection.  Let  such  inanimate  wretches  be  content  with 
writing.  "These  few  lines  come  hoping  &c."  I'll  enjoy  the  superlative 
satisfaction  of  scribbling  whole  volumes.  If  from  the  feeble  state  of  mind 
or  body  they  should  be  dull  or  unentertaining,  they  will  at  least  serve  as 
proofs  of  the  sincerity  &  fervency  of  my  love  for  you. 

Mentioning  the  word  fashion  at  the  beginning  of  my  letter  has  unac- 
countably brought  to  my  mind  a  dissertation  upon  the  present  Fashions  in 
England  which  was  read  me  from  a  letter  from  my  celebrated  friend  Mrs. 
Coare  (formerly  Nancy  Lechmere)  and  which  does  so  much  credit  to  the 
present  taste  that  I  will  endeavor  to  give  you  as  much  of  it  as  I  can  re- 
collect. She  says  "The  prevailing  rage  is  to  be  perfectly  plain.  Caps  are 
"  not  worn,  except  by  elderly  ladies,  and  feathers  &  all  such  kind  of 
"  Trumpery  are  totally  laid  aside.  The  younger  ladies  wear  plain,  deep 
"  crown'd  hats.  Muslin  &  Chintz  Gowns  with  plain  long  muslin  aprons 
"  are  worn  by  all  ladies  of  taste;  even  the  first  Duchesses  dress  in  this  way 
"  except  at  Court,  and  it  will  probably  continue  until  winter  when  silks 

*Mather  Byles,  jr.,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Rev.  Dr.  Byles,  who  was  rector 
of  Trinity  church,  1788-1814.  At  this  time  he  was  a  clerk  in  the  military  offices 
in  Halifax.  He  was  very  intimate  with  the  Winslow  family;  was  born  in 
Boston  in  1755.  A  few  years  after  the  above  letter  was  written  he  went  to 
Grenada  and  was  commissary  there.  He  married,  June,  1797,  Mary  Bridgwater, 
eldest  daughter  of  the  chief  justice  of  the  island.  He  died  at  Grenada,  Dec.  17, 
1802,  at  the  age  of  38  years.  His  grandson,  Mather  Byles,  visited  St.  John  in 
1889  as  commander  of  H.  M.  S.  Tourmaline. 


226  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

"  will  be  substituted.  Hoops  are  entirely  out  of  fashion."  How  different 
is  this  from  the  fantastic  figures  which  have  been  exhibited  here  this  sum- 
mer. Some  of  the  females  who  have  lately  arrived  at  this  place  from 
London,  seem  to  exert  all  their  talents  to  daub  and  finify  those  parts  which 
require  no  ornament  and  to  expose  to  view  such  other  parts  as  nature 
seems  to  intend  that  every  modest  woman  should  conceal. 

An  immensity  of  False-Tops  False  Curls,  monstrous  Caps,  Grease, 
Filth  of  various  kinds,  Jewels,  Painted  paper  and  trinkets,  hide  and  de- 
form heads  of  Hair  that  in  their  natural  state  are  really  beautiful.  Eouge 
&  other  Dirt  cover  cheeks  and  faces  that  without  would  be  tolerable, 
whilst  the  unfortunate  neck  and  breasts  remain  open  to  the  inclemency 
of  the  weather  &  the  view  of  the  World.  The  other  parts  of  Dress  are 
equally  preposterous.  A  long  party-colored  Trail  flows  over  a  Hoop  (that 
covers  a  rotundity  of  Hips  sufficiently  large  without  it)  and  sweeps  along 
the  ground  behind,  while  the  poor  legs  and  knees  are  chilled  with  every 
blast  which  blows. 

Take  a  woman  rigged  in  this  way,  &  she  certainly  is  the  most  ridicul- 
ous thing  in  the  world.  Were  the  indulgence  of  this  Fancy  (as  it's  called) 
confined  to  those  women  that  *  *  [5  lines  missing.]  But 

alas,  it  pervades  other  orders  of  women.     Examples  like  Mrs.  W & 

Mrs.  B will  be  followed  by  the  vain  and  giddy  as  well  as  by  the 

vicious,  perhaps  in  some  instances  without  evil  intentions.  Among  the 
errors  which  are  committed  in  this  world  there  is  none  more  unpardonable 
than  that  of  a  modest  woman's  attempting  to  imitate  the  *  *  * 
[5  lines  missing.]  I  have  often  thought  and  I  believe  it  to  be  an  absolute 
fact,  that  men  (altho'  they  have  not  so  much  cunning  as  women)  have 
more  knowledge  of  the  foibles  of  females,  than  tEe  ladies  have  of  theirs, 
and  I  certainly  know  that  a  strained  attempt  to  exhibit  or  rather  expose 
their  charms  is  among  the  number  of  faults  for  which  they  are  ridiculed 
with  extreme  severity. 

Could  a  lady  of  good  sense  mix  Incog,  in  a  party  of  licentious  and 
debauched  men  &  listen  to  their  conversation  on  this  subject,  she  would 
be  convinced  that  even  these  hold  in  derision  such  foolish  women  as 
attempt  to  gain  their  affections  by  putting  on  an  appearance  of  wantonness 
&  indecency.  And  she  would  also  find  that  libertines  reverence  the  ex- 
ternal shew  of  innocence  and  virtue  and  (altho'  they  do  not  stammer  at 
blasphemy  and  treason)  they  cannot  speak  with  disrespect  of  a  truly  ami- 
able &  modest  female  character.  If  then  these  ladies  are  the  objects  of 
disgust  with  sensible  men  and  the  objects  of  ridicule  with  men  of  pleasure 
— their  conquests  must  be  confined  to  old  Fools — young  Fools  &  very 
empty  coxcombs — and  these  are  surely  not  worth  the  trouble. 

Now  I  think  I  hear  you  exclaim — "What  the  deuce  can  have  put  my 
"  husband  all  men  in  the  world  into  this  train  of  writing." 


1784J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  227 

I'll  tell  you  my  precious  Wife.  First,  negatively — (as  the  clergy  say): 
It  is  not  from  an  idea  of  increasing  your  abhorrence  of  such  flirts.  That 
I  know  to  be  impossible.  I  sometimes  think  your  Ldayship  errs  a  little 
upon  the  opposite  extreme  to  that  which  I  have  described.  From  sixteen 
years  old  to  the  present  time  you  have  literally  set  your  Cap  at  no  creature 
on  earth  but  me.  Regardless  of  Fashion  you  have  only  endeavored  by 
uniform  cleanliness  to  make  yourself  desirable  in  my  eyes,  but  I  am  not 
contented  with  this.  I  love  you  so  well  that  I  am  always  gratified  when  I 
see  other  people  admire  you,  and  (if  Providence  ever  puts  it  in  my  power) 
you  shall  be  as  much  distinguished  for  the  elegance  of  your  dress  as  you 
are  for  your  constancy  and  fidelity. 

That  vagabond  Murray  has  fairly  disconcerted  me  by  his  impertin- 
ence. 

"What  axe  you  writing?"  (says  he). 

"A  letter  to  your  Mama." 

"What,  in  that  book?" 

"Yes." 

"You'd  better  stop  your  nonsense,  I  think." 

"Why,"  says  I,  "don't  you  think  Mama  will  be  glad  to  read  a  whole 
book-full  from  me?" 

"I  don't  know,"  he  says,  "Too  much  of  one  thing  is  good  for  nothing." 

Did  you  ever  hear  such  a  varlet?  Lest  you  should  be  of  his  mind, 
I'll  leave  off  for  a  little. 

Tuesday,  21st. 

Mr.  Dight  has  just  called  to  acquaint  me  that  he  shall  not  set  on3  till 
tomorrow,  I  gave  him  a  letter  of  introduction  to  you  yesterday.  I'll 
endeavor  to  send  this  by  him. 

I  am  yet  confined  to  my  room,  my  right  Foot  &  left  arm  in  constant 
and  violent  pain.  I  shall  come  out  one  of  these  days  so  fair,  so  delicate, 
&  genteel  that  I  shall  hardly  be  known  by  my  old  acquaintances.  I  never 
in  my  life  experienced  so  severe  a  fit  of  the  Gout.  I  however  hope  it  will 
secure  me  good  health  for  the  remainder  of  the  winter. 

Master  Murray  made  one  of  a  party  of  pleasure  yesterday  a  fishing, 
&  he's  taken  cold  and  it's  laughable  enough  to  see  the  fuss  that's  made 
with  him — one  says,  "The  dear  little  creature's  oppressed  at  his  stomach" 
— another  says  "He's  feverish,"  &c.  If  they  don't  hurt  him  by  their  non- 
sense I  shall  be  glad.  He  is  exactly  as  you  have  seen  him  a  hundred 
times,  stuffed  at  his  stomach  &  wheezes,  but  I  am  sure  that  a  drink  of 
whey  or  something  warm  when  he  goes  to  bed  will  answer  all  the  pur- 
pose. The  rascal's  laughing  at  them  now. 

You  always  thought  My  Mary  that  I  did  not  love  this  precious  boy  so 
much  as  I  ought  to.  How  grossly  are  you  mistaken.  The  idea  of  parting 


228  WINSLOW  PAPEKS.  [1784 

with  him  is  as  painful  to  me  as  yourself,  and  I  almost  tremble  when  they 
tell  me  a  ship  will  be  ready  to  sail  for  England  in  a  week  or  ten  days.  Yet 
I  must  and  will  be  reconciled.  When  he  is  indisposed  I  cannot  be  at  ease 
for  a  moment,  and  altho'  he  has  now  only  a  trifling  cold,  I  cannot  suppress 
my  anxiety.  Indeed  Mama  I  will  not  allow  that  your  affection  for  him  is 
greater  than  my  own.  Since  his  arrival  here  he  has  quite  captivated  all 
his  relations.  For  (altho'  he  will  not  be  sociable  in  large  parties  of  ladies, 
but  acts  on  such  occasions  just  as  he  used  to,)  yet  whenever  a  company  re- 
tires and  the  family  &  two  or  three  friends  form  a  circle  of  themselves,  he 
is  sure  to  afford  a  monstrous  deal  of  real  entertainment.  He  has  this 
evening  amused  his  aunts  with  a  history  of  the  whole  family,  and  has 
given  a  character  of  all  the  children  and  servants  &  of  almost  everybody 
in  the  neighborhood,  and  he  certainly  does  say  some  of  the  most  extra- 
ordinary things  that  ever  entered  into  the  head  of  a  child  of  his  age.  But 
I  will  not  indulge  you  any  farther  on  this  subject,  you  are  alreadv  too 
partial  to  this  little  Micmac.  Fll  now  tell  you  a  circumstance  which  I 
did  not  communicate  in  my  last,  because  I  thought  it  would  give  you  some 
airs  of  triumph  over  me.  I  acknowledge  myself  mortify'd.  I  also  ac- 
knowledge that  you  were  right  in  some  of  your  conjectures.  After  this 
concession  you  ought  not  to  tieze  me.  I  have  been  obliged  to  dismiss  my 
friend  Mr.  Presley  with  his  fair  lady  &c.,  and  have  taken  into  r>av  Mr. 
Tobias  or  George  Oakman  to  take  care  of  the  horses.  If  I  like  his  be- 
haviour Fll  keep  him  this  winter,  but  he  really  seems  a  stupid  creature.  I 
however  hope  he  will  not  cheat  me.  I  hope  you  will  very  soon  begin  your 
preparation  for  carrying  on  the  business  which  I  chalked  out  in  my  last. 
Should  I  receive  information  of  any  appointment  to  my  satisfaction  at 
New  Brunswick  even  after  you  have  collected  materials  for  repairing  our 
house,  we  certainly  could  not  lose  much  by  them. 

If  events  take  place  to  prevent  my  going  there,  I  shall  first  propose  to 
General  Campbell  to  permit  me  to1  spend  the  winter  at  Granville,  because 
if  I  go  with  his  leave  I  shall  retain  my  pay  of  10s.  p.  day,  which  with  the 
emoluments  is,  in  my  present  circumstances,  a  very  great  object.  In  that 
case  I  probably  may  not  see  you  till  the  first  of  November.  But  should 
he  refuse  this  request,  Fll  take  French  leave  of  him  directly.  Everything 
depends  on  my  next  intelligence  from  England.  I  yet  do  not  despair 
(under  the  Eose)  of  going  to  St.  John's  this  winter.  But  this  idea  must 
not  hinder  your  utmost  exertions  about  the  House,  for  should  we  be  dis- 
appointed we  shall  be  in  a  terrible  Box.  [Four  lines  missing.] 

Sally  Miller  (of  whom  he*  is  excessively  fond)  has  not  left  him  one 
moment.     Dr.  Mclntire  gave  him  some  castor  oil,  which  he  says  is  the  best 
thing  in  the  world  for  Worms. 
'Meaning  little  Murray. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  229 

Wednesday  Morn'g  22d. 

Murray  is  perfectly  recovered;  he  is  now  deliberating  where  he  shall 
dine  today  among  a  number  of  invitations.  [4  lines  missing.] 

Mary,  cannot  you  among  the  other  improvements  contrive  to  make  a 
cellar  or  hole  for  vegetables?  they  are  very  convenient.  I  should  think  a 
very  excellent  one  might  be  dug  under  the  bank  near  where  the  first 
kitchen  hut  stood.  It  could  not  be  attended  with  much  labor  or  expence, 
it  must  be  close  sodded — there's  plenty  of  sods  all  round,  two  or  three 
men  would  finish  it  in  a  day.  Try  it.  I  find  that  the  articles  of  Clothing 
&c.,  which  I  have  purchased  &  procured  here  will  fill  eight  or  ten  large 
packages.  If  I  send  'em  round  what  will  you  do  with  them?  Is  there 
room  in  any  part  of  Mr.  Bedding's  House?  If  there  is  not  I'll  let  'em 
remain  here  till  Spring — altho'  I  would  rather  have  'em  at  home.  Write 
me  word  whether  you  can  stow  'em  safely. 

Austin  Eedding  was  here  last  evening  he  seems  to  be  perfectly 
satisfy'd  with  his  place  &  Prince  is  pleased  with  him.  I  inclose  letters 
for  his  Brother  &  Sister.  Murray  desires  his  love  to  Dick  &  Tom  &  Katy 
&  Sam  &  Ferdinand  &  Mama  Redding  &  all  of  'em— to  be  sure  he's  begun 
rather  at  the  wrong  end.  Make  mine  at  the  same  time.  Give  my  love  to 
Jack  Robinson  &  Wright — tell  the  latter  I  hope  he  manages  to  keep  that 
unfortunate  servant  of  Hardenbrooke's  a  little  indisposed  yet.  It  would 
be  a  melancholy  thing  if  she  gets  perfectly  well. 

Fearing  that  all  other  sources  might  fail  I  have  sent  10  guineas  by 
Mr.  Dight.  Manage  it  with  extreme  care.  He  informs  me  that  he'll  not 
be  off  till  Fryday.  What  a  strange  business.  I  calculated  to  close  my 
letter  at  12  o'clock  this  day — &  my  whole  book  is  finished.  I  swear  I'll 
not  write  any  more — but  I  solemnly  swear  that  I  am  your  devoted,  faithful 
&  affectionate 

Husband, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

Edward  Winslow  to  His  Wife. 

[Letter  written  in  book  similar  to  preceding  but  double  thickness. 
Cover  and  first  six  pages  missing.] 

[Halifax]  Sept.  24,  1784. 

What  do  you  think  of  your  young  man  Murray?  I  wrote  for  him  a 
letter  last  evening.  He  has  just  been  whispering  in  my  ear  that  he  wishes 
I  would  write  another  letter  for  him  to  his  Mama.  I  told  him  I  would 
tomorrow  night.  "Ay,"  (says  he)  "I  don't  want  such  an  one  as  you  wrote 
last  night.  I  want  one  in  a  book — a  whole  book  full,  such  an  one  as  you 
write." 


230  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

"Why/'  said  I,  "you  pup — what  have  you  to  say  to  fill  a  volume?" 
"Get  a  book  (says  he)  &  Fll  tell  you.  I  have  as  much  to  say  to  Mama  as 
you  have,  and  I  love  Mama  as  well  as  you  do,  I'm  hang'd  if  I  don't." 

Upon  my  honor  I'm  often  puzzled  to  get  rid  of  the  fellow.  I  must 
send  him  off  as  soon  as  I  can  for  the  longer  he  stays,  the  more  sincerely 
and  affectionately  am  I  attached  to  him. 

I  have  had  a  very  handsome  present  from  Colonel  Morse;  a  beautiful 
writing  box  with  all  the  materials  &c.,  &c.,  so  convenient  that  I  shall  cer- 
tainly keep  it  to  myself. 

I  have  had  a  tet-a-tete  with  old  Forrest  and  he  has  expressed  himself 
in  such  warm  terms  of  friendship  toward  your  ladyship  that  I  am  per- 
fectly reconciled  to  him,  and  have  lent  him  my  Horse  to  ride  half  way  to 
Windsor. 

If  you  should  be  obliged  to  procure  cloaths  for  John  before  you  re- 
ceive cloth  from  me,  let  'em  be  of  the  colour  I  proposed  in  my  last.  I 
shall  send  by  the  ship  a  quantity  of  unmade  green  cloaths  &  white  waist- 
coats which  will  last  a  great  while  &  I  dislike  frequent  changes  of  livery. 

Gordon  has  this  moment  announced  his  intention  of  sending  off  an 
express  tomorrow  &  I've  just  discovered  that  I  have  begun  my  letter  in  a 
double  book,  of  course  it  can  be  fill'd. 

Morris  has  paid  a  visit  to  Commodore  Sir  Charles  Douglas  this  morn- 
ing, and  He  has  politely  offered  him  a  passage  in  either  of  the  Transports 
which  are  now  preparing  to  sail,  and  Gordon  has  also  waited  on  him  in 
behalf  of  Master  Murray  and  he  has  made  the  same  answer  with  respect 
to  him.  I  am  exceedingly  gratify'd  at  it,  and  I  have  dispatched  Morris 
to  propose  the  matter  to  the  Captain  of  the  Sally,  a  fine  large  ship  in 
which  go  as  passengers,  Col.  Mof$e,  Col.  Brownton,  Major  Home,  &  several 
others  of  my  particular  acquaintances.  I  have  requested  Kobinson  to 
make  a  bargain  with  the  Captain  to  have  a  berth  built  in  his  own  State 
Eoom,  and  that  I  will  pay  any  expenses  that  may  attend  it.  Every  pre- 
paration is  making  for  him  to  embark.  I  shall  lay  in  every  kind  of  stores, 
Wine,  &c.,  and  I  have  procured  a  servant  to  attend  him  on  the  passage, 
and  I  shall  send  with  Morris  money  sufficient  to  answer  all  his  Durposes  at 
his  first  landing.  I  have  wrote  particularly  to  Mr.  Geyer*  &  Mr.  Coffin 
and  have  requested  their  attention  to  him.  I  have  also  pointed  out  a 
method  by  which  the  expence  of  his  education  will  be  annually  defrayed. 
The  Gentlemen  passengers  have  all  in  the  genteelest  manner  preferred 
their  services,  especially  Col.  Morse;  I  shall  hold  mvself  eternally  obliged 
to  him  for  his  uncommon  civility  on  this  delicate  occasion. 

Thus  arranged  my  dear  wife  is  this  very  important  matter,  and  I  now 

*Frederick  William  Geyer  was  an  old  friend  of  Edward  Winslow.    He  was 
at  this  time  living  in  England. 


1784]  WINSLOW    PAPERS  231 

feel  a  kind  of  consolation  which  is  peculiar  to  a  tender  &  affectionate 
parent  and  of  which  I  wish  you  to  partake,  and  which  you  will  necessarily 
enjoy  because  it  results  from  a  consciousness  of  having  performed  a  serious 
and  important  duty.  You  have  parted  with  a  precious  boy — a  son  who 
not  only  contributed  to  your  amusement,  but  who  really  discovers  an 
uncommon  degree  of  sensibility  and  gratitude.  His  manners  and  dispo- 
sition attach  even  strangers  to  him.  Were  he  of  a  contrary  character 
there  would  be  no  merit  in  relinquishing  him  for  a  time.  With  all  these 
good  qualities  I  acknowledge  that  it  requires  great  philosophy  to  reconcile 
one's  self  to  a  separation  from  him.  And  yet  the  consideration  that  he 
possesses  them,  makes  it  doubly  incumbent  on  us  to  do  him  justice  in  his 
education.  Should  your  motherly  tenderness  or  weakness  have  prevented 
this  sweet  fellow  from  availing  himself  of  the  advantages  now  held  out  to 
him,  and  for  want  of  proper  attention  to  his  education  have  turned  out  a 
Blackguard  what  remorse,  what  stings  of  conscience  would  you  have  felt. 
We  have  now  done  all  that  God  and  our  own  consciences  can  require 
of  us.  If  accidents  happen  to  him  we  have  nothing  to  answer  for.  There- 
fore Madam  instead  of  fetching  a  sigh,  join  me  in  wishing  him  a  good 
passage  &  let  what  will  happen  we  will  bear  it  handsomely.  There's 
Christian  like  doctrine  for  you  and  faith  Mary  (whatever  the  world  may 
say  of  me)  when  put  to  a  severe  test — I  am  a  Christian. 
[Mss.  torn.]  I  (to  be  sure)  once  in  a  while  leap  the  bounds  of  prudence 
and  commit  small  irregularities,  but  I'm  hang'd  (as  Murray  says)  if  I  don't 
do  all  the  good  I  can.  *  *  *  [Mss.  torn.] 

Ed.Winslow. 
My  dear  Mama, — 

I  love  you  dearly.  How  I  shall  long  to  see  you  when  I  get  to  Eng- 
land. I  shall  never  forget  you  my  dear  Mama.  I  shall  sail  next  week  in 
the  ship  Sally — all  my  things  are  pack'd  up.  Papa  has  bought  me  a 
charming  chest  and  Grandmama  is  to  bake  me  a  whole  parcel  of  ginger- 
bread and  pyes,  and  they  are  to  be  put  in  the  chest  and  my  servant  is  to 
keep  the  key. 

The  Gentlemen  will  all  be  kind  to  me,  and  I  shall  be  very  comfort- 
able. I  wrote  you  last  night  and  so  I  have  nothing  more  to  say — only  my 
love  to  Pop  and  Tom,  &  little  Pen  &  Kitty  James. 

I  am,  dear  Mama, 

Your  loving  &  faithful  son 

Daniel  Murray  Winslow. 

[Signature  made  apparently  by  pen  in  child's  fingers  guided  by 
father.] 

I  relate  these  little  dialogues  almost  word  for  word  as  they  are  spoken, 
and  altho'  one  half  the  world  will  laugh  at  the  nonsense  &  folly  of  such 
repetitions  yet  you  my  beloved  wife  will  receive  some  pleasure  from  them. 
Parents  who  feel  as  we  do  will  naturally  experience  agreeable  sensations  at 


232  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

the  relation  of  every  circumstance  which  concerns  our  'dear  little  -ones, 
however  trifling  they  are  in  themselves. 

Miss  Kitty  Taylor  (who  is  one  of  the  most  amiable  girls  in  the  whole 
world  &  is  vastly  fond  of  Murray)  has  been  for  an  hour  almost,  endeavour- 
ing to  prevail  on  Murray  to  kiss  her,  which  he  has  steadily  refused;  at  last 
under  a  pretence  of  whispering  to  him,  she  has  given  him  a  very  loud 
smack.  "0  hang  it,"  says  Murray,  "Tis  not  so  bad  as  I  thought  it  was, 
now  you  may  kiss  me  as  much  as  you  have  a  mind  to."  The  whole  com- 
pany are  now  in  a  roar  laughing  at  him,  Marston  among  the  rest,  whose 
fondness  for  Murray  has  made  him  dearer  to  me  than  ever.  Murray  is 
with  him  half  the  day  and  he  is  constantly  collecting  nuts,  apples,  &c,  for 
him. 

I  am  monstrously  anxious  for  the  arrival  of  an  express,  not  a  word 
from  you  since  Murray's  arrival.  Thompson  has  not  yet  determined  when 
he  will  return.  I  will  if  possible  prevail  on  him  to  wait  until  a  packet 
arrives,  which  must  be  within  a  week  or  ten  days  unless  the  Devil's  in  'em. 
I  have  been  hourly  in  expectation  of  Mr.  Matthews.  He  certainly  must 
have  sailed  at  least  8  weeks  ago.  And  by  Chippy's  letter,  Ludlow  and  him 
were  to  sail  early  in  August;  they  also  certainly  must  be  along  soon.  There 
has  not  "been  an  arrival  from  any  quarter  since  I  wrote  you  by  John  (except 
from  New  England).  All  the  great  people  of  Halifax,  men  and  women, 
have  been  and  are  still  nocking  to  the  states  to  visit  their  rebel  brethren 
and  I  dare  say  their  congratulations  and  embraces  are  very  cordial.  The 
Devil  kiss  'em  all  together. 

Mama.  This  is  really  an  omnium  gatherum  kind  of  an  epistle.  I 
don't  care,  you'll  be  so  good  as  to  peruse  all  your  volumes  very  attentively 
and  forward  to  me  plain  &  unequivocal  answers  to  all  the  questions  con- 
tained in  them.  I  don't  mean  that  you  should  imitate  me  in  prolixity.  I 
will  not  permit  any  man  or  woman  on  the  face  of  the  earth  to  equal  me 
in  evincing  my  affection.  It  is  as  much  superior,  as  much  purer  than  the 
common  run  of  people's,  as  my  letters  are  longer  than  the  cold  short  letters 
of  transient  acquaintances. 

I  am  yet  confined  to  my  room  with  the  Gout,  and  altho'  I  am  sur- 
rounded by  a  multitude  of  friends,  and  incumbered  with  an  infinite  variety 
of  business,  I  steal  my  opportunities  and  dash  away  page  after  page  to  you 
my  best  loved  and  amiable  Wife.  I  do  not  regard  how  incoherent — how 
incorrect  they  are.  You  love  to  hear  me  talk,  altho'  a  portion  of  my  con- 
versation may  not  be  entertaining,  &  I  am  sure  that  you  have  some  pleas- 
ure in  reading  every  line  I  write. 

I  have  this  day  for  the  first  time  this  fortnight  ventured  to  put  on  a 
coat  and  shoes — my  leg  and  arm  continue  very  much  swelled  but  I  am 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  233 

prodigiously  relieved,  &  anticipate  the  pleasure  of  enjoying  the  fresh  air 
in  a  very  few  days.     Really  wife  I  have  had  a  terrible  time. 

Good  night 

God  bless  you 
[Continued.]  E.  W. 

Friday.  25.  Sepr  1784. 

It  is  not  possible  for  any  pen  or  tongue  to  describe  the  variety  of 
wretchedness  that  is  at  this  time  exhibited  in  the  streets  of  this  place,  and 
God  knows  I  am  obliged  to  hear  a  large  proportion  of  it.  This  is  what 
we  call  a  board  day,  &  the  yard  in  front  of  my  House  has  been  crowded 
since  eight  o'clock  with  the  most  miserable  objects  that  ever  were  beheld. 

As  if  there  was  not  a  sufficiency  of  such  distress' d  objects  already  in 
this  country  the  good  people  of  England  have  collected  a  whole  ship  load 
of  all  kinds  of  vagrants  from  the  streets  of  London,  and  sent  them  out  to 
Kova  Scotia.*  Great  numbers  died  on  the  passage  of  various  disorders — 
the  miserable  remnant  are  landed  here  and  have  now  no  cover  but  tents. 
Such  as  are  able  to  crawl  are  begging  for  a  proportion  of  provisions  at  my 
door.  Two  other  ships  were  loading  with  the  same  kind  of  cargoes. 
Heaven  only  knows  what  will  become  of  'em.  As  soon  as  we  get  rid  of 
such  a  sett  as  these,  another  little  multitude  appears  of  old  crippled  Re- 
fugees, men  and  women  who  have  seen  better  days.  Some  of  'em  tell  me 
they  formerly  knew  me,  they  have  no  other  friend  to  depend  upon  and 
they  solicit  in  language  so  emphatical  and  pathetic,  that  'tis  impossible  for 
any  man  whose  heart  is  not  callous  to  every  tender  feeling,  to  refuse  their 
requests. 

Next  to  them  perhaps  comes  an  unfortunate  set  of  Blackies  begging 
for  Christ's  sake  that  Masser  would  give  'em  a  little  provision  if  it's  only 
for  one  week.  "He  wife  sick;  He  children  sick;  and  He  will  die  if  He  have 
not  some."  I  am  illy  calculated  for  such  services.  These  applications 
make  an  impression  on  my  mind  which  is  vastly  disagreeable.  I  cannot 
forget  them.  It  is  not  possible  to  relieve  all  their  distresses.  I  long  to 
retreat  from  such  scenes.  My  views  are  humble,  I  ask  no  more  than  a 
competency  to  support  myself,  my  wife,  and  children  decentlv  and  to  live 
and  enjoy  them  I  care  not  where.  This  has  hitherto  been  out  of  my  power 
but  I  natter  myself  that  the  time  is  not  far  distant  when  I  shall  be  gratify'd 
in  this  first  wish  of  my  heart. 

Among  the  most  persevering  solicitors  which  I  have  met  with  is  your 
old  Townsman,  fellow  passenger  &  friend,  Thomas  Edwards  Esq:  As  regu- 
larly as  the  day  comes — comes  Thomas  Edwards,  and  he  always  prefaces 
his  application  by  telling  me  what  a  wonderful  affection  he  has  for  you  and 

*This  statement  is  connrmed  by  Murdoch  in  his  History  of  Nova  Scotia. 
See  Vol.  III.,  pp.  34,  35. 


234  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

the  children;  and  then  he  hopes  the  Colonel  will  order  him  cloaths,  shoes, 
provisions,  blankets,  medicines,  &c,  &C,  &c.  I  have  this  morning  sat 
down  by  him  with  a  pencil,  and  have  taken  down  the  several  articles  which 
he  requests,  and  I  have  told  him  that  I  would  give  him  an  order  to  receive 
every  one  of  them  on  the  single  consideration  that  he  should  not  on  any 
pretence  whatever  make  me  another  visit  till  he  embarks  for  England. 
To  this  he  has  solemnly  agreed,  and  we  have  shaken  hands  and  I  have 
most  sincerely  wished  him  a  good  and  quick  passage,  and  that  he  may 
find  such  a  reception  in  England  as  will  effectually  prevent  the  necessity 
of  his  returning  to  this  country. 

By  the  way,  since  I  am  on  the  subject  of  Eations,  you  have  heard  that 
by  the  late  orders  the  Loyalists  are  to  receive  only  two  thirds  allowance  of 
provisions  from  the  first  of  last  May,  but  the  disbanded  officers  and  soldiers 
are  to  receive  a  full  allowance  to  the  24th  of  October.  In  the  settlement 
of  your  account  with  Mr.  Williams*  you  are  to  consider  yourself  as  a  dis- 
banded Muster-Master-General,  &  of  course  will  draw  full  rations  for 
yourself  and  family  to  the  24th  of  October.  There  can  be  no  difficulty 
on  the  subject,  but  I  would  settle  with  Mr.  Williams  to  that  period  after 
which  you  will  share  the  same  fate  as  your  neighbors  and  be  at  two  thirds 
allowance.  *  *  * 

Robinson  &  Gordon  are  now  employed  in  fixing  Murray's  berth  and 
regulating  matters  for  his  passage.  If  he  had  been  Gordon's  own  and  only 
son  he  could  not  have  been  more  engaged  and  interested  for  him. 

1  o'clock. 

We  have  this  moment  heard  of  an  arrival  at  Shelburne.  I'll  be  in 
the  fidgits  till  I  hear  particulars. 

What  can  I  have  written  in  fifty  pages?  I  swear  I  would  not  read  it 
for  50  shillings. 

Our  sister  Sally  says  that  that  painted  ribband  would  be  a  most 
elegant  trimming  for  a  White  Shawl.  If  you  think  FO  I'll  buy  one  and 
send  you. 

Adieu  my  dearest  Mary, 

Everlastingly  Yours 

Ed.  Winslow. 


William  Garden  to  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  Ann's,  25th  Sep'r,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  have  lately  received  two  letters  of  Instruction  from  Mr. 
Brinley  couched  in  such  a  manner  as  gives  me  satisfaction  &  for  which  I 
"That  is  for  the  rations  furnished. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  235 

will  suppose  myself  indebted  to  you.  I  want  words  to  express  the  sense 
I  have  of  all  your  favors — be  assured  I  shall  ever  remember  them  with 
gratitude. 

The  General's  appointment*  and  Mr.  Brinley's  letters,  leave  me  in  the 
•dark  as  to  my  pay,  will  you  have  the  goodness  to  fix  that  for  me? 

I  have  wrote  to  Mr.  Brinley  by  this  opportunity  that  I  have  employed 
Mr.  Monson  Hayt  as  Clerk,  and  a  man  as  cooper  and  issuer,  and  I  hope  he 
will  make  a  generous  allowance  for  them.  The  public  buildings  are  in 
great  forwardness,  one  of  the  provision  stores  will  be  fit  for  the  reception, 
of  Provisions  next  week.  We  are  greatly  mortified  that  General  Fox  is 
not  coming  out  Gov'r.  I  beg  my  most  respectful  compliments  to  General 
Campbell  and  Cap'n  Addenbrooke,  &  I  am,  Dear  Sir, 

Your  most  obd't  &  much  obliged 
humble  serv't, 

Wm.  Garden, 


Thomas  Knox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Fort  Howe,  25th  Sept.,  1784. 

Sir, — I  enclose  you  a  General  Eeturn  of  the  numbers  of  Persons  of  all 
descriptions  who  have  been  mustered  by  me  within  the  District  of  St. 
John's  Eiver,  and  to  whom  I  have  given  certificates  on  the  Asst.  Commis- 
sary Gen'l  at  this  Post  for  the  Eoyal  Bounty  of  Provisions  as  Settlers  in 
His  Majesty's  Provinces  of  Nova  Scotia,  which  I  beg  you  will  be  pleased 
to  lay  before  the  Commander  in  Chief. 

From  this  Eeturn  some  deductions  will  be  made  by  me  as  unworthy 
the  favor  of  Government. 

I  wrote  to  you  by  Governor  Wentworth  and  enclosed  copies  of  two 
letters  to  Mr.  Hecht  with  some  general  regulations  to  be  observed  in 
settling  with  the  different  Corps  and  Classes.  This  business  is  nearly 
finished,  but  it  has  been  attended  with  great  difficulty  on  account  of  over- 
drawings  by  former  Eeturns,  and  has  occasioned  my  long  delay;  a  delay 

"That  is  William  Garden's  appointment  as  commissary  at  Fredericton.  He 
lived  on  the  corner  of  Queen  and  Church  streets  (opposite  the  Cathedral);  th« 
house  is  still  standing,  and  occupied  by  Robert  G.  Wetmore.  Wm.  Garden  was 
in  business  partnership  with  William  Donaldson  of  St.  John.  They  supplied 
those  engaged  in  lumbering,  &c.  Mr.  Garden's  property  in  Kingsclear — where 
he  lived  later — was  just  above  Judge  Winslow's,  rather  more  than  a  mile  above 
Phyllis  Creek.  On  a  little  stream  there  he  built  a  mill.  In  the  old  plans  in  the 
crown  land  office  this  is  marked  "Pierre  Paul  Creek."  The  Gardens  brought 
with  them  from  New  York  an  old  slave  named  Dinah.  William  Garden  died 
in  1812,  aged  63  years.  His  son,  Hugh  Mackay  Garden,  married  a  Miss  Gale. 
sister  of  the  late  Mrs.  Wm.  H.  Needham.  Another  son,  Nelson  Garden,  married 
a  Miss  Cunliffe  of  Woodstock,  and  a  daughter  married  a  Dibblee.  All  these, 
with  their  mother,  are  buried  in  the  old  parish  church  yard  at  Woodstock,  not 
far  from  the  last  resting  place  of  their  old  friend  and  neighbor,  Sheriff  Winslow. 


236  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [178* 

which  I  hope  will  not  impress  the  Commander  in  Chief  with  an  unfavor- 
able opinion  of  my  assiduity  and  exertions  to  close  the  Business  on  which 
I  was  sent,  and  which  must  have  been  left  in  a  very  unfinished  state  had 
I  returned  before.  * 

My  business  being  so  far  closed  I  shall  take  the  first  opportunity  that 
offers  for  Annapolis  to  cross  the  Bay  and  return  to  Halifax. 

I  am  sir,  &c. 

Thomas  Knox, 
Dy.  Com'y  of  Musters. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Captain  Frink. 

Halifax,  Sept'r  30th,  1784. 

Sir, — I  received  your  letter  of  the  15th  instant,  with  the  memorial 
inclosed. 

It  is  now  reduced  to  an  absolute  certainty  that  the  St.  John's  side  the 
Bay  of  Fundy  is  formed  into  a  Government,  and  since  Governor  Parr  has 
received  official  intelligence  of  that  event,  he  has  repeatedly  declined 
making  any  new  arrangements,  or  giving  any  new  grants  in  that  district. 
I  therefore  thought  best  to  return  your  memorial  that  you  may  avail  your- 
self of  the  earliest  opportunity  to  make  your  application  to  the  new  Gov- 
ernor, who  may  be  expected  every  hour  at  St.  John's. 

Indeed  I  should  have  been  but  a  bad  advocate  for  you  with  the  pres- 
ent Governor  of  Nova  Scotia,  it  not  being  any  part  of  my  ambition  to  be 
ranked  among  that  order  of  men  who  are  distinguished  by  marks  of  His 
Excellency's  favor. 

I  shall  always  with  alacrity  embrace  any  opportunity  to  render  ser- 
vices to  any  of  my  old  friends  of  the  Provincial  Eegiments. 
I  am,  Sir,  Your  very  humble  Servant, 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Capt.  Frink, 

Carleton,  St.  Johns. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Major  John  Coffin. 

Halifax,  October  4th,  1784. 

My  dear  Fellow, — I  do  not  deserve  abuse  for  not  writing  you  since  my 
return  to  this  place.  The  strange  variety  of  reports  which  have  prevailed 
here  since  the  last  packet  arrived  have  rendered  the  news  respecting  the 
arrangements  for  this  country  so  inexplicably  mysterious  that  we  know  not 
what  to  depend  on.  At  first  it  was  supposed  an  indisputable  fact  that 
Col.  Carleton  had  embarked  with  his  subordinate  civil  officers  agreeable 


1784]  WIN  SLOW  PAPERS.  237 

to  the  list  which  I  sent  you.  *         *         A  letter  from  Chipman 

hints  "that  the  present  arrangement  may  not  be  permanent."  Accus- 
tomed as  I  am  to  plain  English  language,  I  am  unable  to  construe  these 
enigmatical,  political  conundrums,  and  I  literally  do  not  know  who  is 
Governor,  Secretary  or  anything  else.  It  is  however  agreed  on  all  hands 
that  you  are  to  have  these  kind  of  officers  immediately.  And  at  this 
I  acknowledge  myself  gratified,  and  with  the  same  degree  of  candour  I 
confess  that  I  shall  be  disappointed  unless  they  have  pointed  out  some 
decent  employment  for  me,  because  it  is  the  first  object  of  my  wishes  to 
settle  among  you.  If  it  turns  out  otherwise,  and  in  this  as  in  former  in- 
stances I  have  beat  the  Bush  for  others,  I  will  make  myself  tolerably  easy, 
for  altho'  my  present  situation  is  not  perfectly  agreeable  to  my  mind,  it 
has  its  advantages. 

Until  I  hear  further  I  must  suspend  all  serious  operations  on  your 
side  the  Bay.  I  cannot  think  of  building  a  house  there  for  my  mother  & 
sisters  unless  I  am  to  reside  there  myself.  You  shall  have  the  earliest  in- 
formation of  an  arrival,  and  of  the  news  when  its  reduced  to  a  certainty. 
I  will  send  an  express  to  you  and  you  must  take  your  measures  accord- 
ingly. A  multitude  of  people  are  coming  out,  and  by  all  accounts  there 
are  a  great  number  of  candidates  for  almost  every  office  that's  worth  hold- 
ing. *  *  * 

I  thank  you  cordially  for  the  warmth  with  which  you  express  your 
desire  for  us  to  take  up  our  residence  in  your  country.  I  have  not  (for 
twelve  months  past)  built  a  castle  or  anticipated  a  pleasure  but  what  has 
centered  there,  and  my  predilection  has  arisen  principally  from  the  con- 
sideration that  I  should  there  enjoy  the  society  of  those  friends  for  whom 
I  have  the  greatest  affection. 

I  am  perfectly  of  your  opinion  with  respect  to  our  friend  Aplin,  but 
having  already  given  him  my  sentiments  explicitly  on  the  subject  with- 
out any  effect,  I  must  leave  him  to  pursue  his  own  plan. 
Altho'  he  is  a  good  fellow  in  some  resrtects  he  certainly  is  a  verv  poor  devil 
in  others. 

Accept  my  best  acknowledgments  for  a  late  instance  of  attention  to 
my  wife.  I  regret  on  her  account  that  I  do  not  remove  to  St.  Johns  this 
winter — because  I  am  sure  it  would  be  more  agreeable  than  her  present 
situation  and  (however  unfashionable  the  sentiment  may  be)  I  am  not 
ashamed  to  affirm  that  to  make  her  comfortable  is  an  object  of  the  first 
importance  in  my  mind.  To  my  shame  she  has  had  a  larger  proportion 
of  mortifications  than  she  deserved,  and  by  Heaven  she  shall  never  feel 
another  if  I  can  prevent  it.  My  boy  Murray  embarks  tomorrow  for  Eng- 
land in  a  ship  with  Col's  Morse,  Brownlow,  Armstrong,  Major  Home  and 
Morris  Eobinson.  He's  to  be  put  to  school  in  the  country. 


238  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

Hazen  announces  his  intention  of  setting  off  this  evening,  to  him  I 
refer  you  for  any  further  news.  Sister  Sally  writes  Mrs.  Coffin — remem- 
ber me  affectionately  to  her  and  the  young  Buck,  and  believe  me 

Most  sincerely  yours 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Major  John  Coffin, 

Eiver  St.  Johns. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Charles  McEvers. 

Halifax,  October  4th,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — Your  letter  of  the  13th  of  June  reached  me  while  I  was 
on  a  tour  to  the  outposts,  and  before  I  returned  to  this  place  your  friend 
Mr.  Wilkins  had  gone  to  Shelburne,  which  prevented  me  the  pleasure  of 
paying  him  that  attention  which  his  merit  and  your  recommendation 
entitle  him  to.  Should  any  future  opportunity  offer  to  render  a  service 
or  shew  a  civility  to  him  or  his  family  I  shall  embrace  it  with  alacrity. 

In  answer  to  your  kind  enquiries  respecting  my  present  situation  I 
have  to  tell  you  that  I  hold  the  appointment  of  Military  Secretary  for  the 
district  of  Nova  Scotia,  an  employment  not  -so  enviable  for  its  emoluments 
as  for  the  frequent  opportunities  it  affords  of  relieving  the  distresses  of  the 
unfortunate.  I  have  been  obliged  to  reside  principally  at  Halifax,  and  I 
had  the  consolation  to  provide  a  comfortable  shelter  and  support  for  my 
good  old  father  and  his  family  until  God  Almighty  was  pleased  to  take 
him  from  us.  My  mother  and  sisters  yet  remain  here. 

My  wife  and  family  are  in  a  snug  box  at  a  place  called  Granville  near 
Annapolis.  I  have  leased  a  farm  there  in  a  delightful  situation  &  a  good 
neighbourhood,  and  I  spend  as  much  of  my  time  there  as  my  business  will 
admit.  Your  old  friend  Mary  is  as  happy  as  I  can  make  her.  I  lost  my 
sweet  little  boy  "Chip"  soon  after  my  arrival  in  this  country,  and  Fve  had 
a  fine  daughter  since.  My  eldest  Buck,  Murray,  embarks  tomorrow  for 
England. 

We  are  in  daily  expectation  of  the  arrival  of  a  Governor  and  the  other 
civil  officers  for  the  new  province  formed  on  the  north  side  the  Bay  of 
Fundy,  called  New  Brunswick.  As  soon  as  the  business  is  fairly  arranged 
I  shall,  I  hope,  take  up  my  abode  there.  I  have  explored  the  country  very 
faithfully  and  I  am  perfectly  satisfied  that  it  must  become  of  great  im- 
portance. We  have  certain  intelligence  that  the  Judge  [Ludlow],  Col. 
Ludlow,  D.  Matthews,*  Upham,  Chipman  and  many  others  are  preparing 
to  come  out.  I  hope  when  we  are  all  collected  that  you  will  be  anxious  to 
pay  us  a  visit.  I  am  sure  it  will  contribute  to  your  health,  and  I  flatter 

*David  Matthews  in  1766  was  Mayor  of  the  City  of  New  York.    After  the  war 
he  was  President  of  the  Council  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Island  of  Cape  Breton. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  239 

myself  that  you  will  find  a  jolly  set  of  fellows,  who  (if  they  do  not  enjoy 
immense  wealth)  are  neither  oppressed  by  enormous  impositions,  or  in- 
sulted by  impertinent  Black-Guards. 

Let  me  assure  you  (after  presenting  my  respects  to  your  family)  that 
there  is  not  a  man  on  earth  who  would  more  sincerely  rejoice  to  see  you, 
than  your  faithful  and  affectionate  Friend, 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Charles  McEvers,  K  York. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Mrs.  Frances  Ludlow. 

Halifax,  October  4th,  1784. 

Madam, — A  long  absence  from  this  place  has  prevented  an  earlier 
acknowledgment  of  the  receipt  of  your  letter.  As  soon  as  possible  after 
I  had  perused  its  contents  I  sought  &  found  the  modest  unfortunate  Mr. 
Clements,  and  permit  me  to  assure  you  that  I  have  experienced  a  peculiar 
and  a  double  satisfaction  in  my  endeavours  to  alleviate  his  misfortunes 
from  a  consideration  that  I  was  not  only  performing  an  act  of  benevolence, 
but  was  at  the  same  time  obeying  your  command.  I  have  secured  the 
Bounty  of  Provisions  to  Mr.  Clements  and  his  Family,  and  I  have  advised 
him  to  remain  in  his  present  situation  until  the  arrangements  for  the  new 
province  are  compleated,  and  then  to  make  application  for  a  grant  in  that 
country,  where  I  hope  men  of  Integrity  &  virtue  will  be  more  certain  of 
rewards  than  they  are  in  this. 

Late  letters  from  England  give  me  cause  to  anticipate  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  Mrs.  Colonel  Ludlow  &  yourself  in  this  country,  in  which  I  natter 
myself  you  will  be  agreeably  disappointed. 

May  you  long  enjoy  without  interruption  the  society  of  your  family 
&  friends  is  very  ardently  the  prayer  of  Madam 

Your  most  obed't,  h'ble  servt, 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Mrs.  Frances  Ludlow,  New  York. 


Lieut.  John  Eobinson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Annapolis  Oct'r  4th,  1784. 

Dear  Colonel, — You  may  depend  upon  my  giving  Mrs.  Winslow  all 
the  assistance  in  my  power  in  repairing  the  house.  I  hope  we  shall  be 
able  to  make  it  very  comfortable.  We  have  agreed  that  grates  will  not 
answer;  the  only  coal  you  can  get  here  is  from  the  Commissary  which  is 
exceedingly  bad,  and  you  cannot  burn  it  in  the  kitchen.  We  intend  to 
make  false  backs  to  the  fire  places  in  the  house  and  to  build  an  oven  out 
of  doors.  The  kitchen  chimney  I  am  afraid  must  come  down. 


240  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

I  am  very  sorry  that  you  have  had  so  disagreeable  a  companion  as  the 
Gout,  and  hope  ere  this  you  have  got  rid  of  him.  My  compliments  to  the 
Major  and  Byles. 

I  am,  Dear  Sir, 

Your  most  ob't  Friend  &  Servt. 

John  Robinson. 

Edward  Winslow  to  George  Leonard. 

Halifax,  5th  October,  1784. 

D'r.    Leonard, —  *          I  acknowledge    that    I   enjoy    the 

chagrine  which  is  apparent  in  the  countenances  of  the  Nabobs  of  Nova 
Scotia  on  this  occasion.  They  have  (until  official  letters  reached  his  Ex- 
cellency) affected  to  ridicule  the  idea  of  a  separate  government  as  absurd 
and  romantic;  they  are  now  certain  it  is  a  reality  and  to  their  confusion 
they  find  that  its  limits  extend  to  the  County  of  Cumberland  &  that  the 
most  valuable  part  of  that  county  is  included  in  the  province  of  New 
Brunswick.  A  remonstrance  (patronized  by  his  Excellency  and  signed  by 
a  class  of  gentry  not  remarkable  for  their  Loyalty,  viz,  Uniacke  the  Solici- 
tor, Mr.  Cochran,  Allan  and  other  absentee  proprietors)  has  been  trans- 
mitted to  England  setting  forth  the  inconvenience  that  will  arise  from 
this  boundary.  It  has  been  managed  in  the  same  secret,  silent  way  in 
which  business  of  this  kind  has  been  usually  conducted  in  Nova  Scotia, 
and  (altho'  I  am  perfectly  satisfied  that  the  boundary  is  irrevocably  fixed) 
I  have  taken  some  pains  not  only  to  counteract  these  men — but  to  char- 
acterize them.  *  * 

Present  my  best  respects  to  Mrs.  Leonard  &  the  young  Ladies  and 
believe  me, 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Geo.  Leonard,  Esq,  St.  Johns. 


S.  Jarvis  to  Ward  Chipman. 

London,  llth  October,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  hope  this  will  meet  you  safe  arrived  with  his  Excellency 
(Gov.  Carleton)  after  an  agreeable  passage,  and  that  you  find  everything 
to  your  liking. 

Mr.  Coffin  has  sent  out  in  the  "Hermione,"  Captain  Carge,  Col.  Wins- 
low's  Father's  grave  stone*  to  him  under, care  of  Mr.  D'l  Hammill.  *  * 

S.  Jarvis. 

"This  stone  may  be  seen  in  the  old  St.  Paul's  burial  ground  in  Halifax. 
The  inscription  will  be  found  in  the  introductory  pages  of  this  book.  It  has 
been  recently  recut  on  the  stone  at  Halifax. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  241 

Memorial  of  Stephen  Jarvis.* 

To  His  Excellency  Thomas  Carleton,  Esq'r,  Captain  General  and  Governor 

in  Chief  in  and  over  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick,  &c,  &c,  &c. 

The  Memorial  of  Stephen  Jarvis,  Lieutenant  in  the  late  South  Caro- 
lina Royalists,  Most  Humbly  Sheweth: — 

That  your  Memorialist  after  being  disbanded  at  Halifax  in  November, 
1783,  embraced  the  first  opportunity  of  going  to  New  England  for  his 
family.  That  after  his  arrival  in  that  country  he  was  Mobbed,  his  family 
ill  treated,  and  he  obliged  to  relinquish  his  business  and  return  to  this 
country  leaving  his  family  dangerously  ill  from  the  insults  of  the  Rebels. 
That  on  the  fifth  of  October,  1784,  he  made  a  second  attempt  and  after 
encountering  many  difficulties  he  arrived  with  his  family  at  St.  John  the 
beginning  of  May  last. 

Memorialist  on  making  application  to  Mr.  Knox  for  provisions  for 
himself  and  servant  it  was  refused  him  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  pro- 
visions then  in  the  province.  Your  Memorialist  most  humbly  prays  that 
as  he  has  been  a  great  sufferer  for  the  promotion  of  the  settlement  in  this 
Province,  he  may  be  allowed  provisions  for  himself  and  servant  from  the 
first  of  November,  1784,  to  the  first  of  May,  1785;  and  Your  Memorialist 
as  in  duty  bound  will  ever  pray. 

S.  Jarvis. 

[The  above  is  endorsed  by  Edward  Winslow,  "Complied  with  by  the 
Governor."] 

Thomas  Knox  to  Major  General  Campbell. 
Mr.  Knox's  Report. 

Halifax,  3d  Nov.,  1784. 

Sir, — I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  immediately  on  receipt  of 
your  Instructions  to  repair  to  St.  John's  River  and  Muster  the  Disbanded 
Corps  and  Companies  of  Loyalists  in  that  District,  I  lost  no  time  in  pre- 
paring to  execute  the  Business. 

On  the  day  of  my  arrival  there  I  posted  up  in  the  most  conspicuous 
parts  of  Parr  and  Carleton,,  printed  advertisements  as  the  most  effectual 
means  of  publishing  the  purpose  for  which  I  was  sent,  and  invited  the 
Commanding  officers  of  Corps  and  Captains  of  Companies  to  consult  with 
me  in  what  manner  the  Business  might  be  effected  with  most  conveniency 
to  the  People. 

From  the  very  dispersed  state  of  the  new  Settlers  and  the  occasional 
necessity  of  going  considerable  distances  to  see  Individuals  whose  former 

*  Stephen  Jarvis  afterwards  went  to  Upper  Canada,  and  died  at  Toronto  in 
1840,  at  the  age  of  84  years.  He  was  for  some  time  postmaster  at  Fredericton. 
See  his  letter  under  date  July  10th,  1800,  in  this  book. 


242  WINSLOW  PAPERS,  [1784 

condition  in  life,  ill  health,  or  domestic  avocations  would  not  admit  of 
their  attendance  on  the  days  of  Public  Muster — I  was  soon  convinced  of 
the  impracticability  of  assembling  them  in  regular  corps,  and  that  no 
delay  on  my  part  might  encrease  the  distress  of  the  People,  whose  calls  for 
a  supply  of  Provisions  were  immediate,  I  determined  to  proceed  in  the 
muster  of  such  as  were  able  to  attend  in  the  Towns  of  Parr  and  Carleton 
(where  the  Majority  then  were)  and  give  orders  for  their  Provisions  before 
I  embarked  for  the  Eiver  and  its  Branches,  leaving  till  my  return  the  task 
of  inspecting  and  correcting  the  abuses  which  had  been  practised  on  Gov- 
ernment, and  which  already  appeared  numerous. 

As  soon  as  this  was  effected  I  proceeded  up  the  Kiver  St.  John,  send- 
ing forward  advertisements  specifying  the  Districts  and,  as  nearly  as  the 
nature  of  my  conveyance  would  admit,  the  time  when  I  should  attend. 
The  removal  of  whole  families  [to  the  place  of  muster]  occasioned  great 
ir convenience  to  the  Settlers  and  in  some  instances  expence.  I  therefore 
submitted  to  themselves  to  appoint  the  place  in  a  District  of  every  five 
miles  most  suitable  to  their  own  convenience.  And  in  order  to  contribute 
every  facility  to  the  future  mode  of  drawing  their  Provisions  and  to  re- 
move the  necessity  of  their  attending  Individually  on  the  days  appointed 
for  them  to  attend  in  Town,  which  had  occasioned  great  loss  of  time  to 
the  injury  of  the  settlement,  I  took  upon  me  to  remove  them  from  the 
Companies  to  which  they  before  belonged  &  classed  them  in  Neighbour- 
hoods under  men  of  character  of  their  own  nomination,  by  which  means 
the  attention  of  a  few  only  became  requisite  to  execute  the  business  of  the 
whole. 

I  found  on  the  Main  River  from  the  entrance  to  St.  Anns  Point,  a 
distance  of  near  90  miles,  a  very  considerable  number  of  new  settlers  inter- 
mixed with  the  old — and  many  even  for  a  distance  of  fifty  miles  beyond 
it.  The  inconveniences  to  which  they  were  subjected  from  the  necessity 
of  drawing  their  Provisions  at  the  mouth  of  the  River  had  determined  me 
to  extend  my  Report  to  the  particular  hardships  of  their  situation,  and  the 
general  injury  sustained  by  the  settlements;  but  that  intention  is  now 
superceded  by  your  late  order  to  establish  a  Magazine  of  Provisions  at  St. 
Anns  Point,  which  from  its  situation  will  not  only  accommodate  the 
settlers  on  the  River,  but  the  numerous  Branches  which  lead  from  it  in 
the  neighborhood  of  that  Post,  and  must,  at  least,  have  the  effect  of  re- 
moving every  ground  of  complaint  on  the  part  of  the  People. 

I  now  enclose  a  General  Return  of  the  total  number  of  Persons  of  all 
descriptions  who  have  been  mustered  by  me  on  the  River  Saint  John,  and 
who  have  received  my  certificates  on  the  Asst.  Commissary  there  for  the 
Royal  Bounty  of  Provisions  as  Settlers  in  His  Majesty's  Province  of  Nova 
Scotia, 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  243 

As  soon  as  the  business  of  mustering  the  People  was  finished  I  applied 
to  that  of  examining  my  Returns,  and  on  comparing  them  with  those  by 
which  Provisions  had  been  before  issued,  I  found  that  it  was  in  practice 
with  many  of  the  officers  of  the  Corps  to  draw  for  nominal  servants  ad 
libitum,  that  many  among  the  Refugees  as  well  as  Soldiery  had  practised 
and  still  claimed  the  right  of  drawing  for  absent  families  who  were  expect- 
ed in  the  Province — and  that  a  considerable  quantity  of  Provisions  had 
been  drawn  for  Persons  in  double  capacities.  *  *  *  I  enclose  a 
Return  of  some  of  the  Disbanded  Corps  by  which  Provisions  were  drawn 
before  the  muster,  which  when  compared  with  my  General  Return  of  those 
corps  will  shew  an  essential  difference.  It  is  not  possible  to  exhibit  the 
differences  as  regards  the  Loyal  Refugees  in  the  same  comparative  view, 
on  account  of  the  frequent  interchanges  among  them,  and  the  irregular 
manner  in  which  Provisions  had  been  necessarily  issued  to  those  who  were 
not  enrolled  in  companies. 

I  enclose  a  list  of  Families  to  whom  I  have  granted  two  months  Pro- 
visions as  a  donation  from  Government.  They  consist  of  old  Inhabitants 
who  from  involuntary  causes  have  been  reduced  £0  circumstances  of  great 
distress.  Certificates  of  good  character,  supported  by  favorable  recom- 
mendations were  in  these  cases  required  by  me,  and  those  only  who  were 
able  to  procure  them  were  admitted  to  consideration— of  this  number  are 
many  who  have  been  some  years  settled  on  the  River  and  who  have  lately 
been  obliged  to  relinquish  their  possessions  and  improvements  in  favor  of 
Refugees  to  whom  they  are  allotted. 

In  the  whole  of  my  Proceedings  I  have  endeavoured  to  preserve  the 
Rights  of  the  People  and  to  guard  against  impositions  to  which  Govern- 
ment was  exposed.  Such  only  as  were  entitled  in  their  own  right  have 
received  my  certificates — among  these  I  considered  disbanded  officers  & 
soldiers  without  a  question,  and  Loyalists  who  from  an  attachment  to  His 
Majesty's  Government  had  abandoned  the  United  States  and  decided 
to  continue  his  subjects  in  this  Province.  Every  other  description  of  Per- 
sons have  been  rejected  by  me  as  having  no  claim. 

In  the  anxious  expectation  that  my  earnest  endeavours  to  execute  this 
Business  with  fidelity  and  despatch  will  secure  to  me  your  approbation. 
I  am,  &c., 

Thos.  Knox,  D'y  Com'y  of  Musters. 


Note  by  the  Editor.  The  two  returns  that  follow  afford  material  for 
some  interesting  comparisons.  The  summary  at  the  bottom  of  the  second 
table  shows  that  of  the  corps  sent  to  be  disbanded  on  the  St.  John  river 
quite  a  number  were  excluded  from  the  royal  bounty  of  provisions  as  not 
being  settled  upon  their  lands.  Of  the  men,  about  200  were  struck  off  the 


244 


WINSLOW  PAPERS. 


[1784 


list  for  this  cause,  and  a  lesser  percentage  of  the  women.  There  was,  as 
might  naturally  have  been  expected,  a  small  increase  in  the  number  of 
children  under  ten.  The  muster  master,  however,  made  his  chief  saving 
to  government  by  striking  off  the  roll  a  large  number  of  servants,  many 
of  whom  he  declares  were  only  "nominal."  Those  for  example  in  the  1st 
Batt.  New  Jersey  Volunteers  were  reduced  from  35  to  9;  in  the  2nd  Batt. 
of  same  corps  from  36  to  14;  in  the  1st  Batt.  DeLancey's  Brigade,  from  37 
to  15;  in  the  Loyal  American  Eegiment,  from  46  to  8. 

Return  of  the  total  numbers  of  Men,  Women  and  Children  of  the  Dis- 
banded Corps  and  Loyalists  mustered  on  the  River  St.  John  who  have 
received  Certificates  for  the  Royal  Bounty  of  Provisions: 


Corps. 

i 

§ 

% 

! 

Women. 

Children 
over  ten. 

Children 
under  ten. 

Servants. 

13 
£ 

New  York  Volunteers 73  18 

North  Carolina  Do 17  3 

Loyal  Americans 95  39 

American  Legion 57  19 

Queens  Rangers 210  64 

Pennsylvania  Loyalists 36  14 

Maryland  Loyalists 43  3 

Guides  and  Pioneers 93  31 

1st  Batt.  New  Jersey  Vols 158  57 

2nd  Do.         Do.                   132  45 

3rd  Do.         Do.                   173  64 

Prince  of  Wales's 152  39 

Garrison  Battalion 8  3 

Fencible  Americans 45  14 

Kings  Amer.  Dragoons 143  39 

1st  Batt.  De  Lancey's 108  32 

2d  Batt.  De  Lancey's 107  32 

Kings  Amer.  Regt 144  35 

Kings  Orange  Rangers 59  14 

So.  Car.  Royalists 19  16 

Loyal  New  Englanders 5  4 

British  Regiments 199  48 

Loyal  Refugees 1966  1028 

Black  Companies 89  58 


21 

10 

12 

134 

.  . 

.  . 

5 

25 

45 

32 

8 

219 

8 

13 

11 

108 

22 

42 

23 

361 

8 

5 

63 

1 

2 

3 

52 

21 

25 

6 

176 

57 

39 

9 

320 

44 

38 

14 

273 

47 

42 

6 

332 

22 

15 

33 

261 

1 

1 

1 

14 

17 

27 

0 

103 

19 

24 

6 

231 

19 

20 

15 

194 

15 

29 

15 

198 

68 

28 

18 

293 

12 

0 

85 

9 

13 

3 

60 

8 

1 

0 

18 

17 

43 

0 

307 

1159 

949 

248 

5350 

9 

26 

0 

182 

Total 4131     1719     1630     1438       441     9359 

Fort  Howe  Sept  25,  1784. 

Thomas  Knox,  D'y  Commissary  of  Musters. 


1784] 


WINSLOW  PAPERS. 


245 


Keturn  of  the  Total  number  of  Men,  Women  and  Children  drawn  for 
by  the  Provincial  Corps  previous  to  the  Muster: 


Corps. 

a 

&i 

s 

Women 

Children 
over  ten. 

si 
11 

o§ 

Servants. 

1 

Queens  Eangers 222 

1st  Batt'n  N.  J.  Yols 171 

2d    Do.                        135 

3d    Do.                          101 

1st  B'n  of  De  Lanceys 127 

2d    Do.                         121 

Loyal  Americans 108 

Fencible  Americans 116 

Kings  Am'n  Dragoons 194 

Kings  Amer.  Beg*t 153 

Kings  Orange  Rangers 93 

Prince  of  Wales  Amer  Regt 157 

N.   York   Volunteers   &    So.    Car. 

Royalists 110 

Guides  &  Pioneers 106 

American  Legion 60 

Pennsylvania  Loyalists 38 

Maryland  Loyalists 47 


66 
61 
49 
32 
32 
34 
46 
33 
43 
47 
20 
65 

30 
29 
18 
13 
6 


21 
63 
55 
34 
26 
29 
49 
20 
24 
79 
2 
54 

34 

25 

9 


Total 2059 

Knox's  muster  .     . .  1847 


624 

575 


526 
436 


41 
41 
23 
16 
21 
11 
40 
51 
23 
22 
17 
23 

11 

23 

12 

9 

1 

385 
418 


47 

35 

36 

6 

37 
20 
46 
19 
32 
44 

56 

32 
21 
13 
13 
16 


397 
371 
298 
189 
243 
215 
289 
239 
316 
345 
132 
355 

217 

204 
112 

73 

72 


473  4067 
187  3463 


Edward  Winslow  to  Brig.  Gen.  Fox. 

Halifax  5th  November,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  avail  myself  of  the  earliest  opportunity  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  your  letters  by  Mr.  Chipman.  Before  his  arrival  we  had 
heard  of  your  determination  to  decline  the  Government  of  New  Bruns- 
wick and  I  had  anticipated  the  reasons  (in  my  own  mind)  and  reconciled 
myself  to  the  event.  The  arrangements  made  for  that  country  are  so 
perfectly  judicious,  and  the  public  officers  appointed  there  are  men  of 
such  unblemished  integrity  and  capital  abilities  that  it  cannot  fail  of 
becoming  the  envy  of  the  neighboring  states,  and  the  consideration  com- 
pensates me  for  any  personal  disappointment  which  I  may  have  experi- 
enced. 

I  shall  refer  you  to  my  friends  Judge  Ludlow,  Mr.  Odell,  &c,  for  the 
particulars  of  my  own  conduct  —  to  them  I  appeal  with  confidence,  and 
I  flatter  myself  that  they  will  do  me  the  justice  to  acknowledge  that  I 
have  persevered  with  unremitted  industry  &  disinterested  zeal. 


246  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Your  friendly  answer  to  the  illiberal  insinuations  in  the  extraordinary 
letter  addressed  to  you  [by  Gov.  Parr]  has  excited  the  most  grateful 
sensations.  I  will  not  make  use  of  any  harsh  expressions  on  the  occasion; 
I  only  regret  that  a  man  in  an  exalted  station  could  descend  to  such  in- 
decent and  unjust  suggestions.  The  polite  attention  which  has  been 
shewn  me  by  Gov'r  Carleton  convinces  me  that  no  disagreeable  impressions 
have  been  made  on  his  mind.  He  has  suggested  a  wish  that  I  would 
attend  at  the  opening  of  the  Council  at  New  Brunswick,  and  I  have  (with 
unfeigned  alacrity)  consented.  Chipman,  Hailes  &  myself  will  set  off  as 
soon  as  the  St.  Lawrence  sails  — My  sister  takes  passage  by  her. 

I  suppose  General  Haldimand  has  ere  this  arrived  in  England  —  pos- 
sibly that  may  forward  the  arrangement  as  at  first  proposed.  Should  Col. 
Carleton  be  removed  to  Canada  I  presume  (from  various  circumstances) 
Mr.  Odell  will  go  with  him,  and  in  that  case  I  hope  for  your  friendly 
exertions  to  obtain  the  secretaryship  for  me.  I  will  still  indulge  myself 
in  the  pleasing  expectation  of  seeing  you  in  this  country.  I  will  not 
pretend  to  advise  on  a  subject  of  so  much  importance.  Allow  me  to  offer 
the  most  cordial  and  grateful  acknowledgements  for  the  repeated  instances 
of  friendship  &  attention  which  I  have  experienced  from  you,  and  to  assure 
you  that  I  am  most  devotedly  &  faithfully 

Yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

[P.  S.]    I  have  delivered  the  Roan  to  Governor  Carleton.     If  he  does 
not  incline  to  take  him  across  the  Bay  I  will  £eep~him  at  Granville.     He 
is  in  elegant  order. 
The  Hon'ble  Col.  Fox,  38th  Reg't. 
London. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Brook  Watson. 

Halifax,  5th  Nov'r,  1784. 

Permit  me  once  more,  my  dear  Sir,  to  offer  my  most  grateful 
acknowledgements  for  the  uncommon  attention  and  friendly  assistance 
which  you  have  afforded  to  my  late  father's  unfortunate  family.  In  pur- 
suance of  your  advice  my  sister  Sally  will  embark  in  the  St.  Lawrence  and 
will  take  such  proofs,  documents,  &c,  as  you  have  recommended.  By  her 
I  shall  write  fully. 

You  are  right  sir,  with  respect  to  the  arrangements  at  New  Bruns- 
wick. I  affirm  (without  any  affectation  of  disinterestedness)  that  they  are 
perfectly  satisfactory  to  me,  and  I  flatter  myself  that  the  gentlemen  who 
have  lately  arrived  here  are  satisfied  that  my  zeal  &  exertions  have  not 
abated  in  consequence  of  my  failing  to  obtain  what  I  acknowledge  was 
the  first  wish  of  my  heart.  On  the  contrary  I  have  persevered  in  endea- 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  247 

vors  to  collect  every  species  of  useful  information  relative  to  the  country 
and  have  frankly  communicated  it  to  Mr.  Odell  &  my  other  friends.  I  am 
now  preparing,  at  the  request  of  Gov'r  Carleton,  to  set  off  for  New  Bruns- 
wick that  I  may  be  present  at  the  first  attempt  to  organize  the  Government. 
In  this  important  work  I  shall  exert  every  talent  I  possess,  and  I  shall  be 
fully  compensated  if  my  conduct  shall  meet  your  approbation. 

I  have  taken  deliberate  &  I  hope  effectual  measures  to  attain  such 
authenticated  accounts  as  you  require  in  your  letter.  As  soon  as  I  can 
collect  'em  they  shall  be  forwarded.  At  any  rate  they  shall  be  sent  in 
season  to  be  made  use  of  in  the  important  business  which  you  with  such 
patriotism  and  zeal  have  engaged  in,  and  on  the  result  of  which  (in  my 
idea)  depends  the  fate  of  this  country.  The  sudden  departure  of  the 
Bonetta  prevents  my  enlarging. 

I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  inclosing  a  General  Eeturn  which  I  have 
collected  with  some  pains.  By  my  sister  I  shall  forward  my  remarks  & 
a  number  of  other  papers. 

Allow  me  to  subscribe  myself 

Your  most  obliged  &  obedient 

Friend  &  Serv't, 

Ed.  Winslow. 
Brook  Watson,  Esq.,  M.  P. 

London . 

Lieut.  John  Eobinson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Granville,  Nov'r  6th,  1784. 

Dear  Colonel, — After  many  disappointments  we  have  at  length  got 
the  chimney  altered.  We  should  not  have  been  able  to  effect  it,  if  Capt'n 
Parker  had  not  lent  us  a  mason  at  Major  Thompson's  request.  We  hope 
to  have  everything  done  before  your  arrival  here  which  we  exrjeet  will  be 
in  a  week  at  farthest. 

All  the  family  are  well.      I  am  Dear  Col. 

Most  sincerely  yours, 

John  Eobinson. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Brook  Watson. 

Halifax,  12th  November,  1784. 

Sir, — In  my  last  by  the  Bonetta  I  enclosed  a  General  Eeturn  of  Dis- 
banded officers  &  soldiers  &  other  Loyalists  who  have  lately  become  settlers 
in  the  province  of  Nova  Scotia  &  New  Brunswick  and  who  are  entitled  to 
the  Eoyal  Bounty  of  Provisions.  I  now  inclose  a  Duplicate  of  that  Eeturn 
and  a  number  of  original  letters  from  the  muster-masters  of  the  different 
Districts. 


248  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Before  I  proceed  to  any  particular  remarks  it  will  be  necessary  for 
me  to  communicate  certain  facts  respecting  the  progress  of  this  country, 
and  I  am  gratify'd  that  your  obliging  letter  has  given  me  a  fair  oppor- 
tunity of  endeavoring  to  convince  you  that  my  conduct  has  been  regulated 
by  principles  of  honour  &  zeal  for  the  public  service. 

Among  my  various  duties  none  has  been  productive  of  more  per- 
plexity to  me  than  the  establishment  of  a  system  for  the  proper 
distribution  of  the  Eoyal  Bounty  of  provisions  to  Loyalists,  &c.  Every 
man  who  arrived  in  this  country  called  himself  a  Loyalist  and  presumed 
that  he  was  entitled  to  the  Eations  of  provisions  for  himself  &  his  family, 
and  they  applied  for  orders  without  an  idea  that  any  scrutiny  could 
possibly  be  made  either  into  their  circumstances  or  character,  or  supposing 
any  conditions  required  on  their  part. 

General  Fox,  whose  decrees  were  dictated  by  justice  in  every  instance, 
considered  that  it  could  not  be  his  Majesty's  intention  to  extend  his 
favors  to  the  wealthy  or  to  the  vicious  &  indolent.  He  therefore 
peremptorily  decided  against  issuing  provisions  to  persons  of  those  descrip- 
tions. When  General  Campbell  succeeded  to  the  command  he  pursued 
the  same  idea  and  instituted  a  Board  for  examining  the  claims  of  persons 
applying  for  the  Eoyal  Bounty.  The  order  for  their  appointment  with 
their  Instructions  is  No.  1  of  the  inclosed  papers.  By  the  exertions  of 
this  Board  many  abuses  were  corrected  and  all  the  idle  vagrants,  who  had 
been  loitering  about  the  streets  of  the  metropolis  &  were  daily  committing 
irregularities,  were  by  being  precluded  from  the  bounty  of  provisions 
forced  to  take  possession  of  their  lands,  &  on  producing  certificates  of  their 
being  actual  settlers  they  were  restored  to  the  enjoyment  of  their  rations. 

No.  2  is  Instructions  to  a  second  Board  with  some  improvements  on  the 
plan.  At  this  Board  I  volunteered  as  a  member.  A  few  days  experience 
convinced  me  of  the  necessity  of  extreme  caution  in  the  discharge  of  this 
duty.  I  feared  that  a  rage  for  reformation  might  lead  us  to  harsh  and 
unequitable  decisions,  and  I  saw  that  we  were  deceived  by  false  &  erroneous 
returns  from  the  distant  settlements.  In  this  dilemma  I  suggested  the 
method  of  parcelling  out  the  province  into  districts  and  appointing 
persons  of  activity  &  judgment  to  muster  all  the  men,  women  &  children 
who  had  actually  become  settlers.  I  considered  that,  exclusive  of  the 
object  of  detecting  abuses,  they  would  make  discoveries  sufficiently  im- 
portant to  Government  to  recompence  for  the  small  expense  incurred  by 
the  appointments.  That  they  would  find  out  the  precise  number  and 
disposition  of  settlers  &  their  present  situations,  and  as  no  steps  were  taken 
by  the  civil  authority  to  ascertain  these  facts  I  thought  it  doubly  incum- 
bent on  the  General.  The  Eeturns  of  the  several  muster-masters  are  I 
believe  as  accurate  as  possible  &  altho'  the  observations  contained  in  their 


178+]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  249 

letters  may  not  be  very  important,  still  they  may  afford  some  information. 
By  these  papers  you  will  see,  Sir,  that  I  have  endeavored  as  far  as  possible 
to  make  the  Bounty  of  Government  subservient  to  the  purposes  of  assisting 
the  civil  magistrates  —  encouraging  industry,  and  contributing  to  the 
settlement  of  the  country.  *  *  I  communicate  these  details 
from  the  same  principle  that  I  have  related  every  other  transaction  of 
importance  since  I  had  the  pleasure  of  knowing  you  —  simply  to 
give  you  proofs  that  I  am  honestly  devoted  to  the  service  of  my  country 
&  have  thereby  some  claim  to  its  protection  &  favor. 

The  Muster-masters  invariably  take  notice  of  the  extraordinary  delays 
in  making  the  grants  to  the  new  settlers.  To  investigate  the  causes  of 
those  delays  would  be  an  invidious  &  unpleasant  task,  but  the  consequences 
are  serious.  Had  the  lands  been  laid  out  immediately  on  the  arrival  of 
the  settlers  (and  this  was  certainly  practicable)  fifteen  of  the  thirty  thou- 
sand people  who  are  now  receiving  rations  of  provisions  would  [The 
remainder  of  this  valuable  letter  unfortunately  is  wanting;  four  leaves 
having  been  torn  out  of  Winslow's  letter  book  at  this  point.] 

Leave  of  Absence  &  Instructions  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Head  Q'rs.  Halifax,  13th  Nov'r,  1784. 

Sir, —  His  Excellency  Colonel  Thomas  Carleton  having  represented 
to  me  that  your  attendance  at  the  opening  of  His  Majesty's  Council  at 
New  Brunswick,  of  which  you  are  a  Member,  will  be  very  beneficial  for 
the  service,  and  being  desirous  to  do  everything  in  my  power  which  may 
promote  the  good  of  that  Province,  I  do  hereby  grant  you  leave  of  absence 
for  that  purpose  and  you  will  return  to  this  place  as  soon  as  the  nature 
of  your  duty  will  permit  you.  And  I  am  to  request  that  during  your 
absence  you  would  endeavor  precisely  to  ascertain  the  extent  and  limits 
of  such  lands  as  have  been  originally  reserved  for  the  crown,  or  have 
been  purchased  from  the  inhabitants  by  Government  for  publick  uses  at 
the  different  outposts  which  you  may  have  occasion  to  pass  through,  and 
if  on  enquiry  you  find  that  any  encroachments  have  been  made  on  such 
lands,  or  that  the  rights  of  the  crown  have  in  any  instance  been  evaded, 
you  will  report  the  same  to  me. 

You  will  also  enquire  into  the  nature  of  the  expenditure  of  the 
different  departments  at  the  several  outposts,  and  if  you  perceive  that  any 
unnecessary  expences  are  incurred,  or  any  irregularities  committed,  you 
will  make  me  acquainted  therewith.  And  you  will  from  time  to  time 
report  to  me  such  circumstances  as  you  may  think  worthy  of  communi- 
cation. 

You  will  act  as  a  member  of  the  Provision  Boards  established  at  the 
several  places,  and  you  will  suggest  such  methods  of  reform  as  you  shall 


250  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Uiink  expedient  for  the  good  of  his  Majesty's  service.  And  you  will  also 
endeavor  to  obtain  from  His  Excellency  Governor  Carleton  a  grant  of 
land  for  the  proprietors  of  the  land  occupied  by  Government  at  Fort  Howe, 
conformable  to  the  agreement  entered  into  with  them  when  I  was  at  St. 
Johns. 

Given  under  my  Hand  at  Halifax  this  13th  of  Nov'r,  1784. 

John  Campbell, 

M.  Gen'l. 
Edward  Winslow  to  Benjamin  Marston. 

Mount  Necessity*  24th  Nov'r,  1784. 

Dear  Marston. —  After  thumping,  swimming,  wallowing  &  tumbling 
for  four  days,  I  landed  at  my  home  on  Saturday  evening,  &  was  amply 
recompensed  for  all  my  fatigues  &  perils  by  finding  my  wife  &  little  ones 
in  perfect  health. 

A  touch  of  the  Gout  has  confined  me  to  my  room  ever  since,  but  I 
am  now  recovering  &  expect  to  embark  the  last  of  this  week  for  New 
Brunswick.  If  Sproulet  is  arrived  there  I  will  settle  your  matters  with 
him  —  If  not,  with  my  friend  Odell  —  at  any  rate  I  am  sure  of  succeed- 
ing. I  would  however  advise  to  another  application  to  Gov'r  Wentworth 
&  know  decisively  what  his  intentions  are.  When  you  have  concluded  on 
3rour  measures  you  will  give  me  notice.  Interested  in  everything  which 
concerns  you,  I  shall  feel  anxious  until  I  know  your  final  determination.  + 
I  shall  get  your  letters  safe  if  forwarded  by  Express-Men. 

I  hope  before  I  return  to  be  pot  sess'd  of  such  materials  as  will  enable 
me  to  answer  Mr.  Watson's  letter  to  his  satisfaction.  I  have  made  some 
progress  on  this  tour.  Give  a  spur  once  in  a  while  to  Byles  —  make  him 
exert  himself. 

The  Man  waits.     Adieu, 

Most  cordially  &  affectionately  Yours, 

"  Ed.  Winslow. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Sir  John  Wentworth. 

Mount  Necessity,  Nov'r.  27,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — The  excessive  fatigues  of  our  journey  have  produced  so 
severe  a  fit  of  the  Gout  that  both  Chip  and  myself  are  now  confined  to  our 
rooms.  We  however  hope  to  embark  for  New  Brunswick  in  a  few  days. 

*Edward  Winslow's  residence  in   Granville,   N.  S. 

fGeorge  Sproul  of  Long  Island,  N.  Y.,  settled  in  New  Brunswick  and  became 
surveyor  general  and  a  member  of  the  council  .of  the  province.  He  was  a  most 
efficient  official  and  an  estimable  man.  He  died  in  Fredericton  in  1817,  aged  76 
years. 

JThat  is  his  plans  for  the  future.  Marston  had  fallen  out  with  the  governor 
of  Nova  Scotia  and  had  been  dismissed  from  his  position  as  chief  surveyor  at 
Shelburne.  He  had  many  friends,  who  believed  him  to  have  been  unfairly 
treated. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  251 

Hailes  has  forwarded  to  Mr.  Taylor  a  St.  John's  Gazette  wherein  is  con- 
tained the  address*  to  Gov.  Carleton,  his  answer,  and  the  proclamation. 
They  will  of  course  be  published  in  the  Halifax  papers.  The  language 
of  the  address  I  suppose  will  give  offence  to  the  great  men  of  Nova  Scotia, 
but  having  a  predilection  for  plain  English  I  am  glad  to  see  it  on  this 
occasion.  The  proclamation  seems  to  be  cautious  and  calculated  to  pre- 
vent any  altercation  respecting  the  principles  of  decision  which  the  Judges 
may  adopt  previous  to  the  completion  of  the  Legislative  body.  I  shall, 
as  opportunities  offer,  give  you  information  of  such  events  as  I  think 
important. 

In  my  tour  through  the  peninsula  I  have  been  astonished  at  observing 
the  improvements  lately  made;  the  number  of  houses  built,  and  above  all 
the  increase  of  Saw  mills  —  no  less  than  nine  have  been  erected  within 
a  few  months  in  the  neighborhood  of  Annapolis,  including  three  at  St. 
Mary's  Bay;  preparations  are  making  to  set  up  other  mills  on  almost  every 
stream  that  runs  into  the  great  Bason  of  Annapolis;  a  remarkable  one  is 
just  set  a  going  by  a  Mr.  Thome  from  Long  Island  and  now  saws  night 
and  day  at  Broad  Cove  on  the  Granville  side,  and  I  am  told  it  is  surrounded 
with  a  fund  of  timber  that  cannot  be  exhausted  for  many  years  and  so 
contiguous  to  the  Cove  that  the  lumber  is  put  afloat  in  it  with  the  utmost 
facility.  These  exertions,  which  extend  to  the  other  side  of  the  Bay,  afford 
a  fair  proof  that  our  favorite  position  will  be  established  and  that 
large  quantities  of  lumber  will  be  immediately  ready  for  export- 
ation. The  operations  of  the  new  comers  have  excited  something  that 
resembles  emulation  in  the  languid  wretches  who  formerly  inhabited  the 
country.  Shame  has  produced  a  degree  of  industry  that  never  was  dis- 
covered before.  The  neighbors  of  a  Mr.  Willet  and  Mr.  Davids  have 
put  up  fences,  and  those  who  live  near  Mr.  James  and  Mr.  McKown  have 
cut  down  several  trees,  one  man  has  actually  begun  to  erect  a  dyke  and 
I  have  no  doubt  that  in  a  few  years,  after  they  have  been  eye  witnesses 
of  the  advantages,  they  will  build  chimnies  to  their  houses  and  barns  for 
their  cattle.  *  *  * 
I  am,  dear  Sir, 

Your  obed't  &  devoted  Friend  &  Serv't, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

*See  Murdoch's  History  of  Nova  Scotia,  Vol.  III.,  p.  38.  The  address  con- 
tained pointed  references  to  the  grievances  of  the  Loyalists  and  to  their  treat- 
ment by  Governor  Parr  and  his  council.  They  designate  themselves  as  "a 
number  of  oppressed  and  insulted  Loyalists,"  say  that  they  were  formerly 
freemen,  and  again  hope  to  be  so  under  his  auspices.  They  congratulate  Gover- 
nor Carleton  on  his  "safe  arrival  to  this  new  world,  to  check  the  arrogancy  of 
"  tyranny,  crush  the  growth  of  injustice,  and  establish  such  wholesome  laws 
"  as  are  and  ever  have  been  the  basis  of  our  glorious  constitution."  The  address 
refers  to  the  services  of  Col.  Carleton  as  "commander  of  the  29th  regiment  in 
the  late  rebellion,"  and  speaks  of  him  as  "the  brother  of  our  illustrious  friend 
and  patron,  Sir  Guy  Carleton."  The  new  governor  replied  to  the  address  in 
modest  and  in  moderate  terms. 


252  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

Penelope  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  November  28th,  1784. 

Dear  Chippy  —  for  I  chuse  to  begin  the  correspondence  with  all 
possible  affection  for  a  reason  that  I  shall  give  you  before  I  rise  from  my 
chair  —  but  first  of  all  my  wishes  are  that  you  have  safely  crossed  the  Bay 
of  Fundy,  that  you  have  recovered  the  agitation  &  Gloom  that  must  have 
attended  you  with  the  Idea  of  a  lasting  abode  in  the  new  World  of  Trees 
&  Stumps, &  that  this  scrip  will  find  you  in  health  and  spirits.  The  Taylors 
&  Haliburtons  are  so  good  as  never  to  leave  me  alone,  one  or  the  other 
constantly  grace  our  fire  side.  We  talk  much  of  the  [New]  Bruns- 
wickers  —  a  sigh  is  sometimes  wafted  that  flatters  you  not  a  little.  The 
dancing  Partys  are  kept  up  with  great  —  Violence,  I  had  like  to  have  said, 
but  Spirit  is  a  better  word.  Miss  Duncan  gives  a  Ball  on  Monday  evening, 
Miss  Brenton  on  Friday,  both  of  which  I  shall  give  you  and  Mr.  Hailes  an 
account  of  as  soon  as  I  receive  it  from  my  faithful  aide  Camps.  The 
last  Assembly  was  amazingly  brilliant,  the  Ladies  Dress  superb  beyond 
what  the  New  Englanders  had  seen  before.  Mrs.  Wentworth  stood  first 
in  fashion  &  magnificence.  Her  Gown  &  Petticoat  of  sylvan  tissue 
trimmed  with  Italian  Flowers  &  the  finest  blond  Lace,  a  train  of  four 
yards  long,  her  hair  and  wrist  ornamented  with  real  Diamonds.  Miss 
Duncan  was  elegant  in  a  fawn  coloured  satin  covered  with  crepe,  black 
velvet  waiste,  pearl  sprigs  in  her  hair,  no  feathers  or  flowers.  She  was 
much  admired  as  was  Kitty  Taylor  in  unadorned  White.  Miss  Parr  looked 

vastly  well  in  cream  coloured  satin  with  sable  fur.     Lady  D &  Miss 

Bayley  figured  in  a  profusion  of  waveing  Plumes  &  flowers  —  the  latter 
exhibited  in  a  minuet  a  little  in  the  waping  style,  to  use  the  language  of 
the  Brigade  Major:  Capt.  Dalrymple  had  the  honor  of  her  hand  but  swears 
he  will  never  be  caught  in  another  such  scrape.  The  evening  was 
altogether  approved  of.  The  Eoom  is  new  papered  &  new  lamped.  Mr. 
Taylor  distinguished  himself  as  an  excellent  manager.  There  is  a  Town 
assembly  began  last  Thursday,  no  Navy  or  Army  admitted,  Messrs  Uniacke 
and  Dight  managers.  It  is  said  to  be  in  opposition  to  the  other  Party. 

Mr  Townsend  &  Will  Coffin  are  not  yet  arrived.  We  ha,ve  expected 
them  every  hour  the  last  week,  noAv  begin  to  wonder.  Judge  Brenton 
tells  me  Mr.  Townsend  had  engaged  the  cabin  of  a  brig  for  himself  & 
Lady.  I  do  not  mean  to  alarm  you  my  good  friend,  but  this  is  the  report. 
It  is  certain  he  has  seen  Jannett,  as  Mr.  G,  Spooner,  who  left  Boston  a 
few  days  ago,  informs  us.  (Mr.  Spooner  has  come  to  explore  the 
country.  I  have  advised  him  to  go  immediately  to  Brunswick,  take  a 
house  in  the  neighborhood  of  you  &  Col.  Winslow  —  the  charming 
Loquacity  of  him  and  his  Wife  would  prevent  time  hanging  heavv).  But 
Chippy  suppose  Mr.  Townsend  should  be  accompany'd  by  the  fair  Janett 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  --^253 

or  the  still  fairer  Miss  Moore,  of  what  consequence  can  it  be  to  you  if  the 
intelligence  I  received  yesterday  be  true.  It  must  be  immaterial  who  you 
Welcome  as  Mrs.  Townsend.  The  story's  so  interesting  to  us  both  that 
I  am  in  haste  to  tell  you  that  our  all  important  all  knowing  neighbour, 
with  intelligence  &  curiosity  marked  in  every  feature,  attacked  me  without 
any  preface  — "&  pray  Miss  Winslow,  how  happens  it  that  you  are  going 
to  steal  a  march  upon  all  your  friends  &  acquaintance  &  not  trust  us  with 
your  confidence  ?"  "  Me  !  Madam,  I  must  confess  I  have  not  any  such 
design/'  "  Come,  come,  don't  deny  what  I  know  to  be  a  truth  that  you 
are  soon  to  be  married  to  Mr.  T[aylo]r,  &  it  is  as  certain  that  Miss  Kitty 
[Taylor]  is  to  have  Mr.  Chipman,  the  Solicitor  General  of  New  Brunswick 
&  that  Mr.  Chipman  is  to  be  at  Halifax  early  in  the  Spring  &  take  his 
fair  Partner  to  St.  Johns." 

This  positive  assertion  &  the  idea  of  being  your  "Mama"  struck  me 
so  forcibly  that  for  my  Life  I  could  not  forbear  laughing  heartily  — which 
was  confirmation  of  her  opinion  strong  as  proof  of  Holy  Writ.  I  have 
since  in  Vain  attempted  to  undeceive  the  good  Lady. 

Now  Chippy  this  near  &  dear  connection  of  ours  (that  is  to  be)  intitles 
me  to  the  pleasure  of  hearing  from  you  as  often  as  is  in  your  power.  Con- 
sider "my  Child"  how  interesting  every  event  of  your  life  is  to  me  & 
believe  me  that  I  am  now  anxious  for  a  line  from  some  one  of  the  Trio* — 
The  Colonel  &  Mr.  Hailes  have  a  share  in  my  concern. 

Adieu,  rest  assured  that  I  am,  with  every  friendly  sentiment  and 
"Parental  affection," 

Yours  sincerely, 

Penelope. 

If  this  should  reach  you  near  Coffin's  Manor,  offer  my  love  to  the 
Major  &  his  Anna  —  tell  them  I  intend  to  make  a  good  neighbour  to  them 
when  I  get  to  their  Dominions  on  my  estate  at  Elm  Grove  —  or  whatever 
name  you  incline  to  christen  it. 

Winslow's  Commission  as  Surrogate! 

By  His  Excellency  Thomas  Carleton  &c.,  &c., 
To  Edward  Winslow, — Greeting. 

Reposing  especial  trust  and  confidence  in  your  loyalty,  learning  and 
integrity,  I  have  assigned,  constituted  and  appointed,  and  do  by  these 
presents  assign,  constitute,  and  appoint  you  the  said  Edward  Winslow  to 
be  Surrogate  of  and  in  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick  hereby  delegating 

*The  trio  were  Ward  Chipman,  Colonel  Winslow  and  Harris  W.  Hailes. 
Chipman  and  Hailes  were  domiciled  together,  and  Winslow  staid  with  them 
when  in  St.  John. 

fThis  office  is  not  now  in  existence;  in  lieu  thereof  there  is  in  each  county 
a  judge  of  probate. 


254  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

and  granting  unto  you  the  said  Edward  Winslow  full  power  and  authority 
to  make  probate  of  all  last  wills  and  testaments  within  the  said  province 
and  letters  testamentary  and  probates  of  all  such  last  wills  and  testaments 
under  the  seal  of  your  court  to  grant,  and  also  to  grant  letters  of  admin- 
istration of  all  estates  within  the  Province  aforesaid  of  persons  dying 
intestate,  and  to  do  all  such  acts  and  things  as  the  surrogate  of  the  said 
Province  may  and  of  right  ought  to  do.  To  have,  hold,  exercise  and  enjoy 
the  said  office  of  surrogate  of  and  in  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick. in 
the  most  full  and  ample  manner  to  you  the  said  Edward  Winslow  together 
will  all  and  singular  the  rights,  profits,  privileges  and  emoluments  to 
the  said  office  belonging  or  in  any  wise  appertaining  for  and  during 
pleasure  and  your  residence  in  the  said  Province. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  at  Parr-Town,  this  29th  November  in 
the  25th  year  of  his  Majesty's  reign  and  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  1784. 

[Note. — One  of  Edward  Winslow's  earliest  appointments,  that  of 
Magistrate  in  Massachusetts,  is  thus  referred  to  in  a  note  among  the 
Winslow  papers  : — 

"  Mr.  Brattle  presents  his  compliments  to  Edward  Winslow  Jr,  Esq; 
"gives  him  joy  with  his  appointment  to  the  office  of  a  Justice  of  the 
"  Peace  as  on  this  day. 

"  Council  Chamber, 
«  Wednesday,  29th  Sept.  1773>] 

Mather  Byles  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  Tuesday—  [Nov.  30,  1784.] 

I  return  you  many  thanks  for  your  kind  favour  of  November  24th, 
tfhich  reached  me  on  Sunday,  and  congratulate  you  on  your  safe  arrival 
at  Mount  Necessity.  As  your  touch  of  the  Gout  is  one  of  those  obedient 
attacks  that  only  last  while  they  are  convenient,  I  don't  suppose  it  gives 
you  much  pain  or  anxiety,  though  I  think  now  you  have  a  right  of 
exemption  from  all  attacks  for  one  year  at  least.  It's  a  hard  case  if  one 
month  out  of  twelve  won't  excuse  you.  *  *  * 

Previous  to  the  receipt  of  your  letter  I  had  wrote  Lieut.  Charles 
Stewart*  and  Lieut.  Eraser,  inclosing  copies  of  the  extract  from  Brook 
Watson,  and  requesting  every  information  in  their  power,  and  I .  shall 
continue  to  bore  them  once  a  month  at  least,  till  I  receive  their  returns. 
I  enclose  you  one  from  Captain  Legget,t  at  Country  Harbour  which  is  the 
first  that  has  been  received;  and  shall  regularly  embrace  every  opportunity 
of  gaining  intelligence  from  the  different  settlements.  Mr.  Brittain  is 
making  his  report  of  the  settlements  about  Chester  and  says  it  will  be 

"Lieut.  Charles  Stewart  of  the  Loyal  N.  S.  Volunteers. 

f  Captain  John  Legget  of  the  Royal  North  Carolina  Regiment. 


1784"]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  255 

ready  in  the  course  of  this  month.  Mr.  Marston  has  wrote  on  the  subject 
to  Shelburne  and  has  given  me  leave  to  take  up  and  open  his  answers  when 
they  come. 

I  am  extremely  obliged  by  your  kindly  offers  of  service  :  -In  case 
anything  should  turn  up  in  my  favour  at  'New  Brunswick,  will  you  forgive 
me  if  I  venture^ to  say  a  little  on  this  subject  ?  The  friendly  manner  in 
which  you  have  treated  me,  makes  me  regard  you  as  a  parent,  and  as  such 
I  wish  to  explain  to  you  my  situation. 

I  have  lately  received  letters  from  my  father*  he  informs  me  he  shall 
be  out  here  early  in  the  spring.  My  mother  being  unwell,  and  the  family 
being  unable  to  do  without  some  person  to  provide  for  them  and  do  a 
thousand  little  things  for  which  a  man  is  constantly  wanted,  I  should 
prefer  (if  it  could  be  done)  to  remain  with  them  till  he  returns.  The 
principal  pleasure  which  I  promise  myself  at  New  Brunswick  is  to  be 
with  you,  and  render  myself  of  service  to  you.  If  therefore  you  delay 
settling  at  New  Brunswick  till  the  Spring  and  can  then  find  an  employ- 
ment for  me,  it  would  suit  me  better  than  going  there  this  winter.  At 
the  same  time  my  circumstances  are  such  I  must  embrace  the  first  eligible 
opportunity  of  putting  myself  forward  in  life  —  and  God  knows  I  have 
no  future  prospects  but  through  you  and  your  friendship.  Let  me  my 
worthy  friend  in  this  as  in  every  other  instance,  rely  on  your  protection, 
and  commit  the  affair  wholly  to  your  management.  I  will  abide  by  your 
decision  and  am  confident  that  you  will  act  for  me  better  than  I  could 
for  myself.  *  *  * 

I  am  pleased  to  find  that  the  Commissary's  t  abilities  continue  to 
unfold  themselves.  His  talents  at  composition  are  certainly  very  great, 
But  while  I  was  at  Granville  he  exhibited  principally  in  the  "Sublime" — 
from  your  letter  I  should  imagine  he  has  added  the  "Beautiful"  J  and  I 
suppose  his  exertions  in  this  new  stile  may  be  partly  attributed  to  the 
absence  of  Murray,  as  he  must  find  less  difficulty  in  obtaining  from  Mama 
his  allowance  of  smoked  beef  at  breakfast  which  was  often  the  occasion 
of  one  of  his  grum  sallies.  I  hope  that  PoppylJ  recovers  her  complexion  as 
the  cold  weather  comes  on,  and  that  Pen  is  less  leaky  than  formerly. 
Tell  them  that  Murray  has  arrived  safe  in  the  Downs,  when  the 
Sally  was  spoke  with  by  the  Hermione,  which  arrived  here  last  Saturday 

*The  Rev.  Mather  Byles,  D.  D.,  is  meant.  At  this  time  he  was  in  England, 
but  came  out  to  Halifax  soon  afterwards  and  became  chaplain  of  the  garrison 
until  he  was  appointed  rector  of  Trinity  church,  St.  John.  His  biography  is 
given  in  G.  Herbert  Lee's  History  of  the  Church  of  England  in  the  Province 
of  New  Brunswick. 

fThe  "Commissary"  is  Winslow's  son  "Tom,"  named  after  his  father's  old 
friend,  Commissary  Thomas  Aston  Coffin. 

fReferring  to  Burke's  well  known  work  on  "The  Sublime  and  the  Beautiful." 

||Edward  Winslow's  daughter  Mary,  who  afterwards  married  Edward  W. 
Miller  and  lived  at  Fredericton. 


256  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

after  a  passage  of  twenty  five  days.  *  *  Mr.  Harcourt  arrived  here 
in  the  Hermione,  he  has  brought  out  the  stone  for  your  fathers  tomb, 
which  when  landed  will  be  taken  into  custody  by  Mr.  Taylor.  Mr.  Watson 
is  using  all  his  influence  to  obtain  for  Mr.  Brinley  the  appointment  of 
Commissary  at  this  place,  and  it  was  supposed  his  application  would  be 
successful.  Who  do  you  think  was  his  rival  ?  Andrew  Finucane  !  *  * 
My  father  has  had  his  final  hearing  before  the  Commissioners  —  they  have 
said  many  civil  things  to  him,  told  him  that  his  charges  were  reasonable, 
that  they  were  well  supported,  and  that  they  had  no  further  occasion  for 
his  attendance.  This  was  all  perfectly  handsome  &  he  began  to  enquire 
what  compensation  might  be  expected  &  when  it  was  to  be  applied  for. 
But  these  arcana  of  the  cabinet  were  not  to  be  divulged  &  he  is  yet  ignorant 
what  will  be  the  result.  He  begs  me  to  repeat  to  you  his  assurances  of 
gratitude  for  the  kindly  attention  you  have  paid  to  his  family  during  his 
absence.  *  *  * 

Dr.  Calef,*  who  came  passenger  in  the  Hermione,  says,  that  the  Board 
for  examining  the  claims  of  the  Loyalists  will  get  through  their  business 
by  the  next  meeting  of  Parliament  in  January  and  it  will  then  be  ascer- 
tained what  compensation  they  are  to  receive  for  their  losses. 

The  Governor  has  received  a  letter  from  Gov'r  Hancock,  communi- 
cating a  resolve  of  Congress  that  it  appears  from  surveys  which  have  been 
taken  that  the  Eastern-most  river  in  the  Bay  of  Passamaquoddy  is  the 
true  River  St.  Croix  alluded  to  in  the  treaty  of  Peace,  &  requesting  that 
he  would  order  those  persons  who  have  encroached  on  the  territory  of  the 
States  to  retire  peaceably  within  the  limits  of  the  Province.  This  letter 
has  been  communicated  to  the  General  and  I  suppose  will  occasion  a  fresh 
requisition  for  troops,  though  it  is  not  now  in  his  Excellency's  district, 
so  I  suppose  the  matter  will  be  settled  on  your  side  the  Bay. 

Monday,  December  6th,  1784. 

Mr.  Marston  has  just  given  me  a  return  which  he  received  from 
Barrington  and  I  enclose  a  copy  of  it.  The  original  I  will  keep  here  for 
fear  of  accidents.  Mr.  Marston  goes  in  the  morning  and  will  take  charge 
of  this.  The  Board  of  Accounts  have  put  off  their  final  decision  respect- 
ing the  Departments  to  this  day  owing  to  some  difficulties  they  have  met 
with  from  Mr.  Brinley. 

*Doctor  John  Calef,  formerly  of  Ipswich,  Mass.,  was  an  active  Loyalist.  His 
wife  was  a  daughter  of  the  Rev.  Jedediah  Jewett  of  Rowley,  Mass.  Dr.  Calef 
was  one  of  the  pall-bearers  at  Whitefield's  funeral.  He  was  a  surgeon  with  the 
royal  forces  at  the  capture  of  Penobscot,  and  he  has  left  us  a  graphic  account 
of  the  siege  of  Penobscot  by  the  Americans.  (See  Article  li.,  St.  Croix  Courier 
Historical  Series.)  He  was  sent  to  England  by  the  Penobscot  Associated 
Loyalists  to  urge  the  fixing  of  the  boundary  between  the  British  provinces  and 
the  United  States  at  the  River  Penobscot.  He  was  afterwards  surgeon  of  the 
garrison  at  St.  John.  He  will  be  frequently  referred  to  in  the  papers  that 
follow.  He  died  at  St.  Andrews  in  1812,  at  the  age  of  87  years. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  257 

Captain  White*  has  just  returned  from  Chedabucto  and  has  collected 
materials  for  you  which  he  will  get  ready  for  me  in  a  day  or  two.  Mr. 
Shaw  is  also  hard  at  work  and  thinks  that  he  shall  do  the  business  very 
compleatly  and  will  write  you  himself  when  his  returns  are  ready,  inter- 
spersing a  variety  of  curious  and  interesting  observations  respecting  the 
privilege  given  the  Americans  to  fish  on  the  coast. 

Your  good  mother  is  very  well  and  sends  her  love.  Sister  Penny  has 
a  bad  cold  which  occasions  a  slight  fever.  She  is  now  recovering  but  will 
not  be  able  to  write  by  this  conveyance.  Miss  Millar  waits  for  the 
ceremony  of  a  first  letter.  Billy  Coffin  has  accepted  the  office  of  Superin- 
tendent General  of  the  family  in  the  absence  of  Mr.  Marston.  All  your 
circle  of  female  acquaintances  are  well  except  Fattelinda  who  has  been 
confined  by  a  bilious,  disorder  but  is  recovering.  Colonel  Goold  is  fighting 
hard  with  the  Gout  which  hangs  about  his  stomach  and  may  probably  be 
too  much  for  him.  Sophy  and  the  old  lady  are  well.  Major  Upham's 
disorder  has  terminated  in  his  favor  and  he  is  now  recovering  fast.  Major 
Murray  'tis  said  has  sailed  directly  for  N.  B.  in  a  vessel  which  sailed  about 
the  same  time  with  the  Hermione. 

[Eemainder  of  letter  missing.  Col.  Arthur  Goold,  secretary  of  the 
Province  of  Nova  Scotia,  mentioned  just  above,  died  at  Halifax,  Feb.  29, 
1792,  at  the  age  of  64  years.] 

Thomas  Aston  Coffin  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  2  Dec'r,  1784. 

My  dear  Ned, —  I  wrote  you  per  the  Adamant  acknowledging  the 
receipt  of  your  letter  of  September  2d  p.  the  Brothers,  &  announced  to 
you  the  safe  arrival  of  your  Boy.t  He  stayed  a  week  or  ten  days  at 
Geyer's  and  after  rigging  him  out  with  a  new  suit  of  cloaths,  with  hat, 
stockings,  &c.,  compleat,  he  went  to  school  last  Thursday,  and  tho'  going 
among  perfect  strangers  behaved  very  manfully.  He  is  placed  at  Ches- 
hurst  where  Geyer's  son  Frederic  was  and  his  son  Tom  now  is.  Inclosed 
are  the  terms  of  the  school  —  the  Master  however  consented  to  take  him 
at  20  Guineas  p.  annum  instead  of  £25.  The  Christmas  holidays  will  soon 
begin  when  he  will  return  to  Mr.  Geyers,  where  he  receives  every  sort  of 
attention  and  care  —  the  more  I  think  of  it,  the  more  I  am  convinced 

*Gideon  White,  as  already  stated  in  these  notes,  had  lands  at  Chedebucto, 
where  his  old  corps  had  settled.  Col.  Winslow  at  this  time  was  engaged  in 
collecting  information  through  his  friends  respecting  the  condition  and  resources 
of  Nova  Scotia.  He  embodied  this  information  in  his  own  admirable  fashion 
in  a  report  which  he  transmitted  to  Brook  Watson  for  that  gentleman's  infor- 
mation. Brook  Watson  was  considered,  by  reason  of  his  great  interest  in  the 
Loyalists  and  his  position  and  ability,  to  be  their  best  champion  in  England. 
See  Brook  Watson's  letters  to  Edward  Winslow  under  date  6th  March,  1785, 
and  26th  August,  1785. 

fMurray  Winslow,  sent  to  school  in  England. 


258  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1784 

of  the  Propriety  of  sending  him  here  for  Education.  The  expence  will 
be  well  bestowed,  nor  will  it  be  very  great  in  addition  to  the  price  of 
schooling.  His  cloaths  and  other  incidents  will  not  amount  to  much. 
I  don't  wonder  at  Polly's  being  distressed  at  parting  with  him,  but  she 
will  in  the  end  be  thankful  for  it,  as  the  want  of  the  advantages  resulting 
from  it  we  have  every  reason  to  believe  could  never  be  compensated. 

Your  friend  Doct.  Jeffries  a  few  days  ago  made  an  aerial  Excursion 
with  Mons'r  Blanchard  in  a  baloon*.  They  ascended  amidst  a  vast  con- 
course of  people  and  received  their  applause.  I  wish  you  had  been  present 
you  would  have  enjoyed  it  much.  The  next  Vessel  from  Halifax  must 
inform  us  of  the  St.  Lawrence's  arrival.  I  am  very  impatient  for  letters 
after  Chip  and  all  of  you  have  met.  I  know  of  nothing  material  to 
acquaint  you  with  and  have  only  to  offer  my  respects  and  best  wishes 
to  the  old  Lady  and  Girls,  to  Polly  and  the  Children.  Adieu,  God  bless 
you  for  ever  &  ever.  T.  A.  C. 


Sir  John  Wentworth  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax  7th  Dec'r,  1784. 

My  dear  Sir, — I  embrace  the  few  minutes  while  Mr.  Marston  is 
putting  up  his  papers  to  say  God  bless  you  and  yours.  I  have  appointed 
our  friend  to  be  my  Deputyf  in  New  Brunswick,  and  have  wrote  to  Gov'r 
Carleton  recommending  him  and  Davidson.  As  it  is  my  wish  to  expedite 
the  public  business  which  depends  on  my  office,  and  in  the  manner  most 
agreeable  to  Gov'r  Carleton,  I  shall  be  much  obliged  in  your  advice  and 
any  information  to  Mr.  Marston  that  will  aid  us  herein.  I  have  the 
fullest  reliance  on  his  discretion  and  shall  trust  much  to  his  judgment. 
I  have  given  M.  a  pamphlet  for  you  —  it  is  severe  enough.  I  hear  from 
London  that  my  letter  was  handed  about  to  many  persons,  and  that 
Fanning,  you  and  I  were  opposing  this  GoVt  with  a  view  to  effect  a  change. 
My  answer  is,  that  I  have  not  any  knowledge  thereof  —  altho'  probably 
such  an  event  would  be  useful  to  prophet,  priest  and  King. 

The  packet  sailed  today.  Governor  Desbarres  is  under  way  for  Cape 
Breton  in  the  Fecility,  C'pt  Bouterich  with  him.  We  have  no  news.  I 
shall  be  much  obliged  if  you  will  send  me  the  public  papers  containing 
any  proclamations  that  are  made,  &c.  Also  the  boundarys  of  New 

*This  incident  is  referred  to  in  Sabine's  American  Loyalists.  He  says  that 
John  Jeffries  crossed  the  British  Channel  in  a  balloon.  This  was  then  deemed 
an  extraordinary  feat. 

•fThat  is  deputy  surveyor  of  the  King's  woods.  The  duties  of  his  office 
were  largely  to  prevent  the  cutting  of  timber  on  the  King's  reserves,  also  the 
cutting  of  pine  trees  suitable  for  masts,  both  on  granted  and  ungranted  lands, 
these  being  by  Act  of  Parliament  reserved  for  the  royal  navy. 


1784]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  259 

Brunswic.  I  hear  the  Congress  claims  Magadavick  —  if  they  succeed  they 
will  cut  off  one  of  our  most  important  reservations  particularly  mentioned 
in  all  my  instructions,  and  reported  by  me.  It  is  not  improbable  that' 
I  may  get  over  the  Bay  soon  after  this  but  it  is  uncertain,  so  I  don't 
declare  for  the  route. 

Pray  make  my  regards  to  our  good  friend  Mr.  Hazen  and  his  good 
family  —  also  to  Hailes,  Balf our,  Lambton*  &c. 

Adieu  my  dear  Sir,  a  merry  Xmas  to  you  and  every  happiness  is  the 
cordial  wish  of  your  unfeigned  friend, 

J.  Wentworth. 

P.  S.  Mardonogh  writes  me  late  in  October  that  Sproule  will  not 
be  able  to  embark  until  the  Spring.  Possibly  Marston  might  be  a  good 
person  to  assist  him. 

2  1-2  P.  M.  Since  my  letter  was  sealed  I  have  received  yours  pr.  Mr. 
Wright.  Many  thanks  &  many  wishes  for  your  &  Chip's  being  again  on 
good  footing.  The  Gout  is  a  sad  enemy  to  Travellers.  Mrs.  W.  desires 
her  thanks.  I  shall  not  wonder  to  see  her  take  a  rove  to  New  Brunswic. 
The  Gov'r,  Council  &  Assembly  give  a  Toast  today,  possibly  the  Men  and 
Measures  of  N.  Brunswic  may  come  into  conversation  —  or  tonight  at 
the  Club,  which  is  with  me.  I  must  dress  for  the  business. 

Adieu,  Ever  yours,  J.  W. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Sir  John  Wentworth. 

Granville,  26  Dec'r,  1784. 

Dear  Sir, — I  had  the  pleasure  of  your  letter  by  Marston.  He  was 
so  fortunate  as  to  arrive  safe  before  I  left  New  Brunswick.  I  attended 
him  to  the  Governor's,  who  expressed  his  satisfaction  at  the  appointment 
in  very  flattering  terms  and  I  left  Marston  comfortably  settled  in  a  mess 
with  Chipman  and  Hailes  at  the  house  t  hired  for  me  where  the  Com- 
missary lived  when  we  were  at  St.  John's. 

I  thank  you  for  the  pamphlet  altho'  I  must  acknowledge  that  it  is 
the  worst  thing  of  the  kind  I  ever  saw.  I  am  very  sorry  that  a  letter 
which  I  was  the  innocent  cause  of  procuring  should  (contrary  to  your 
intention)  have  been  so  freely  made  use  of  —  the  other  part  of  the  London 

""Lieutenant  W.  Lambton,  assistant  engineer  at  Fort  Howe.  In  company 
with  Benjamin  Marston  he  explored  the  wilderness  between  Fredericton  and 
St.  Andrews  in  1785.  Captain  Wm.  Balfour,  whose  name  is  mentioned  here, 
belonged  to  the  51st  Regiment  of  Foot  and  was  in  command  of  the  garrison  at 
Fort  Howe.  fo^  vffou^*,^} 

f  This  was  James  Simonds'  house  at  Portland  Point.  It  -had  'be, OH  occupied 
by  Col.  Winslow's  mother  and  sisters.  James  Simonds  at  this  timeOlived  on 
the  St.  John  river  at  Sheffield.  He  returned  to  his  house  at  Portland  Point 
in  1787. 


260  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1784 

intelligence  gives  me  no  pain.  They  may  say  what  they  please  of  me 
so  long  as  they  continue  me  one  of  a  Trio  with  yourself  and  Fanning.  I 
don't  like  the  expression  "opposing  the  Government" — but  "effecting  a 
change,"  I  have  no  objection  to.  I  will  give  'em  a  proof  of  my  disinter- 
estedness by  persevering  in  my  endeavors  to  produce  that  effect.  A 
contracted  man  who  wished  to  serve  only  the  province  of  New  Brunswick 
would  exert  all  his  talents  to  continue  the  present  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia 
in  his  seat,  because  nothing  would  so  effectually  contribute  to  the  settle- 
ment of  the  rival  province.  But  my  patriotism  is  not  confined  to  one  side 
of  the  Bay  of  Fundy;  I  wish  well  to  the  Province  of  Nova  Scotia  also. 

With  respect  to  the  Boundaray  of  our  Province  nothing  new  has  taken 
place.  Governor  Carleton  has  no  doubt  that  the  river  Scoodiac  was  the 
intended  boundary  between  us  and  the  Massachusetts,  and  he  proceeds 
accordingly,  regardless  of  an  ambiguous  epistle  from  Governor  H[ancock] 
forwarded  by  Governor  Parr.  Allen,*  the  drunken  partizan,  has  thrown 
out  some  threats  that  he  will  employ  the  Indians  to  remove  the  people 
settled  between  Magadavick  &  Scoodiac,  but  Mr.  Campbell,  Bliss  and  othei 
discreet  men  lately  from  Passamaquoddy  say  they  are  under  no  appre- 
hensions from  him  or  his  adherents. 

'The  proposed  plan  of  incorporating  the  new  towns  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Eiver  and  forming  a  City  by  the  name  of  St.  John  has  prevented  a 
serious  representation  from  the  people.  The  town  on  the  east  side  was 
christened  (by  Major  Studholme  and  others)  in  consequence  of  a  letter 
from  Gov.  Parr  to  Major  S.  wherein  he  makes  the  request  pointedly  but 
says,  "That  the  idea  originated  in  female  vanity."  The  rude  inhabitants 
of  this  new  country  have  not  yet  acquired  a  sufficient  degree  of  gallantry 
to  indulge  that  vanity  any  further,  and  they  were  evidently  uneasy  —  they 
are  now  satisfy'd. 

Assure  Mrs.  Wentworth  that  the  ladies  of  New  Brunswick  are 
literally  and  absolutely  in  the  enjoyment  of  a  variety  of  rational  amuse- 
ments. That  determined  enemy  to  dancing,  the  Gout,  prevented  my 
personal  attendance  at  the  assembly,  but  T  have  been  assured  it  was  plea- 
sant and  agreeable.  The  next  will  probably  be  more  numerous.  The 
room  is  much  superior  to  that  at  Halifax. 

JOHN  HANCOCK  AND  SAMUEL  ADAMS. 

[Note: — The  reference  to  John  Hancock,  governor  of  Massachusetts 
and  first  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  which  is  found  in 
the  foregoing  letter,  has  recalled  to  the  mind  of  the  Editor  of  this  book 

"Colonel  John  Allan  formerly  lived  at  Cumberland,  at  the  head  of  the  Bay 
of  Fundy.  See  Kidder's  "Military  Operations  in  Eastern  Maine  and  Nova 
Scotia  during  the  Revolution."  There  was  little  love  between  John  Allan  and 
the  Loyalists. 


178^8  WINSLOW    PAPERS  261 

the  severe  strictures  of  Edward  Winslow  on  Hancock  and  Adams,  written 
apparently  at  New  York  during  the  Eevolution.  The  exact  date  is  un- 
certain, as  no  date  is  to  be  found  in  the  original  paper  which,  it  may  be 
added,  is  a  rough  draft  with  interlineations  and  erasures.  It  was  un- 
doubtedly written  at  a  time  when  the  feelings  of  the  contestants  were 
wrought  up  to  the  highest  pitch  of  animosity  and  is  quite  characteristic 
of  the  spirit  which  prevailed  between  the  majority  of  the  Whigs  and  Tories 
of  that  period.  The  intelligent  reader  will,  however,  be  able  to  judiciously 
balance  the  strictures  of  either  party  in  the  contest,  and,  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  the  panegyrists  of  John  Hancock  and  Samuel  Adams  are  num- 
bered by  the  score,  it  would  seem  but  fair  that  in  this  instance  the  good 
old  motto  should  prevail,  "Audi  alteram  partem."  Winslow's  strictures 
follow] 

At  a  period  so  critical  as  the  present,  even  anecdotes  of  individuals 
who  have  figured  on  either  side  become  important,  and  the  man  whose 
name  is  often  mentioned  is  necessarily  a  subject  of  considerable  inquiry : 
What  was  his  origin — his  former  situation — his  general  character  ?  etc., 
etc.,  are  questions  that  naturally  occur.  If  the  object  be  a  member  of 
the  American  Congress,  and  we  are  told  that  previous  to  his  exertions  on 
the  side  of  rebellion  he  was  a  gentleman  of  probity  and  that  he  had  sacri- 
ficed property  to  principle,  the  most  sanguine  Loyalist,  if  his  temper  is  in- 
genuous feels  himself  in  some  degree  interested  for  the  fate  of  such  a  man. 

These  observations  have  arisen  from  reading  the  "Notes  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  present  war  in  America."  The  two  men  there  characterized 
are  Sam.  Adams  and  J.  Hancock. 

Samuel  Adams  is  the  son  of  an  obscure  malster  in  the  town  of  Boston, 
who  by  extraordinary  exertion  was  enabled  to  educate  his  son  at  the  college 
at  Cambridge  in  New  England.  Too  indolent  to  pursue  any  of  the  learned 
professions,  he  at  the  death  of  his  father  took  possession  of  the  tools  and 
became  a  malster.  A  propensity  to  dabble  in  the  politics  of  the  town 
caused  a  neglect  of  business  and  he  sank  into  extreme  poverty.  His  natural 
disposition  to  cabal  increased  with  his  distress  and  he  was  sure  to  be  con- 
cerned in  every  little  attempt  to  stir  strife  in  the  neighborhood  or  sedition 
in  the  parish.  Deliberately  cunning  in  his  measures  and  specious  in  his 
reasoning,  covered  also  with  an  external  sanctity,  the  ignorant  vulgar 
listened  to  him  with  some  degree  of  attention. 

A  family  suffering  for  want  of  the  common  necessaries  of  life  was 
the  argument  by  which  his  friends  obtained  for  him  the  employment  of 
examiner  [?]  of  taxes  for  the  town  of  Boston,  the  legal  commission  on 
which  amounted  to  about  £60. 

Hitherto  his  ambition  had  aimed  at  nothing  higher  than  occasionally 
disturbing  the  peace  of  the  town  in  which  he  lived:  an  opportunity  soon 


262  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1780 

after  presented  for  exerting  his  talents  on  a  larger  scale.  A  man  by  the 
name  of  Hancock  had  risen  frcm  a  bookbinder  to  a  merchant  and  had 
by  contracts,  made  in  the  last  war  with  the  King's  Commissaries,  amassed 
a  fortune  of  £60,000  or  £70,000  sterling.  At  his  death  he  left  the  bulk 
of  his  property  to  his  nephew,  the  present  John  Hancock.  .In  this  state 
of  affluence — ignorant,  awkward  and  unsuspicious,  he  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Adams.  Flattery  was  a  novelty  and  pleased  him.  He  began  to  suppose 
himself  of  consequence:  he  was  introduced  to  private  committees,  caucus 
clubs  and  all  the  variety  of  meetings  where  mischievous  men  hatch  and 
nurse  sedition.  His  cash  was  useful:  he  was  reimbursed  with  honors — he 
was  appointed  a  Select  man.  Adams  continued  his  political  guardian, 
made  his  speeches  and  furnished  him  with  matter,  etc.  They  were 
inseparable  companions  till  an  unlucky  event  had  nearly  put  an  end  to  their 
connection. 

Very  considerable  sums  collected  by  Adams  had  never  been  paid  into 
the  treasury — the  deficiency  occasioned  clamors  and  a  process  [of 
execution].  It  was  reduced  to  a  certainty  that  Adams  had  defrauded 
the  town  and  expended  the  money.  What  could  be  done  ?  Even  Han- 
cock detested  the  conduct,  but  all  his  secrets  were  deposited  in  the  breast 
of  his  friend;  he  might  be  betrayed — and  he  could  not  yet  go  alone  in 
politics.  He  therefore  concluded  to  pay  the  deficiency  and  save  as  far 
as  possible  the  credit  of  the  tax  gatherer. 

It  would  be  unentertaining  to  trace  these  men  thro'  all  their  wind- 
ings to  their  present  consequence.  It  will  be  sufficient  to  observe  that 
Hancock  by  scattering  his  money  among  a  crowd  of  lazy  politicians 
acquired  a  temporary  influence  and  obtained  seats  for  himself  and  Adams 
in  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Province  [of  Massachusetts.]  Here  they 
distinguished  themselves  by  a  uniform  opposition  to  government  and  by 
most  persevering  exertions  to  increase  the  confusions  of  the  country,  until 
this  insignificant  malster  began  to  anticipate  the  establishment  of  an 
Independency.  They  became  members  of  the  Continental  Congress,  their 
conduct  since  is  generally  known. 

I  only  mean  to  fix  these  few  facts  —  in  order  to  correct  the  mistakes 
of  the  author  of  "Notes  in  the  history  of  the  War  in  America" — viz:  that 
Adams  was  low  bred — poor — and  a  cheat — and  that  Hancock  was  his  dupe. 

[Ed.  Winslow.] 
Sir  John  Wentworth  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Halifax,  13th  January  1785. 

My  dear  Sir, — *  *  *  I  am  much  obliged  in  your  kindness  to  our 
mutual  friend  Mr.  Marston.  He  will  do  us  both  credit.  The  Governor 
has  not  yet  entered  upon  my  letter,  but  I  think  must  perceive  my  sincere^ 
disposition  to  co-operate  with  his  views  and  add  every  honor  and  facility 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  263 

to  his  administration  that  personal  or  official  influence  can  afford.     Little 
as  either  or  both  are,  they  are  equally  honest  and  firm. 

Our  worthy  friend  Colonel  Fanning  is  at  the  table  with  us.  He  was 
Mrs.  Wentworth's*  beau  at  the  Assembly  and  staid  with  us  last  night.  He 
begs  his  regards  to  you.  Wrote  you  a  few  days  since. 

Mrs.  Wentworth  longs  to  stake  her  shoes  in  New  Brunswick  —  has 
given  me  a  thousand,  I  believe  more,  things  to  say  upon  your  g-outy  foot, 
dancing,  &c.,  and  sums  all  up  by  saying,  "I  wish  we  could  have  him  here 
or  we  be  among  them." 

I  rejoice  in  your  success  at  New  Brunswick  and  so  I  shall  heartily 
in  every  addition  to  it.  We  have  no  news  but  are  talking  much  that 
your  side  of  the  Bay  will  want  provisions.  I  hope  not  for  many  reasons 
besides  my  affection  to  New  Brunswick.  If  you  do  not  suffer  and  com- 
plain; envy,  hatred  and  malice  will  feed  on  some  breasts  here,  where  it 
evidently  lodges, 

My  best  regards  attend  you  and  your  family.  Many,  many  happy 
New- Years  to  you.  and  to  them,  is  the  continual  prayer  of,  my  dear  Sir, 

Your  affect'e  faithful  friend 
J.  Wentworth. 

*Mrs.  Wentworth  was  a  remarkably  clever  woman,  and  the  story  of  her 
life  is  a  very  romantic  one.  Her  maiden  name  was  Frances  Deering,  and  the 
towns  of  Francestown  and  Deering  in  New  Hampshire  are  named  in  her  honor. 
She  was  a  Bostonian  by  birth,  very  accomplished  and  gay,  and  possessed  of 
great  tact  and  ability.  She  was  a  cousin  of  Theodore  Atkinson,  jr.,  and  also 
of  Sir  John  Wentworth.  Her  earliest  attachment  was  for  Wentworth,  but  while 
he  was  absent  in  England  she  married  Atkinson.  The  latter  was  secretary 
of  the  province  of  New  Hampshire  and  a  member  of  the  council.  He  died  at 
Portsmouth  on  Saturday,  October  28,  1769,  at  the  age  of  33  years,  and  was 
accorded  a  state  funeral.  Just  two  weeks  later  his  young  widow  was  married 
in  the  same  chapel,  beneath  which  the  first  husband  was  buried,  to  Governor 
John  Wentworth.  There  was  much  gossip  at  Portsmouth  about  the  three 
cousins  at  the  time,  founded  on  the  facts  here  related.  The  only  son  of  Sir 
John  and  Lady  Wentworth  was  Charles  Mary  Wentworth,  who  was  born  at 
Portsmouth  in  1775.  He  succeeded  his  father  as  baronet.  Lady  Wentworth 
went  to  England  in  1798  and  was  presented  at  court,  where  she  was  greatly 
admired  by  Queen  Charlotte  for  her  elegance  and  manners,  and  received  the 
appointment  of  a  lady-in-waiting,  with  permission  to  reside  abroad  and  receive 
£500  a  year  salary.  Lady  Wentworth  was  a  charming  hostess.  On  the  occasion 
of  a  ball  at  Government  House  in  Halifax,  Dec.  1792,  the  Nova  Scotia  Gazette 
contained  a  most  elaborate  description,  which,  although  savoring  of  fulsome 
adulation,  was  no  doubt  intended  to  express  the  hearty  good  will  generally  felt 
for  the  governor  and  his  good  lady.  The  following  extract  is  quoted: — "That 
"  ease,  elegance  and  superiority  of  manners,  which  must  ever  gain  Mrs.  Went- 
"  worth  the  admiration  of  the  whole  community,  and  that  hospitality  which  so 
"  distinguish  the  character  and  conduct  of  our  beloved  and  adored  governor, 
"  never  shone  with  more  lustre  than  on  this  occasion."  Edward  Winslow  was 
always  a  prime  favorite  with  Lady  Wentworth  as  well  as  with  Sir  John.  See 
letter  of  Daniel  Lyman  under  date  April  7,  1800. 


264  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

Monson  H3yt  to  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  Ann's  Point,  January  12th,  1785. 

Sir, — I  did  myself  the  honor  to  write  you  in  October  last,  since  which 
1  have  had  frequent  conversation  with  Major  Armstrong  on  the  subject 
of  Captn.  Cook's*  land,  but  finding  he  argued  the  impropriety  of  locating 
land  for  persons  not  in  America,  and  there  being  no  Precedent  for  it,  I 
wrote  him  officially  on  the  subject.  *  *  * 

The  Major  being  hurried,  on  the  receipt  of  my  letter  apologized  for 
not  answering  it  then,  the  next  day  I  saw  him  when  he  observed  that  he 
was  assured  no  grant  could  be  obtained  for  land  in  the  name  of  a  person 
in  England;  that  on  the  arrival  of  Capt'n  Cook  he  would  be  accommodated 
and  doubtless  to  his  wish;  that,  as  the  new  Governor  had  lately  landed, 
he  had  reason  to  suppose  such  regulations  would  shortly  take  place  as 
would  enable  him  to  determine  on  the  matter,  but  that  at  present  no 
person  knew  better  than  you  that  Captain  Cook  could  not  be  accomodated 
with  land. 

Governor  Carleton  is  expected  at  St.  Ann's  in  the  course  of  the 
winter,  it  is  very  probable  I  shall  then  be  able  to  ascertain  the  propriety 
of  enforcing  the  matter  and  be  assured  nothing  shall  be  wanting  on  the 
part  of.  Sir, 

Your  most  devoted  humble  Servant, 

Monson  H&yt.t 

Mather  Byles  Jr.,  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Tuesday  25th  January,  1785. 

We  have  an  abundance  of  distressful  stories  from  Shelburne,  Passa- 
maquoddy,  St.  Mary's  Bay,  &c,  complaining  of  the  shortness  of  provisions, 
&  the  danger  they  are  in  of  starving.  Gov'r  Carleton  has  informed  the 
General  of  his  having  purchased  a  quantity  of  flour  at  Passamaquoddy  and 

*Captain  Thomas  Ive  Cook  of  the  Queen's  Rangers  Cavalry. 

fMonson  Hoyt  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  Prince  of  Wales'  American  Regiment 
in  1777,  and  quartermaster  of  the  corps.  He  was  the  secretary  and  registrar 
of  the  board  of  directors  appointed  for  the  laying  out  of  a  town  at  St.  Anne's 
Point.  The  following  is  a  sample  of  the  location  tickets  or  certificates  issued 
by  the  board:— 

"  I  hereby  certify  that  Lieut.  Zachariah  Brown  is  the  proprietor  of  Lot  No. 
"  72  at  St.  Anne's  Point,  by  virtue  of  a  general  draft  made  on  the  22nd  day  of 
"  June  last. 

"  By  desire  of  the  directors. 

"  (Signed)  MONSON  H^TT,  Registrar. 

"  St.  Anne's  Point,  August  25,  1784." 

Monson  Hoyt  afterwards  removed  to  St.  John,  and  engaged  in  business  there 
in  partnership  with  the  celebrated  Benedict  Arnold.  They  quarrelled,  and  Hoyt 
publicly  accused  Arnold  of  burning  his  warehouse,  whereupon  he  was  sued  ly 
Arnold  for  defamation  of  character.  In  the  trial  that  followed  Ward  Chipman 
was  counsel  for  Arnold  and  Elias  Hardy  for  Hoyt.  The  jury  awarded  the 
plaintiff  2  shillings  and  6  pence  damages. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  265 

St.  John's  for  the  supply  of  the  Loyalists  —  however  as  the  quantity  was 
small  it  didn't  cause  much  alarm  in  this  quarter,  and  his  Excellency  is 
informed  that  the  money  will  be  paid  whenever  applied  for.  A  sloop 
laded  with  flour  from  the  Adamant  sailed  from  this  yesterday  for  St. 
John's,  and  another  is  to  follow  her  in  a  few  days.  The  proprietors  of 
St.  Ann's  Point*  have  written  an  address  of  thanks  to  the  General  for  his 
attention  to  that  place  in  establishing  a  post  there,  and  building  a  maga- 
zine. It  is  signed  by  Major  Armstrong,!  and  a  polite  answer  to  it  goes  by 
this  express. 

A  circular  letter  has  been  wrote  to  the  Commissaries  at  the  different 
outposts  directing  them  to  inspect  the  returns  of  the  Muster  Masters  and 
strike  off  all  those  who  have  died,  left  the  settlements  &c.  since  the  muster 
and  to  issue  in  future  to  such  only  as  are  actually  on  the  spot.  This  is 
all  that  has  been  done  in  the  official  way  either  important  or  unimportant 
since  I  wrote  last. 

I  inclose  you  Mr.  Porter's*  report  of  the  district  from  Halifax  to 
Shelburne,  also  this  day's  paper,  a  letter  from  Mr.  Coffin,  &  a  letter  from 
Col.  Eobinson.  Your  News  Papers  I  shall  forward  by  this  conveyance. 
Your  sister  doesn't  write  as  she  is  affronted  with  the  whole  set  from  New 
Brunswick  to  Granville  inclusive,  and  she  thinks  by  not  writing  she  is 
silently  pursuing  a  favourite  maxim — Reverence  thy-self.  It  seems  you 
all  owe  her  a  letter.  The  family  are  well.  Miss  Miller  has  made  her 
appearance  at  the  Assembly  [dances] — cut  out  the  whole  circle  of  Belles — 
has  become  a  reigning  toast  and  is  allowed  by  your  connoiseurs  in  beauty 
to  beat  Miss  Polly  Prince  all  hollow. 

Major  Upham  has  had  a  return  of  his  disorder  and  is  now  very  low. 

Mr.  Brittainll  tells  me  that  your  gout  is  still  hanging  about  you.  I 
hope  it  does  not  carry  on  the  attack  so  violently  as  to  prevent  your  amusing 
yourself  with  your  sleigh,  or  sporting  at  the  Annapolis  Assemblies;  indeed 
I  can't  help  flattering  myself  that  it  is  only  a  political  touch  which  is 
predestined  to  keep  you  at  Granville  till  the  Spring.  Gordon  pretends 

*St.  Anne's  Point  had  not  yet  received  the  name  of  Fredericton,  nor  had 
it  been  fixed  upon  as  the  capital  of  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick,  but  it  had 
been  laid  out  in  lots  for  a  town,  and  these  lots  had  been  granted. 

fMajor  Richard  Armstrong  of  the  Queen's  Rangers  is  here  referred  to.  He 
entered  the  corps  in  August,  1776,  as  captain  of  the  Grenadier  company,  and  in 
October  25,  1778,  was  promoted  major.  He  was  a  distinguished  officer  during 
the  Revolutionary  War.  At  the  peace  in  1783  he  received  a  large  grant  of  land 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Nacawick  Stream,  where  he  built  a  saw  and  grist  mill. 
Some  years  later  he  retired  to  Fredericton.  He  was  advanced  by  successive 
promotions  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant  general  in  the  army.  He  died  in  1817  and 
was  buried  on  his  own  property  in  Upper  Queensbury. 

JWilliam  Porter  was  one  of  the  commissaries  appointed  to  muster  the 
Loyalists  settled  from  Halifax  to  Shelburne. 

||  John  Brittain,  here  referred  to,  was  employed  as  clerk  in  the  military  offices 
at  Halifax. 


266   ]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

to  expect  you  soon;  the  General  says  not  till  March.     Which  do  you  think 
is  right  ? 

Tell  Mrs.  Winslow  that  Balloon  hats  are  grown  quite  obsolete  and 
now  no  lady  ventures  to  show  her  nose  without  it's  half  covered  by  a 
Lunardi*  Bonnet,  Eed  powder  for  the  hair,  and  a  Lunardi  Handkerchief 
for  the  neck. 


Extract  from  a  letter  wrote  by  Willm.  Donaldson!  to  Thos.  Newland, 
Esquire,  Merch't  in  London,  dated  the  9th  Feb'y,  1785,  and  sent  pr.  the 
Medway,  Capt'n  Miller,  for  London;  viz. — 

"  Sir; — After  the  peace  finding  no  good  business  to  be  done  in  the 
States  and  a  prospect  of  things  being  worse,  besides  having  all  my  life- 
time lived  under  a  British  Government  I  must  confess  I  have  not  only 
the  strongest  attachment  to  it  but  would  wish  to  end  my  days  under  one. 
These  considerations,  with  some  little  business,  induced  me  to  visit  this 
Country  when  after  exploring  it  almost  thoroughly,  I  sat  myself  down  at 
the  mouth  of  the  River  St.  John,  west  side  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy.  You 
will  I  hope  pardon  my  saying  a  few  words  about  this  new  Country. 

The  summers  here  I  find  exceedingly  pleasant  and  healthy  and  the 
winter  by  no  means  so  cold  as  I  expected  it;  it  is  more  steady,  and  I  think 
not  so  cold  as  at  New  York.  The  River  St.  John's,  up  which  I  have 
been  about  120  miles,  is  pretty  well  settled  and  since  the  arrival  of  our 
new  Governor,  is  settling  fast.  The  lands  are  exceedingly  rich  and  good 
and  the  River  is  the  noblest  I  have  seen  in  America,  and  I  have  now 
travelled  in  it  almost  from  the  .extremes  of  the  South  to  that  of  the  North. 
It  is  navigable  for  vessels  of  considerable  burthen  as  far  as  St.  Anns,  about 
90  miles  up.  St.  Ann's  is  an  old  cleared  spot  and  is  the  most  centrical 
and  beautiful  situation  for  a  town  I  ever  beheld.  About  it  and  near  it 
on  both  sides  the  River  is  the  land  allotted  for  the  Officers  and  Privates 
of  the  Disbanded  Corps,  who  are  making  rapid  progress  in  their  new  settle- 
ments and  think  themselves  amply  paid  for  their  toil  by  the  generous 
increase.  This  River  is  navigable  for  small  craft  to  the  Great  Falls,  about 
150  miles  above  St.  Anns. 

To  view  this  Town  in  so  short  a  time  would  astonish  every  stranger 
as  it  would  to  see  the  improvements  going  on  in  the  Country.  The 
number  of  Saw  Mills  erected  are  very  great,  and  can  only  be  imagined 

*Lunardi  was  a  famous  balloonist,  and  his  exploits  were  all  the  rage  in 
society  at  this  period. 

fWilliam  Donaldson  was  a  Virginia  Loyalist.  His  losses  consequent  upon 
the  Rebellion  were  estimated  at  £3,000.  He  went  at  first  to  Shelburne  and 
afterwards  to  St.  John.  He  was  extensively  engaged  in  busings  and  William 
Garden  of  Fredericton  was  a  partner.  He  became  financially  embarrassed  and 
was  forced  to  leave  the  province.  He  died  in  1797. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  267 

from  the  noble  prospect  this  Country  opens  for  Lumber,  and  which  is  not 
to  be  equalled  in  any  of  the  States.  The  only  wood  that  is  scarce  is 
White  Oak;  red  and  gray  Oak  there  is  in  abundance,  and  the  most  con- 
vincing proof  I  can  give  you  of  the  fair  prospect  there  is  in  this  article  is, 
that  a  few  days  ago  in  consequence  of  proposals  I  received  from  a 
merchant  of  eminence  at  Halifax  to  load  two  vessels  here  in  the  Spring, 
I  sent  him  an  answer  lately  what  I  could  contract  for,  and  every  article 
in  this  infant  country  was  considerably  below  what  he  could  be  supplied 
with  in  New  England  or  any  of  the  States,  and  in  a  few  days  I  expect 
his  answer  to  conclude  the  Contract  for  upwards  of  2,000  tons  timber, 
consisting  of  white,  red,  and  grey  Oak,  Elm,  Beech,  Birch,  Pine,  Spruce, 
Black  Birch,  &  Eock  Maple  timber  for  ship-building,  assorted  as  Spars, 
Masts,  Keel  pieces,  top-masts,  yards,  plank,  barrels  &nd  staves. 

Ship-building  where  every  material  is,  or  may  be,  got  on  the  spot, 
cannot  fail  to  be  an  article  of  great  importance  in  this  Country.  Many 
vessels  large  and  small  are  now  building  on  the  River,  and  as  the  materials 
are  of  the  best  sort,  it  may  be  expected  that  vessels  will  be  lasting  and 
durable  and  have  a  preference  at  foreign  markets. 

The  preparations  also  making  for  the  fishery  is  very  considerable,  and 
if  encouragement  is  given,  which  I  hope  and  doubt  not  will,  no  country 
bids  or  can  bid  fairer  soon  to  be  the  pride,  envy  and  admiration  of  her 
neighbors. 

As  for  a  grazing  country  nature  has  been  so  bountifull  to  this,  that 
it  cannot  fail  even  with  common  attention,  to  be  the  first  or  among  the 
first  on  this  Continent. 

As  I  am  informed  Brook  Watson,  Esquire,  has  the  interest  of  this 
country  much  at  heart,  and  tho'  I  know  that  Gentleman  yet  I  have  not 
the  honor  of  corresponding  with  him,  I  will  therefore  trouble  you  to 
communicate  that  part  of  this  letter  to  him  that  respects  the  Country 
as  I  know  it  will  give  him  pleasure,  and  I  will  send  another  copy 
of  it  to  my  worthy  friend  Edward  Winslow,  Esquire,  now  at  Annapolis, 
who  is  as  much  interested  in  its  prosperity  as  any  man  existing,  and  who 
disinterestedly  has  taken  more  pains  and  done  more  for  its  happiness  and 
interest  than  any  man  I  know. 

Excuse  my  saying  so  much  but  I  could  not  well  say  less  in  justice 
to  the  people  and  prospects  of  this  promising  Country. 

One  thing  I  had  almost  forgot,  and  which  is  highly  necessary  to 
mention,  the  fallacious  idea  that  has  crept  into  Lloyd's  Coffee  House 
about  the  danger  and  difficulty  of  the  navigation  of  the  Bay  of  Fundy. 
This  doctrine  must  have  been  set  up  by  some  designing  people  and  is  so 
notoriously  false  that  it  hardly  deserves  a  serious  answer.  The  Harbour 
ia  a  very  good  one,  many  excellent  wharves  are  raising,  the  navigation  of 


268  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

the  Bay  is  safe  and  easy,  and  it  abounds  with  a  number  of  commodious 
bays  and  harbours.  As  a  proof  of  this  hardly  an  accident  happens  in  a 
Twelve- month  to  the  numerous  shipping  that  have  come  here,  and  our 
harbour  has  this  further  advantage  that  it  is  open  at  all  seasons  of  the 
year  and  we  have  arrivals  during  the  whole  winter.  As  I  hinted  before, 
I  am  fully  convinced  that  this  ill  natured  report  has  been  propagated  with 
a  view  to  injure  the  settlement  so  I  am  equally  sensible  that  it  will  of  itself 
speedily  fall  to  the  ground,  having  no  foundation  in  truth." 

Benjamin  Marston  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Felicity  Hall*  [St.  John]  Friday  Feby  18 

to  Monday  the  21st  1785. 

Dear  Ned; — Yours  of  18th  Jany,  came  to  hand  two  days  ago  with 
blanket  rug  &  suit  of  cloaths,  for  which  I  thank  you. 

I  have  endeavored  to  secure  the  land  on  the  Gore  between  your 
sister's  land  &  the  manor  of  Coffin  but  have  not  been  able  to  succeed.  *  * 

I  shall  give  Coffin  the  scantlins  for  your  frame  immediately  and  when 
Dogget  arrives  he  shall  be  taken  care  of  immediately  and  set  to  work. 

The  Governor  has  been  up  to  St.  Anns.  I  did  not  go  with  him.  The 
party  was  the  Gov'r,  Hazen,  Odell  and  Knox.  t  I  did  not  see  any  room 
to  insert  myself  conveniently  into  it  so  made  no  offer.  But  next  week 
Lambtcn  and  myself  set  out  for  a  tour  upon  a  much  larger  scale.  We  go 
to  St.  Anns,  cross  the  country  to  Schudiac,  then  down  to  St.  Andrews, 
thence  cross  the  country  to  ye  St.  John's  by  the  Orramucto,  if  we  can  find 
it,  &  so  home.J 

While  I  think  of  it,  it  is  necessary  that  Penny  and  Sally's;,1  grants  for 

*This  seems  to  have  been  the  name  selected  for  the  house  where  Marston 
lodged  with  Chipman  and  Harris  W.  Hailes.  See  Chipman's  letter  under  date 
20th  March.  1785. 

fThis  was  Thomas  Knox,  who  was  deputy  muster  master  of  the  Loyalists 
and  disbanded  troops  on  the  St.  John  River  in  1784.  He  was  afterwards  joint 
agent  with  his  father,  William  Knox,  for  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick  in 
England. 

JBenjamin  Marston  in  his  diary  speaks  of  this  trip  as  equal  to  a  "cam- 
paign." The  route  traversed  by  Lambton  and  Marston  is  shown  in  an  old  plan. 
The  plan,  which  is  in  the  Public  Record  office  in  London,  is  dated  17|6.  There 
is  on  it  a  dotted  line  with  the  inscription:  "The  dotted  line  describes  Mr.  Lamb- 
ton's  path  from  the  River  Saint  John  to  Saint  Andrews,  Passamaquoddy  Bay, 
in  1784."  The  route  is  not  identical  with  that  outlined  by  Marston  in  his  letter 
of  Feb.  18,  1785,  but  as  Marston  had  a  very  imperfect  idea  of  the  route,  this  is 
not  an  important  discrepancy.  The  fact,  however,  remains  that  the  map  states 
the  journey  of  Lambton  was  made  in  1784,  whereas  his  journey  with  Marston 
was  in  February,  1785.  Dr.  Ganong  suggests  two  explorations  that  are  dis- 
tinct, but  I  am  disposed  to  identify  them.  An  exploration  made  in  the  winter  of 
1784-5  might  be  marked  on  the  map  by  the  draughtsman  in  1786  as  "Mr.  Lamb- 
ton's  path  in  1784."— W.  O.  R. 

||  The  grant  of  400  acres  to  Penelope  and  Sarah  Winslow,  near  Brandy  Point, 
below  Westfield,  was  dated  April  24,  1784. 


1785]  WINS  LOW  PAPERS.  269 

their  lands  be  returned  to  the  Secretary's  office  to  be  registered.  *  *  * 
'Tis  now  Monday,  &  I  have  sent  the  Major  [Coffin]  up  a  list  of 
scantlins  this  morning.  *  *  As  I  expect  to  set  out  on  my  Sylvan 
expedition  in  a  day  or  two  any  matters  of  Business  must  be  directed  to 
Chippy  We  are  well.  Last  Wednesday  we  exhibited  at  the  Hall,  under 
the  auspices  of  General  Chippy,  a  monstrous  great  Ball  &  fine  supper  to 
about  36  Gentlemen  &  Ladies  such  as  Governours,  Secretaries,  Chief 
Justices,  Chancellors  &  such  kind  of  people  with  their  wives  and  daughters. 
We  ate,  drank,  danced,  &  played  cards  till  about  4  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
We  had  everything  for  supper.  It  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  his 
Gen'lship  could  collect  such  a  variety  of  luxurious  viands  together  in  such 
a  place  as  this.  *  *  * 

The  Eiver  is  as  solid  as  the  Everlasting  Hills  but  your  Beans  have  not 
yet  arrived  from  St.  Anns. 

I  really  participate  with  you  in  your  present  enjoyments  of  domestic 
happiness.  'Tis  a  consolation  to  find  that  such  a  thing  as  Happiness  is 
passing,  one  may  hope  some  time  or  other  to  get  a  little  of  it  one's  self. 
I  thank  Mrs.  Winslow  most  heartity  for  her  kind  reception  of  my  good 
wishes.  She  is  one  of  the  few  that  I  think  entitled  to  them.  God  bless 
you  both  and  may  ye  long  be  happy  together  is  the  fervent  prayer  of 
Your  affectionate  Cousin, 

Ben. 


Benjamin  Hallowell  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  27th  Feb'y,  1785. 

My  dear  Sir, — The  weather  very  early  set  in  cold  this  winter  and  not 
having  much  very  pressing  business  abroad,  I  have  on  account  of  my 
health  kept  much  at  home  since  the  beginning  of  November,  and  living 
at  some  distance  from  all  my  American  acquaintances,  I  did  not  hear  of 
Miss  Winslow,*  your  sister's  being  in  England  until  two  days  before  I 
received  her  note  wishing  my  attendance  at  the  American  office  to  give 
evidence  to  your  worthy  Father's  character  &c.,  &c.,  to  support  the  claim 
made  by  the  family  for  support  and  compensation,  about  a  fortnight  since. 
After  which  my  daughter,  (Mrs.  H.  being  indisposed),  and  I  took  the 
earliest  opportunity  that  the  weather  would  allow  me  to  be  abroad  to  call 
on  Miss  Winslow  but  was  not  so  fortunate  as  to  meet  her  at  home,  and 
I  was  several  times  in  that  unlucky  situation  of  not  seeing  her,  though 
not  always  disappointed.  I  lament  that  it  has  not  been  in  my  power  to 
shew  that  attention  that  I  ought  to  have  done  had  my  health  permitted 

*  Sarah  Winslow,  who  went  to  England  with  certain  documents  to  prove  the 
confiscation  of  her  late  father's  property  by  the  Americans,  with  the  view  of 
obtaining  compensation  from  the  commissioners  on  the  Loyalist  claims. 


270  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

and  I  known  of  her  being  in  London.  Miss  Winslow  attended  by  her 
faithful  friend  Mr.  Coffin*  did  us  the  honor  to  call  yesterday  which  was 
all  the  time  she  said  she  could  possibly  give  us,  as  the  Ship  left  the  Kiver 
on  Saturday  last  in  order  tc  be  in  the  Downs  as  soon  as  possible  after 
clearing  at  Gravesend.  The  letters  that  I  have  received  from  my  good 
friend  Governor  Fanning  are  very  pressing  that  I  should  be  in  Halifax  as 
early  a.s  possible  this  spring  for  the  securit}r  and  managing  my  property 
in  Xova  Scotia ;[  before  such  intimation  I  was  getting  as  fast  as  possible 
ready  to  leave  this  Country  and  was  in  hopes  before  this  day  I  should  have 
embarked,  having  nothing  to  detain  me  in  England.  *  *  *  In  the 
meantime  I  must  intreat  you  ancl  my  other  friends  to  use  your  interest  to 
prevent  any  mischief  happening  to  my  property  and  to  request  the  con- 
tinuance of  that  friendship  to  get  settlers  on  the  premises  on  such  terms 
as  you,  Governor  Wentworth  and  Governor  Fanning,  mav  think  proper, 
all  which  1  will  confirm,  which  will  add  to  the  many  obligations  I  am 
already  under  to  you.  I  am,  dear  Sir, 

Your  most  ob't  and  faithful  much  obliged 
Humble  Servt, 

Benj  .Hallowell. 

Samuel  Goldsbury  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Edinburgh  [N.  S.],  March  1st,  1785. 

Sir, — Agreeable  to  your  request  I  here  send  you  an  account  of  the 
Growth  of  Timber,  number  o?  saw  mills,  Quantity  of  fish  taken  the  last 
year,  preparations  making  for  this,  number  of  Vessels,  Quantity  of  Cattle, 
&e,  &c. 

The  Town  of  Edinburgh  is  situated  at  the  Mouth  of  the  River  Sisibou, 
which  empties  itself  into  the  Bay  of  St.  Mary's  on  the  Western  side  the 
Peninsula,  the  Lands  around  the  Bay  and  River  exceedingly  good  and 
afford  encouragement  to  the  Farmer,  are  plentifully  covered  with  Large 
Timber,  such  as  Birchj  Beech,  Rock  Maple,  Spruce,  Pine,  and  Ash,  and 
in  several  Routes  I  have  taken  for  exploring  the  Western  part  of  the 
Peninsula  I  have  seen  Very  considerable  quantitys  of  Fine  Oak  Timber, 
which  may  by  means  of  Lakes  and  Rivers  be  easily  conveyed  to  the  sea. 
We  have  plenty  of  Streams  of  Water  and  advantageous  situations  for  Mills. 
Four  saw-Mills  are  already  erected,  and  a  number  more  erecting,  all  con- 
tiguous to  the  Bay  and  River.  There  was  taken  and  exported  from  this 
place  the  Last  Year  1200  quintals  of  Cod  fish,  besides  a  considerable  quan- 
tity consumed  by  the  Settlers,  most  of  which  Fish  were  taken  in  Log 

""Thomas  Aston  Coffin  greatly  assisted  Miss  Winslow  in  her  undertaking, 
which,  for  a  woman,  was  in  those  days  an  arduous  task. 

fThe  property  at  Guysborough  before  mentioned  under  date  10th  February, 
1784. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  271 

canoes  and  small  Boats.  There  undoubtedly  will  be  four  times  that 
quantity  taken  this  year,  as  the  Settlers  will  not  be  necessarily  employed 
in  Building.  We  have  at  present  but  few  Vessels,  and  those  Small,  except 
a  Brigg  of  120  Tons  and  a  Sloop  of  80  Tons,  which  are  now  employed  in 
the  West  India  Trade. 

There  is  on  this  Bay  &  Eiver  more  than  one  thousand  Head  of  Black 
Cattle  besides  numbers  of  Horses  and  Sheep.  It  is  difficult  to  affix  a 
price  for  Lumber  even  for  the  present  year,  owing  to  the  great  call  there 
has  been  among  the  new  settlements.  I  am  of  opinion  that  a  large 
quantity  of  Lumber  may  be  shipped  at  this  place  the  present  year  at  the 
following  prices,  viz,  Boards  &  plank  at  36*  shillings  Sterling  pr.  thousand 
feet;  and  Square  Timber  at  22s.  6d.  pr.  thousand  feet  carried  into  Board 
measure. 

The  Settlers  are  generally  Poor  but  industrious,  their  exertions  cramped 
for  want  of  Provisions,  but  should  Government  continue  their  Bounty  a 
little  longer,  I  am  persuaded  the  fertility  of  the  Soil,  and  the  advantages 
derived  from  fish  and  Lumber  would  soon  restore  them  to  those  agreeable 
Circumstances  they  Sacrificed  in  consequence  of  the  Late  War. 
I  have  the  Honor  to  be,  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  & 
Very  Humble  Serv't, 

Samuel  Goldsbury. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Granville,  March  2nd,  1785. 
Wednesday  Noon. 

Dr.  Chip; — The  receipt  of  Marston's  letters  relative  to  my  land 
matters  have  given  me  infinite  concern  and  the  more  because  I  am  this 
inst.  preparing  to  step  into  a  sleigh  to  set  off  for  Halifax. 

When  I  candidly  and  openly  communicated  to  Mr.  Odell  the  papers 
relative  to  Prince  William  —  I  told  him  there  was  a  strip  of  land  con- 
taining 3  or  4,000  acres,  and  including  a  small  Eiver*  at  the  upper  end  of 
Prince  William,  which  had  been  applied  for  by  Gen'ls  Fox  &  Clarke,  and 
that  Gov'r  Parr  had  given  the  most  positive  assurances  to  Gen'l  Fox  and 
repeated  'em  to  me,  that  the  Patent  should  be  made  out  for  them,  but 
that  Gen'l  Fox  from  principles  of  delicacy  would  not  avail  himself  of  the 
Gov-rs  offer  until  Patents  for  others  were  obtained,  nor  indeed  until  it 
was  determined  that  Gentlemen  of  the  Line  were  considered  as  entitled  to 
Grants.  As  his  agent,  I  acted  from  the  same  principle,  and  I  suggested 
to  Mr.  Odell  that  if  Gov'r  Carleton  decided  against  giving  grants  to 

*The  Pokiok  River. 


272  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

absentees  (which  I  thought  he  ought)  I  would  apply  in  behalf  of  myself 
and  several  of  my  friends  as  real  settlers  in  the  country  for  that  very 
tract,  but  that  I  could  make  no  formal  application  as  Mr.  Davidson  was 
absent  and  I  could  not  describe  the  premises  with  any  degree  of  accuracy, 
I  however  requested,  as  no  material  inconvenience  could  arise  from  sus- 
pending the  Grant  of  that  tract  until  my  return,  tliat  he  would  postpone 
the  consideration  of  the  business,  and  from  his  answer  I  supposed  there 
was  no  risque  of  itd  being  granted.  Mr.  Odell  will  also  recollect  that  I 
mentioned  a  stream  called  Gowac*  on  the  other  side  the  river  where  I 
proposed  building  a  saw  mill  with  Mr.  David  Eason,  formerly  Superin- 
tendent of  Indian  affairs  on  the  river  St.  John's,  a  man  of  merit  and  who 
has  rendered  essential  services  to  Government,  that  I  begged  in  his  behalf 
to  state  his  pretentious  and  solicit  a  grant  on  that  river.  I  also  gave  Mr. 
Odell  a  penciled  memorandum  of  the  names  of  the  place  which  he  sa/d  he 
would  place  among  the  other  papers  and  was  very  explicit  in  saying  that 
he  thought  nothing  farther  on  my  part  was  necessary  to  be  done.  I  have 
accordingly  stipulated  with  some  degree  of  solemnity  with  Mr.  Eason.  I 
have  procured  all  my  materials,  and  have  made  a  written  contract  to  build 
the  saw  mill.  Eason  is  preparing  to  take  passage  by  the  next  packet  in 
expectation  of  obtaining  such  licence  as  will  enable  him  to  go  on  with 
spirit  and  security  in  erecting  the  buildings.  If  the  land  which  it  is 
necessary  to  possess  for  that  purpose  falls  within  a  Block  assigned  to  a 
provincial  Corps  —  it  is  a  matter  of  notoriety  that  there  is  a  large  over- 
plus for  each  regiment,  and  I  should  think  a  work  of  such  public  utility 
will  be  encouraged,  and  that  the  regiment  or  settlers  would  not  oppose 
a  Grant  within  their  general  limits  for  a  business  of  so  much  importance 
to  the  vicinity.  I  however  (as  this  has  become  a  very  serious  matter  to 
me)  have  earnestly  to  request  that  you  as  my  attorney  will  on  Eason's 
arrival  form  an  application  for  the  tract  which  he  will  point  out,  as  my 
proportion  of  land  as  Muster  Master  General,  &cv  and  that  you  will  also 
draw  for  him  a  memorial  stating  his  pretentious. 

My  dear  Chip,  I  cannot  enlarge  —  I  do  request  that  you  would  take 
Eason  by  the  hand  instantly  on  his  arrival  —  that  you  would  enter  most 
zealously  into  this  business  —  that  you  would  spare  no  pains  —  that  you 
will  consider  it  as  of  the  last  importance  to  me.  He  is  perfectly  intelli- 
gible, sensible  and  plain.  If  for  want  of  any  form  or  nonsensical  ceremony 
I  fail  in  obtaining  land  on  which  I  can  commence  my  exertions,  I  shall  be 
the  merest  mumchance  at  New  Brunswick.  I  shall  at  the  expiration  of 
another  year  be  precisely  wHere  I  was  at  the  end  of  the  last,  indeed  I 

*The  Coac  Stream  in  Queensbury  is  meant.  David  Eason  was  one  of  the 
pre-Loyalist  settlers  of  the  County  of  Annapolis,  N.  S.,  and  some  references  to 
his  family  will  be  found  in  the  History  of  Annapolis  County,  by  Calnek  and 
Savary. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  273 

cannot  afford  to  change  my  ground  on  any  other  idea  than  that  of  being 
immediately  employed.  My  office*  there  is  evidently  of  no  consequence  — 
1  have  very  little  money;  my  expenses  must  increase  there  and  I  give  up 
a  certain  and  considerable  income  here.  All  these  considerations  vanished 
like  smoke  while  I  anticipated  a  fixture  there  and  a  chance  of  exerting 
on  a  very  large  scale,  but  the  impediments  have  disconcerted  me,  and  I 
shall  wait  with  the  most  eager  impatience  at  Halifax  until  I  know  the 
result  of  Eason's  negotiation.  Surely  it  must  be  secund'm  fonn'm  for 
you  to  apply  in  my  behalf.  I  repeat  my  hopes  that  the  disagreeable  nature 
of  the  business  will  not  deter  you  from  pursuing  it. 

Point  out  anything  that  can  be  done  by  me.  Had  not  my  long  absence 
from  head  quarters  rendered  an  immediate  return  necessary  I  would  have 
made  another  trip  across  the  Bay  without  hesitation,  but  this  is  impossible. 
Or  had  an  idea  been  suggested  to  me  that  my  presence  was  necessary  to 
effect  this  business  I  would  not  have  left  the  Country  until  this  hour. 

I  wish  this  matter  to  be  a  secret,  only  that  you  would  converse  with 
Odell,  and  as  yet  not  suggest  that  I  feel  distressed  at  his  inattention  and 
indifference  in  this  matter.  I  had  begun  a  letter  to  him,  I  found  myself 
incapable  of  finishing  it.  I  may  be  wrong  in  my  conjectures,  but  at 
present  I  think  I  have  not  been  fairly  dealt  with. 

All  the  other  parts  of  your  letter  shall  be  attended  to,  I  have  waited 
3  days  for  DalzieFst  arrival.  Thompson  is  now  so  importunate  and  press- 
ing that  I  must  desist.  Continue  to  write  me  —  the  expresses  pass  every 
week.  My  promised  letter  shall  be  ready  by  the  very  first  conveyance. 

Every  circumstance  worth  knowing  shall  be  most  faithfully  trans- 
mitted from  Halifax. 

Make  apologies  for  me  to  Donaldson  and  Hailes,  I  write  ?em  both. 

[Remainder,  if  any,  missing.] 

Daniel  Hammill  to  Mrs.  E.  Winslow. 

Windsor,  Saturday  Evening,  5th  March,  1785. 

Madam, — I  am  happy  in  having  an  opportunity  to  acquaint  you  of 
the  safe  arrival  of  your  Dear  Partner  at  this  place,  accompanied  by  Major 
Thompson:  they  this  day  set  out  again  for  Halifax,  where  they  intend  to 
arrive  Tomorrow.  It  is  well  they  have  got  so  far  on  their  journey  for 
there  is  every  appearance  of  a  Thaw. 

I  am  bound  in  point  of  Gratitude,  as  well  as  a  firm  promise  to  Mrs. 
Hammill,  to  return  you  our  most  sincere  thanks  for  the  many  marks  of 
Friendship,  favour  and  attention,  which  you  have  on  all  occasions  been 
pleased  to  shew  to  her,  during  my  long  absence,  and  more  especially  the 
situation  she  was  in  by  being  so  long  in  that  disagreeable  Cottage. 

*As  surrogate  of  the  province. 

fSee  Major  Studholme's  letter  under  date  9th  May,  1784. 


274  WINSLOW  PAPERS,  [1785 

Mrs.  Hammill  laments  her  not  having  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing 
you  before  she  left  Granville.  But  rest  assured  you  have  her  hearty 
wishes  for  your  health,  happiness  and  success  wherever  the  sport  of 
Fortune  may  toss  you  or  herself  hereafter.  She  and  the  children  arrived 
here  after  a  pleasant  journey  of  three  days  all  well  and  she  is  much  elated 
with  the  change  of  her  situation,  and  would  think  herself  happy  she  says 
had  she  but  three  families  from  your  neighborhood  viz;  Yourself,  Mr. 
James  and  Mr.  Williams. 

However  this  seems  to  be  a  very  good  neighborhood,  and  all  the  first 
families  in  this  place  have  been  to  see  her,  and  been  very  kind. 

You  will  accept  the  united  and  kindest  wishes  and  regards  from  Mrs. 
Hammill  and  myself  Madam, 

Your  much  obliged 

Humble  Servant, 

Daniel  Hammill. 


Brook  Watson  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  6th  March,  1785. 

Dear  Sir; — By  your  good  Sister  I  sit  down  to,  write  in  answer  to  your 
obliging  letters  of  November  the  6th  &  13th,  the  latter  I  thought  proper 
for  the  perusal  of  Lord  Sydney  and  gave  'it  to  his  Secretary  for  that 
purpose,  and  have  but  recently  received  it  back.  The  papers  which  you 
obligingly  sent  me  have  proved  useful;  thank  you  for  them  and  for  the 
general  information  contained  in  your  letters.  The  particular  Return 
which  you  promise  will  be  very  acceptable  in  a  public  view.  I  am  inex- 
pressibly gratified  by  Gov'r  Carleton's  proclamation,  and  the  fixed  resolution 
which,  I  am  told,  my  Loyal  friends  of  that  Province  have  come  to,  not 
to  suffer  any  commercial  intercourse  with  any  of  the  American  States. 
These  points  firmly  adhered  to  will  infallibly  secure  prosperity  to  the 
Province  and  honour  to  its  people;  it  has  arable  capability  and  demands 
nothing  but  wisdom  and  resolution  to  make  it  more  desirable  than  any 
of  the  revolted  countries.  Could  a  staple  article  of  commerce  between 
it  &  England  be  there  produced  the  most  solid  advantages  would  thereby 
arise,  and  methinks  Hemp  &  Flax  might  be  cultivated  with  success.  Could 
the  Flax  of  New  Holland  be  introduced  and  accord  with  your  soil,  'twould 
be  better  than  the  mines  of  South  America  to  Spain,  but  there  is  not 
now  a  plant  or  a  seed  of  it  in  England,  or  it  should  be  sent  you.  China 
Hemp  is  also  very  fine.  I  have  sent  a  gallon  by  the  St.  Lawrence  directed 
to  Gov'r  Carleton  —  it's  in  a  small  bag;  most  desirous  I  am  it  should  be 
sown  this  Spring  for  should  it  remain  over  to  the  next  it  will  probably 
perish.  .  „  r/i 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  275 

Your  sister  will  inform  you  what  has  been  done  towards  proving  your 
Father's  losses,  and  procuring  something  towards  the  support  of  your 
Mother  and  Sisters;  which  altho'  not  equal  to  my  wish  comes  up  to  my 

expectation, 

I  am  dear  Sir, 

Your  faithful  H'ble  Serv't 

Brook  Watson. 


Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

6th  March,  1785. 

My  dear  Winslow; — I  have  only  time  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of 
yours  by  Dalziel  and  to  assure  you  that  I  will  exert  myself  in  attending 
to  all  your  commands.  By  the  next  conveyance  I  shall  write  you  fully. 
I  am  much  perplexed,  I  have  much  to  say.  I  wish  I  could  see  you,  but 
this  ia  in  vain. 

I  hope  you  are  safe  in  Halifax  and  find  everything  to  your  mind.  I 
want  a  long,  serious,  particular,  old-fashioned,  circumstantial  letter  from 
you.  You  must  write,  I  have  nobody  to  talk  to  and  am  ready  to  burst. 

Do  you  know  a  certain  Miss  Penn  Winslow  ?  If  she  remains  in 
Halifax,  tell  her  she  had  better  take  care  of  herself,  her  neglect  of  her 
friend  Chip  is  intolerable,  bad  as  he  is.  However  tell  her,  your  Mama, 
and  that  little  enchanting  rattle-headed  Sail.  Miller  that  I  long  to  see 
them.  Adieu.  God  bless  you  forever,  Amen,  prays 

Chip. 

P.  S.  If  you  have  an  opportunity,  send  me  a  little  assortment  of 
stationery.  I  am  distressed  for  some  and  can  purchase  none.  Odell  often 
reminds  me  of  some  more  blank  books  to  come  from  you. 

William  Tyng  to  Jonathan  Odell. 

Prospect  Farm  (Gagetown)  9th  Uarch,  1785. 

Dear  Sir, — I  take  the  liberty  to  inclose  a  paper  containing  two  valu- 
ations of  the  same  lotts  —  those  lots  were  in  possession  of  old  inhabitants 
and  were  by  order  of  Governor  Parr  numbered  and  drawn  for  by  the 
Eefugees.  When  the  Agents  were  in  Halifax  the  Governor  gave  directions 
that  the  improvements  should  be  valued  and  paid  for  by  the  refugees  who 
drew  them.  We  accordingly  appointed  two  discreet  persons  on  behalf  of 
the  loyalists  and  the  old  inhabitants  chose  two  for  themselves.  When 
they  went  upon  the  business  they  very  soon  differed  in  their  prices  and 
nothing  conclusive  took  place. 

It  is  I  think  very  evident  that  the  appraisers  for  the  old  inhabitants 
have  been  unreasonable  in  the  value  they  have  set  upon  some  spots.  I 


276  W1NSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

cannot  conceive  any  improvements  upon  this  river  can  be  worth  £5. 10, 
per  acre  besides  the  first  cost  or  value  of  the  land. 
I  am  dear  Sir, 

Your  most  obedient  servant, 

Wm.  Tyng. 

Joseph  Chew  to  Edward  Winslow. 

London,  10th  March,  1785. 

My  Dear  Friend, — This  will  be  delivered  to  you  by  your  good  Sister 
who  I  really  have  not  seen  so  often  as  I  earnestly  desired.  *  *  * 
I  hope  soon  to  have  all  my  matters  finished  so  as  to  leave  this  country, 
which  believe  me  I  am  most  sincerely  tired  of,  and  where  that  Hospitality 
1  have  ever  been  used  to  is  possessed  by  very  few.  I  depend  on  you  my 
dear  friend  not  to  lose  sight  of  my  Interest  about  the  Lands,  Nova  Scotia 
being  my  object,  and  a  near  neighbour  to  you  your  sisters  and  family  my 
hope.  I  shall  endeavor  when  I  leave  this,  first  to  come  to  Halifax,  but 
as  the  arrangements  for  Canada  are  not  made  I  cannot  absolutely  deter- 
mine, however,  this  I  am  sure  of,  every  assistance  and  good  office  that 
can  be  will  be  done  for  me  by  Sir  John  Johnson,  who  is  greatly  pleased 
at  the  part  I  took  in  behalf  of  his  claims  on  my  arrival  in  London,  which 
prevented  his  being  excluded,  as  many  others  are,  (unless  some  new  act 
is  passed  for  receiving  them).  This  is  a  strange  world,  what  think  you  of 
the  new  appointment  of  a  Consul  General  and  of  the  Person  appointed  ? 

As  our  friend  Mr.  Coffin  sends  you  the  Papers,  I  refer  you  to  them 
for  the  Squabbles  in  the  House  of  Commons.  The  outs  long  to  come  in 
and  those  who  are  in  long  to  keep  their  places,  while  luxury,  dissipation, 
&c,  prevail  amongst  all  classes. 

I  will  only  once  more  request  you  —  indeed  I  know  you  will  take 
care  of  my  Interest.     I  will  repay  you  with  thanks  and  information  in  the 
line  of  Gardening,  &c.         *         * 
I  am  my  dear  Sir, 

Your  faithful  friend  and 

Affectionate  H'ble  Servant 

Jos.  Chew.* 

Ward  Chipman  to  Edward  Winslow. 

St.  Johns,  20th  Mar.  '85. 

My  dear  Winslow — Eason  is  arrived  and  I  have  been  ever  since  indus- 
triously executing  your  commands  respecting  his  business.      I  memorialed 
for  the  Gowac  [Coac,  in  the  Parish  of  Queensbury]  Creek  in  your  name,  and 
*See  biographical  note  under  Dec.  17,  1797. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  277 

an  enquiry  was  immediately  directed  to  discover  whether  the  place  was 
granted  —  fortunately  Davidson  the  Surveyor  was  here  &  told  us  the 
creek  you  meant  was  a  much  better  one  Poqueyuck  [Pokiok]  Creek  within 
Gerrl  Fox's  Reserve,  that  he  had  often  conversed  with  you  on  the  subject. 
I  called  a  meeting  of  Davidson,  Eason  &  Mr.  Hazen,  we  pro'd  it  &  con'd  it 
[discussed  it  pro  &  con]  &  unanimously  determined  at  last  to  push  for 
this  stream.  The  difficulty  was.  that  the  Reserve  had  long  been  deter- 
mined not  to  be  kept  &  several  applications  were  made  for  the  whole  of 
it.  I  at  once  determined  to  dash  in  a  new  memorial,  &  stated  that  you 
went  up  the  River  in  1783  on  purpose  to  explore  this  Creek,  that  in 
consequence  of  assurances  of  having  it  granted  you,  you  had  at  great 
expense  &  pains  got  every  necessary  implement  prepared  for  erecting  a 
Saw-Mill,  had  contracted  with  several  persons  to  carry  on  the  business, 
who  were  now  waiting  only  till  you  would  get  the  land  assigned  to  you, 
&  that  any  delay  would  be  ruinous.  This  memorial  I  presented,  informing 
the  Gov'r  &  Council  that  I  had  mistaken  the  boundaries  in  the  first 
memorial,  which  I  beg'd  leave  to  withdraw.  A  warrant  of  Survey  was 
ordered  for  your  1000  acres  within  the  Reserve,  including  the  Creek  —  it 
is  made  out,  Davidson  has  it  in  his  pocket  &  goes  off  this  day  to  complete 
this  business  &  make  his  return,  he  promises  to  take  every  pains  to  please 
you.  Eason  &  he  have  settled  it  between  them.  I  tho't  it  best  at  any  rate 
that  you  should  have  the  right  of  soil  where  the  mill  was  to  be  placed  in 
the  present  instance,  indeed  nobody  but  you  could  have  obtained  the  spot. 
Eason  has  of  course  suspended  any  application  for  lands  for  himself,  as  he 
can  only  obtain  200  acres  at  furthest  for  the  present.  He  has  however  de- 
sired Davidson  to  enquire  who  has  drawn  the  Gowac  Creek,  it  has  fallen 
to  some  of  the  Queen's  Rangers,  Davidson  thinks  Privates,  in  which  case 
Davidson  (if  he  can  make  a  very  cheap  bargain  &  thinks  it  worth  while)  is 
to  contract  for  it.  And  now  my  dear  Winslow,  knowing  your  very  enter- 
prizing  spirit  and  as  your  friend  in  your  office  says,  your  delight  "in  grand 
systems,"  I  a  little  fear  you  will  run  too  fast.  What  sort  of  a  bargain  have 
you  made  with  Eason?  are  you  to  advance  money,  to  get  the  business  on?  if 
so,  depend  upon  it  it  will  not  answer.  Is  he  altogether  competent  to  the 
purpose?  It  seems  to  me  he  does  not  like  work  much  himself.  I  know 
nothing  of  this  matter,  but  I  know  you  have  sometimes  been  mistaken. 
Sat.  Verb.  Sap. 

I  have  a  thousand  things  to  say  to  you  but  I  dare  not,  will  not,  commit 
them  to  Paper.  •  Some  of  them  with  fear  and  trembling  I  have  already 
hinted.  When  do  you  intend  coming  here,  or  do  you  mean  it  at  all?  I 
am  most  heartily  tired  of  the  present  system,  of  house-keeping,  and^eould 


278  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

not  stand  it  a  day  longer  but  in  the  hope  of  speedy  relief*.  If  you  mean  to 
remove  your  family,  it  will  be  best  to  write  a  line  yourself 'to  Marston  & 
Hailes  suggesting  the  time,  and  the  inconvenience  of  their  continuing  in  the 
house,  also  to  Hazen  intimating  such  alterations  as  you  may  think  neces- 
sary in  the  house. 

I  can't  help  recurring  to  the  subject  of  your  engagement  with  Eason. 
I  have  talked  with  Hazen  &  Major  Coffin  on  the  business  of  Saw  Mills — 
they  are  clearly  of  opinion,  that  with  all  possible  industry  &  exertion  it 
will  be  a  number  of  '.years  before  the  first  expense  of  setting  the  mill  a 
going  will  be 'cleared, 'that' this  can  never  'be  donelnit  "by  a  man  who  is  upon 
the  spot  himself^  will.  Work  like  a  horse.'  C6ffin  says 'his  Creek  t  is  more 
advantageously  'situated-than'  any  one  in' the  Province, ; that  "the  land  about 
it  abounds  in : Timber;  ihat:a: vessel  of  '5:0 'tons  can  He; at '•' the  Spot,  that 
he  has  minutely  calculated1  every  lexpense  necessarily '"> attending  it,  &  that 
was  it  not  at  his  do'or  almost,',  where  he  c.an  see  to*- every  thing  himself,  he 
must  sink  money  by  it;. that';. when  he  ^as'everj  Mvantage;in  the  Stream, 
no  Damin  tjo  make, or ib^n^g;  to: level,  the.  least  expense  of,  erecting  his  mill 
will  be  £20lh^  That  :^asfe|  who  ,^-(11  ;wprk  like  a  horse  himself  is  to  be 
jointly  concerned,  and : that  the -ujbmost  profit  that  can  be  calculated  upon 
with  all  these  advantages  is>  £100..  a  year  between  them.  both. 

I  understand  from -Eason  that  he  has  engaged  a  Master  workman  who 
perfectly  understands  the  business,  solthat'he  is  himself  to  be  Superinten- 
dent only.  I  really  feel  very  anxious. about  this  undertaking  of  yours,  and 
unless  your  engagement 'wiih  him  is  for  you  to  be  at  no  further  expense  or 
advance  &  to  take  a  prqpottioV  Vf -the  profits  1  do  riot  believe  it  will  answer 
— and  in  that  case  I  tf  ear 'you-  will  bai-jely  save  vourself  from  being  involved 
by  the  concern!  I^kno^r:n<>tyfhih^  of -Eason,  but  he  does  riot  appear  to  me 
to  be  the  man.  1  riialfe'  no  apology  'for- 'all 'this  my  dear  Winslow,  you 
know  my  heart  '&  my  "motives,  'and yoif  after  all  are  the  best  Judge. 

I  have  written  'you  'several- scraps ;  of  letters.-  I  pray  your  attention  to 
them  all — the  objects  'they  refer' to'  are  serious. 

22nd.   'Mr.  'Andrews  returned '&-ndt  a  'line  from  you.     I  am  glad  to 
hear  you  had  been  safe 'in  Halifax  four  days  when  he  came  away. 
3i;d  s,;:j*  -'•  Ard-ieu.  :  God  bless  you  forever,  prays 

Chip. 

Why  did  you  not  let  me  know  Penn||  was  dead? 

*Ward  Chipman  married  in  1786  Elizabeth,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Honorable 
William  Hazen  of  Portland  Point.  He  built  the  "Chipman  House"  the  following 
year,  which  is  still  standing.  It  was  in  its  day  deemed  quite  a  mansion,  and 
has  entertained  royal  visitors— the  Duke  of  Kent  in  1794,  and  his  grandson, 
King  Edward  VII..  in  1860. 

fNerepis  Creek  a~t  Westfleld. 

J  Henry  Nase — See  biographical  note  under   date   12th  August,   1783. 

||  This  was  ironical,  because  she  had  not  written  or  sent  any  messages  to 
him.  See  closing  part  of  Winslow' s  letter  of  4th  April,  1785. 


'•-. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS  279 

If  you  can  get  made  for  me  such  a  closet  for  Papers  with  divisions, 
apartments,  &c,  as  you  have  in  your  office,  it  will  serve  me  most  essentially; 
there  is  no  season'd  stuff  or  Joiner  here.  I  cannot  do  without  one. 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  25th  March  1785. 

My  dear  Fellow, — By  the  schooner  Halifax  Packet,  Captain  Fullerton, 
I  send  a  small  assortment  of  stationery,  per  invoice,  which  I  hope  will 
reach  you  in  good  order.  If  this  vessel  arrives  before  Mr.  Deblois  don't 
suspect  me  of  inattention  or  breach  of  promise,  by  him  I  will  write  fully 
&  freely.  He  will  set  off  for  New  Brunswick  in  a  few  days. 

In  the  box  with  your  stationery  is  a  venerable  Coat  of  Arms*  which 
I  authorize  you  to  present  to  the  Council  Chamber,  or  any  other  respect- 
able public  Room,  which  you  shall  think  best  entitled  to  it.  They  (Lyon 
&  Unicorn)  were  constant  members  of  the  Council  at  Boston  (by  manda- 
mus)— ran  away  when  the  others  did — have  suffered — are  of  course 
Refugees,  &  have  a  claim  for  residence  at  New  Brunswick. 

Blowers  acquaints  me  that  he  ships  a  quantity  of  Blank  books  for  Mr. 
Odell  so  that  there  can  be  no  occasion  for  my  'sending  any. 

Cordially  yours, 

Ed.  Winslow. 

»  •  •  •    T 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  27th  March,  1785. 

Dear  Chip, — I  never  was  more  embarrassed  than  at  this  moment. 
When  I  gave  you  assurances  that  I  would  write  an  opinion  re- 
lative to  the  enormous  Grants  in  the  Province  of  New  Brunswick,  I 
thought  myself  master  of  the  subject,  and  that  I  cou'd  advance  arguments 
which  wou'd  be  in  some  degree  satisfactory  to  you;  but  on  making  a  serious 
effort  such  variety  of  difficulties  crowded  on  my  mind,  as  effectually  dis- 
concerted me.  I  will  however,  endeavor  to  throw  together  such  observa- 
tions as  have  occurred.  I  shall  do  it  without  form  or  order — without 
taking  any  pains  to  select  expressions,  and  without  regarding  whether  my 

remarks  are  new  or  not. 

******** 

The  irregular  manner  in  which  Grants  have  been  made  increase  the 

*This  famous  coat  of  arms  was  at  first  placed  in  a  building  on  Germain 
street,  where  John  McMillan's  residence  now  stands.  The  building  was  fitted 
up  as  a  church,  but  not  consecrated.  The  courts  of  justice  met  there,  also  the 
city  council.  After  the  erection  of  Trinity  church  the  coat  of  arms  was  placed 
upon  its  walls.  It  was  saved  at  the  time  of  the  great  fire  in  1877  by  Captain 
Frank  B.  Hazen,  and  is  now  fixed  over  the  west  door  of  new  Trinity  church. 


280  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

difficulties  which  attend  the  detection  of  fraud.  The  Patents,  I  am  told 
do  not  (in  many  instances)  carry  on  their  face  any  reason  for  the  Grant, 
but  it  appears  to  be  of  the  mere  motion  of  the  King.  This  I  am  also  told 
is  the  case  in  Spry's  grant.  Yet  I  shou'd  suppose  this  circumstance  wou'd 
not  preclude  an  enquiry,  and  if  my  position  is  right,  I  think  Mr.  Spry  is 
palpably  liable. 

Remember  Chipman  I  mean  this  letter  for  a  bold  deposit  of  my  own 
sentiments  in  the  bosom  of  my  friend,  the  subject  is  important  to  my 
Country  and  I  spurn  the  idea  of  ambiguity. 

To  obtain  such  a  tract  of  land  Mr.  Spry*  must  have  assigned  some 
reason.  No  other  cou'd  have  been  induced  but  his  services.  It  is  too  in- 
vidious a  task  to  anticipate  an  enquiry  on  this  head,  and  I  wou'd  carefully 
avoid  a  ludicrous  observation  when  writing  on  a  subject  so  serious,  but  'tis 
necessary  to  observe  that  the  raiikt  Mr.  Spry  held  before  the  late  War  was 
too  inconsiderable  to  found  a  claim  for  such  a  reward.  It  must  therefore 
have  been  his  services  during  the  late  War.  And  what  were  these?  'Tis 
a  fair  question.  He  was  Chief  Engineer  in  a  Camp  of  Repose.  He  never 
heard  a  Cannon  but  at  a  public  Salute.  He  erected  a  Citadel  t  which  was 
calculated  to  annoy  only  the  Chest  which  paid  for  it.  He  amass'd  im- 
mense wealth,  liv'd  like  a  Prince,  and  retired  like  a  Xabob. 

In  a  Country  where  the  principle  prevails  that  Equity  is  the  founda- 
tion of  Law,  can  it  be  possible  that  land  thus  bestowed  may  not  be  deemed 
forfeit  on  enquiry?  especially  at  a  time  when  hundreds  of  the  faithful  and 
Meritorious  servants  of  the  King  are  literally  suffering  for  want  of  Bread 
which  that  ground  wou'd  produce  in  abundance?  I  am  aware  of  the 
variety  of  perplexities  that  must  attend  this  kind  of  investigation —  they 
are  in  formidable  array  before  me.  It  remains  with  men  skilled  in  the 
formalities  of  Law  to  devise  the  method— -I  have  no  capacity  for  that  ser- 
vice. There  are  various  other  species  of  Deception  which  in  my  opinion 
must  operate  to  the  same  point.  A  man  applies  for  land,  and  gives  a  de- 
scription; he  avers  that  it  does  not  interfere  with  the  general  settlement  of 
the  country,  but  that  a  compliance  with  the  stipulated  conditions  will 
redound  to  the  public  benefit.  He  has  villainy  to  propose  and  interest  to 
furnish  a  bribe  to  a  mercenary  surveyor,  who  reports  a  much  less  quantity 
than  is  in  fact  contain'd  within  the  limits,  meaning  that  the  patentee 


*Captain  William  Spry,  during  the  time  he  was  chief  engineer  in  Nova 
Scotia,  procured  for  himself  extensive  grants  of  land  on  the  River  St.  John  in 
the  vicinity  of  Gagetown  and  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  He  became  a, 
brigadier  general,  and  eventually  derived  substantial  advantage  from  his  estate 
in  New  Brunswick,  although  a  part  was  forfeited  for  non-performance  of  the 
conditions  of  the  grants.  See  "Portland  Point"  series  of  articles  in  the  New 
Brunswick  Magazine  for  interesting  particulars  relating  to  these  grants. 

fThat  is  the  rank  of  captain. 

jThis  was  at  Halifax. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  281 

shou'd  avail  himself  of  the  general  clause  "more  or  less."  He  describes 
the  situation  to  be  such  that  it  will  not  militate  with  the  King's  Instruc- 
tions. On  investigation  it  appears  that  the  grant  effectually  bars  the 
settlement  of  the  District — that  it  is  a  monopoly  of  the  good  land,  and 
renders  the  adjacent  country  useless.  Of  course  the  object  of  government 
(which  was  not  the  aggrandizement  of  an  individual  but  the  general  good) 
is  defeated,  and  by  the  rascality  of  the  applicant,  and  the  connivance  of 
the  surveyor,  the  individual  possesses  a  much  more  extensive  and  valuable 
territory  than  was  intended.  This  must  be  cause  of  forfeiture  not  of  the 
surplusage  only  but  of  the  whole,  because  as  no  particular  part  can  be 
ascertained  as  overplus,  of  course  no  particular  part  can  be  described  as 
forfeit.  The  Grant  must  be  invalid.  If  the  Grantee  has  just  pretensions 
to  any  proportion  it  may  be  described  and  re-granted.  Whenever  a  pro- 
cess in  equity  is  instituted  against  Spry's  grant  I  believe  you  will  find 
proof: — That  the  application  was  deceitful — that  the  survey  was  false — 
and  that  the  grant  was  injurious  to  the  Country  and  repugnant  to  the 
King's  Instructions.  Its  repugnance  to  the  King's  Instructions,  ought 
alone  to  work  it's  damation. 

A  lunatic  Governor  may  in  an  hour  of  frenzy  convey  all  the  sea  coast 
to  a  single  person,  but  surely  (without  a  republican  idea,  which  God  knows 
I  abhor)  the  public  have  such  kind  of  control  over  the  actions  of  their 
officers,  as  to  prevent  the  unsalutary  effects  of  such  dementation.  The 
general  principles  of  the  Constitution  will  interfere  to  prevent  Injuries  so 
gross.  Without  this  controul  (I  don't  like  the  word)  the  Government 
wou'd  be  absolute  indeed.  Suppose  the  King  instructs  his  representative 
to  lease  a  particular  tract  and  the  Governor  instead  of  leasing  aliens  and 
conveys  the  fee  simple,  Will  the  deed  be  good?  Suppose  he  exceeds  in 
quantity  to  particular  persons — Will  the  King  support,  and  the  Constitu- 
tion justify  it?  Forbid  it  Eeason!  and  (if  the  blasted  term  had  not  been 
perverted  and  become  offensive)  I  wou'd  add — Forbid  it  Liberty! 

The  observations  here  made  will  a.pply  to  some  of  the  grants  recently 
passed,  more  forcibly  than  even  to  Spry's.  In  the  instance  of  Hauser,* 
the  Governor  of  this  Province  cannot  justify  the  Grant  in  any  other  way 
than  by  an  explicit  acknowledgment  of  the  Deception,  both  as  to  the  rank 
and  character  of  the  man,  and  the  circumstances,  situation  and  quantity 
of  the  land.  If  that  acknowledgment  is  not  made  on  a  process  in  Chan- 
cery and  the  facts  thereby  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Court,  I  will 
venture  to  affirm  that  a  regular  representation  and  complaint  will  be 
exhibited  in  which  certain  facts  will  be  stated  and  proved.  They  are  of  a 
nature  too  tender  to  be  touch'd  by  me,  at  present. 

*Frederick  Hauser  was  an  agent  for  the  Loyalists  who  came  to  Annapolis, 
N.  S.,  in  October,  1782.  From  thence  he  came  to  New  Brunswick.  He  surveyed 
many  of  the  Loyalist  grants,  and  procured  for  himself  on  June  22,  1784,  a  grant 
of  800  acres  at  Gagetown.  See  under  date  19th  June,  1784,  for  biographical  note. 


282  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

The  Chief  Justice's  Grant  of  Sugar  Island*  is  in  some  respects  similar 
to  HauserX  only  that  there  is  one  circumstance  peculiar  to  that.  The 
Island  was  indisputably  included  in  the  general  location  of  land  to  the 
provincials — drawn  for,  and  in  the  actual  possession  of  particular  Corps. 
A  Deception  must  of  course  be  acknowledged,  or  something  worse.  This 
grant  has  already  been  the  subject  of  my  animadversions,  and  Mr.  Odell 
has-  what  I  call  an  honest  state  of  facts  respecting  it,  and  'tis  painful  to  re- 
peat 'em.  It  is  melancholy  indeed  that  two  such  instances  should  have 
happened.  Integrity  blushes  at  the  recollection  of  'em,  and  the  most 
intrepid  Friend  to  Government  will  shudder  at  the  indignation  which 
arises  on  contemplating  the  probable  consequences  of  such  iniquity — but 
enough  under  this  head,  I  wax  warm. 

It  has  been  a  question  even  in  this  Province  [Nova  Scotia],  where 
they  "swallow  camels  without  a  hiccup",  whether  the  grantee  by  non- 
compliance  with  the  conditions  within  the  time  limited,  does  not  forfeit, 
even  if  the  conditions  at  the  issuing  of  the  scire  facias  are  actually  fulfilled. 
I  believe  it  has  been  determined  here  that  the  land  is  not  forfeited  in 
those  cases,  but  there's  such  costiveness  in  the  professional  gentry  that  one 
cannot  obtain  any  information,  and  there's  such  pliability  of  temper  in 
some  of  'em  that  their  opinions  seem  the  effect  of  complaisance  rather 
than  of  reason.  I  understand  that  the  Attorney-General  has  wrote  you  on 
this  subject.  It's  one  of  those  unfortunate  questions  where  much  may  be 
say'd  on  both  sides,  but  it  appears  to  me  that  Justice  leans  towards  a  for- 
feiture unless  sufficient  cause  can  be  assign'd  for  the  delinquency  of  the 
Grantee.  Various  considerations  will  also  arise  relative  to  the  manner  of 
Compliance.  A  Grantee  conditions  to  cultivate  a  certain  proportion  of 
the  land,  to  settle  a  certain  number  of  inhabitants,  &c.  These  he  neglects, 
but  a  number  of  people  driven  by  necessity,  led  by  mistake,  or  from  other 
adventitious  circumstances  take  possession,  and  (although  Trespassers) 
cultivate  and  improve  the  soil  and  are  thereby  the  involuntary  causes  of 
a  compliance  with  the  conditions.  The  question  (of  course)  is  whether 
the  Patantee  shall  avail  himself  of  this  accidental  settlement,  in  whichMie 
has  neither  agency  or  merit,  and  thereby  secure  his  property.  The  law- 
givers I  suppose  cou'd  not  anticipate  such  events,  and  may  not  have 
pointed  out  remedies  in  such  cases,  but  it  must  be  allowed  that  the  original 
intention  of  Government  is  perverted.  When  Government  stipulates  with 
an  Individual,  as  in  these  patents,  it  certainly  expects  to  be  benefited  by 

*Chief  Justice  Bryan  Finucane,  when  investigating  the  complaints  of  the 
Loyalists  in  connection  with  their  land  grants,  seems  rather  inconsistently  to 
have  obtained  for  himself  a  grant  of  Sugar  Island,  the  largest  island  in  the 
Keswick  group,  above  Fredericton.  His  title  was  disputed  by  Col.  Isaac  Allen 
and  others.  There  was  litigation,  and  the  Finucanes  lost.  See  Lawrence's  Foot 
Prints,  p.  59;  see  also  James  Glenie's  rabid  utterances  In  Canadian  Archives  for 
1895,  under  New  Brunswick,  pp.  18,  19. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS,  283 

the  personal  exertion  of  the  Grantee.  I  don't  mean  the  mere  manual 
labour — but  the  settlement  shall  be  formed  under  his  immediate  direction, 
and  at  his  particular  expense.  Without  this,  What  does  Government  get 
by  the  bargain?  or  rather  what  does  it  not  lose?  Settlers  that  would 
otherwise  extend  the  cultivation  of  the  Country,  are  by  a  sort  of  finesse, 
made  the  instruments  to  confirm  the  title  of  land  already  granted  to  indo- 
lent patentees,  and  government  is  at  once  cheated  of  its  land  and  of  its 
settlers.  This  cannot  be  right.  Again — The  Grantee  agrees  to  clear  a 
certain  number  of  acres — to  erect  buildings,  etc.  When  the  enquiry  com- 
mences it  is  evident  that  the  land  is  not  cleared  (agreable  to  the  spirit  and 
intention) — a  few  trees  are  felled,  but  there's  no  serious  efficient  opera- 
tion of  Agriculture — logs  are  piled  together  to  form  something  like  an 
house,  which  drops  perhaps  without  ever  being  inhabited.  Is  Government 
(pardon  the  expression)  to  be  humbugged  at  this  rate?  and  shall  titles  be 
confirmed  by  such  shameful  evasions? 

I  am  mortified,  Chipman,  at  the  recollection  that  this  immense  epistle 
is  written  to  a  man  of  great  professional  abilities.  If  all  my  opinions  are 
absurd  my  motive  will  save  me  from  censure.  I  feel  a  degree  of  anxiety 
respecting  the  Government  of  New  Brunswick  that  exceeds  anything  I  ever 
experienc'd  before.  The  eyes  of  the  world  seem  to  be  fixed  on  that  country, 
the  exalted  reputation  of  the  Governor,  the  abilities  and  integrity  of  the 
public  officers  have  produced  a  universal  confidence,  and  mankind  appear 
to  expect  a  detection  of  frauds,  encouragement  of  industry  and  virtue,  and 
an  impartial  distribution  of  justice. 

I  have  already  advanced  and  I  repeat,  that  the  Corps  who  now  have 
possession  of  Sugar  Island,  did  not  originally  enter  as  Intruders,  but 
gained  the  possession  under  the  authority  and  sanction  of  the  Governour, 
and  in  my  idea  they  were  by  no  means  liable,  even  before  his  grant  to 
Mr.  Finucane,  to  be  dispossessed  by  his  own  personal  authority. 
****** 

It  is  too  late  for  the  Governour  of  Nova  Scotia  either  to  take  an 
Inquest  of  office,  or  to  make  any  new  effectual  Grant  of  this  Island  the 
partition  of  the  Province  puts  both  objects  equally  out  of  his  power.  I 
have  no  doubt  of  the  propriety  of  the  Governour  of  New  Brunswick's 
making  a  new  grant  of  the  Island  to  the  present  possessors  without  taking 
any  notice  of  the  former  Grant,  but  I  do  not  see  the  expediency  of  such  a 
measure,  because  the  tenants  in  possession,  may  in  the  mere  right  of 
possession,  legally  defend  themselves  against  any  ejectment  that  can  be 
brought  by  Mr.  Finucane.  I  hope  Col.  Allen  and  all  the  parties  concerned 
will  have  the  same  ideas  of  the  matter,  and  will  dispute  it  in  the  Courts 
of  Law,  by  inches. 

I  have  already  say'd  enough  by  way  of  apology  for  any  incorrectness 


284  WINSLOW    PAPERS  [1785 

or  impropriety  of  expression.     I've  only  to  add  that  I  am  with  the  most 
sincere  affection  and  regard  Dear  Chip, 

Your  Faithful  Friend 

Ed.  Winslow. 


Thomas  Knox  to  Edward  Winslow. 

Parr-town  March  30th,  1785. 

My  dear  Colonel; — As  I  lost  a  part  of  my  baggage  on  its  way  to  me 
from  Windsor  (which  I  can  very  ill  afford  since  the  loss  of  my  appoint- 
ment) I  must  beg  the  favour  of  you  to  inform  me  whether  any  allowance 
would  be  made  me  if  I  was  to  send  in  an  account. 

The  inability  of  your  Stores  at  Halifax  to  furnish  us  with  a  resrular 
supply  of  provisions  is  not  only  attended  with  great  inconvenience  to  all 
but  very  serious  distress  to  many. 

The  Governor  has  taken  upon  himself  to  purchase  a  quantity  of  flour 
to  secure  the  settlers  up  the  Elver  from  perishing  in  the  approaching 
season  when  the  ice  will  begin  to  break  up,  and  when  it  will  be  impossible 
for  them  for  some  weeks  to  procure  assistance  from  hence,  let  their  con- 
dition be  ever  so  deplorable.  The  little  supplies  which  have  been 
forwarded  by  order  of  the  General  came  very  seasonably,  but  these  you 
may  easily  conceive  have  been  only  a  temporary  support  and  greatly 
inadequate  to  the  claims  of  the  needy.  They  have  however  been  dealt  out 
with  a  sparing  hand  by  a  parsimonious  Commissarv,  and  the  old  business 
of  striking  off  the  idle,  the  dissolute  and  the  wealthy  is  now  in  full  prac- 
tice. A  great  part  of  my  time  is  devoted  to  this  business  of  discrimination 
and  drawing  the  line  between  .those  who  are  on  their  land,  and  those  who 
are  not.  In  favor  of  the  former  I  have  given  orders  for  six  weeks  flour 
and  two  weeks  pork,  which  it  is  presumed  may  last  them  till  they  can  come 
down  with  Boats,  by  which  time  I  hope  we  will  receive  a  further  supply, 
and  of  the  latter,  such  only  as  have  not  obtained  Grants  of  Land  and  who 
cannot  procure  assistance  by  any  other  means,  are  vitualled  every  two 
weeks.  Every  man  who  sold  his  land  (and  it  is  not  attended  with  much 
difficulty  to  trace  them  by  the  Eecords)  has  been  struck  off.  I  am  sorry 
for  your  friends  of  Block  No.  1*  wHb  have  scarcely  a  ration  left  among 
them.  This  attention  has  almost  the  effect  of  a  second  muster.  I  am- 
persuaded  that  few  casualties!  have  happened  since  the  last  that  have  not 
been  discovered. 

*Block  No.  1  was  that  situate  on  the  Nashwaak  and  below  it  on  the  River 
St.  John,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Mary's,  York  County.  It  was  assigned  to  the 
Maryland  Loyalists. 

f'Casualties"— the  term  used  in  the  muster  roll  as  signifying  that  a  man 
was  no  longer  to  be  retained  on  the  roll  for  rations  and  allowance.  The 
"casualty"  might  be  death,  removal  from  the  district,  or  engaging  in  some  trade 
or  business,  and  leaving  the  lands  drawn  unoccupied  instead  of  settling  thereon. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  .  285 

Your  friends  are  all  well.     Be  pleased  to  pay  my  respects  to  the  Com- 
mander in  Chief. 

I  am  Dr.  Sir,  Your  most  obed't  Servt. 

Thos.  Knox.* 


Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  31st  March,  1785. 

Dear  Chip; —  You  know  I  was  born  in  a 

land  of  psalmody.  For  several  years  together  there  was  nothing  heard 
but  old  men  &  women  bawling  psalms  and  young  men  and  maids  screech- 
ing hymns.  There  was  one  old  man  who  was  a  Teacher  &  Composer  and 
I  remember  to  have  seen  him  in  the  very  act  of  composition.  He  sat  by  a 
joint  stool  with  a  pen,  ink  &  little  book,  &  between  his  legs  he  held  a  half- 
grown  kitten  which  he  occasionally  twigged  by  the  tail  or  plucked  by  the 
ears.  I  (being  a  mere  novice)  asked  what  the  devil  he  was  about?  With 
wonderful  simplicity  &  gravity  he  answered  that  out  of  her  squeeling  he 
might  possibly  pick  up  a  sound  that  would  assist  him  in  forming  a  tune. 

Application.  I'm  willing  on  any  occasion  to  be  your  kitten  only  I 
chuse  to  squeel  without  being  pinched  or  pulled.  If  in  the  late  instance 
there's  a  single  note  that  will  contribute  to  your  amusement  or  assistance, 
you  have  only  to  stroke  me  and  I'll  squeel  again. 

I'll  now  go  on  to  give  you  an  account  of  all  my  proceedings  since  I 

left  you.     Tho'  I  parted  with  General  C 1  apparently  on  the  best 

terms,  received  confidential  Instructions,  &e,  &c,  you  may  remember  I 
suggested  a  possibility  that  he  would  be  beset,  and  that  the  industrious 
malice  of  my  enemies  might  excite  a  jealousy  that  my  respect  &  attention 
was  withdrawn  from  him  and  directed  to  another  object.  All  this  I  anti- 
cipated— it  however  did  not  hinder  the  performance  of  my  duty.  The 
first  express  after  I  returned  to  Annapolis  brought  a  full  confirmation  that 
I  was  right  in  my  conjectures.  Cool  acknowledgements  of  my  letters  and 
implied  censures  on  some  parts  of  my  conduct  formed  my  packet  from 
Head  Quarters.  A  spirited,  pointed,  independent  answer  saved  me  from 
any  further  inconveniences .  I  determined  on  a  line  of  conduct  &  I  pur- 
sued it  *  *  *  sat  quietly  down  with  my  wife  &  children  & 
laughed  at  their  folly.  When  I  thought  it  necessary  I  returned,  and  I 

*Thomas  Knox  was  at  this  time  deputy  commissary  of  musters  on  the  River 
St.  John,  under  direction  of  Edward  Winslow  as  muster  master  general.  The 
general  muster  in  1784  occupied  his  time  from  about  the  first  of  June  to  the  end 
of  September.  He  gave  the  sum  total  of  the  Loyalists  on  the  St.  John  River  as: 
Men,  4,131;  women,  1,719;  children,  3,068;  servants,  441;  total,  9,359. 

Even  at  this  early  period  some  of  the  Loyalists  had  abandoned  their  idea 
of  becoming  farmers  and  had  deserted  their  locations. 

fGeneral  Campbell,   commander  in  chief  of  the  forces  in  Nova  Scotia. 


286  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

was  received  (as  Mr.  Thomas  says)  "with,  that  redundancy  of  complaisance 
which  men  of  weak  minds  are  betrayed  into  by  a  conviction  of  error."  I 
however  took  not  the  least  notice  of  the  business  but  returned  to  the  same 
track  of  duty  which  I  had  formerly  pursued  and,  to  appearance,  I  am  now 
in  the  same  degree  of  estimation,  if  not  higher,  than  before  my  departure, 
but  my  thermometer  is  so  peculiarly  constructed  that  the  spirit  does  not 
circulate  with  perfect  regularity. 

Yet  I  am  not  in  a  situation  to  make  my  bow.  The  very  great 
expenses  to  which  I  have  been  unavoidably  exposed,  without  being  guilty 
of  one  extravagant  action  have  embarassed  me  so  considerably  that  I  can- 
not immediately  quit.  If  Sally  succeeds  in  England  I  shall  be  relieved  of 
what  (was  I  able  to  support  7em)  would  not  be  considered  a  burden,  but 
in  my  present  situation  is  a  weight  which  added  to  my  own  family  fairly 
sinks  me.  On  her  success  depends  in  some  degree  my  operations.  I  can- 
not leave  these  unfortunate  friends,*  and  cannot  remove  them  without 
assistance.  If  we  are  fortunate  in  our  application  I  shall  sound  a  retreat 
instantly  and  I  have  no  fears  if  I  can  relieve  myself  from  present  embar- 
rassments but  that  with  proper  industry  &  economy  I  shall  live  like  a 
[word  indecipherable.] 

From  news  that  has  lately  arrived  from  England  it  has  been  con- 
fidently asserted  here  that  a  new  arrangement  of  officers  will  take  place  in 
your  country  &  there  has  been  a  report  by  the  way  of  the  west  that  Grov.  Ct 
is  certainly  appointed  to  the  Province  of  Canada.  If  so  I  may  be  secure 
in  the  appointment  originally  intended.  I  however  have  my  doubts  upon 
the  subject.  As  some  events  may  take  place  of  great  importance  to  me, 
&  the  military  Commandant  may  be  relieved  or  recalled,  in  which  case 
'twould  be  dishonourable  in  me  to  leave  him  till  the  final  close  of  his  com- 
mand— I  mean  if  near  at  hand.  His  next  letters  may  contain  a  disappro- 
bation of  his  conduct,  and  from  various  considerations  I  feel  engaged  to 
vindicate  him.  [Remainder  wanting.] 


Penelope  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  April  2d,  [1785.] 

With  every  expression  of  Gratitude  I  thank  you  my  good  Friend  for 
your  two  last  letters.  Indeed  my  dear  Chippy  it  is  not  you  that  are  under 
obligations — it  is  our  family  that  are  infinitely  indebted  to  you  for  every 

*The  reference  manifestly  is  to  his  mother  and  sisters.  Sarah  Winslow 
when  in  England  was  greatly  assisted  by  Brook  Watson,  and  the  pension 
secured  on  that  occasion  was  enjoyed  by  the  mother  and  sisters  throughout 
the  course  of  their  lives. 

t  Governor  Carleton  is  meant.  Had  he  gone  to  Quebec,  in  all  probability 
Jonathan  Odell  would  have  accompanied  him,  and  in  that  event  Winslow  hoped 
to  have  succeeded  as  secretary  for  New  Brunswick. 


1785J  WINSLOW  PAPERS  287 

friendly  affection  and  delicate  attention.  The  interested  part  you  have 
taken  in  the  happiness  of  our  unfortunate  family,  the  tender  attachment 
you  discovered  for  my  dear  departed  Father  hy  innumerable  methods  to 
relieve  or  lessen  the  inquietudes  of  his  wounded  mind — can  never,  never 
be  forgotten  till  this  heart  of  mine  ceases  to  beat — &  if  we  are  allowed  to 
carry  our  passions  into  the  other  World  of  Love  and  Gratitude  sure  I  am 
my  sisterly  tenderness  and  grateful  sentiments  of  you  will  rest  with  me 
above  the  stars. 

You  express  an  anxious  wish  to  know  what  our  views  &  intentions  are; 
shall  I  confess  my  weakness  by  assuring  you  I  feel  myself  a  mere  machine. 
I  have  not  judgment  to  learn  what  step  to  take  that  will  be  most  for  our 
peace;  my  resolution  is  miserable,  my  spirits  at  a  low  ebb.  With  becom- 
ing firmness  I  supported  our  first  great  reverse  of  fortunes.  I  bid  a  long 
farewell  to  an  elegant  house,  furniture,  native  place  and  all  its  pleasures 
with  but  little  emotion  save  wounded  pride.  From  a  great  share 
of  vivacity  &  a  tolerable  good  disposition  I  was  not  only  reconciled  but 
happy  at  New  York.  The  banishment  to  this  ruder  World  you  are  a  wit- 
ness I  submitted  to  with  some  degree  of  chearfulness,  but  alas  the  shaft  of 
affliction  had  not  then  reached  me — the  final  separation  from  my  Father, 
friend  and  Companion  At  times  Life  is  indifferent 

to  me  &  to  pleasure  I  am  a  stranger.  But  what  a  tax  am  I  imposing  on 
you  my  Friend.  My  complaints  I  acknowledge  are  but  a  poor  reward  for 
your  friendship,  will  you  forgive  me?  From  the  idea  that  you  will  I  am 
more  collected  &  will  assure  you  that  in  my  rational  hours  I  exert  every 
faculty  of  my  mind  to  know  what  plan  we  had  better  pursue.  The  original 
one  of  building  a  House  on  our  land  near  the  Manor,  I  think  will  be 
attended  with  many  great  inconveniences.  My  inclination 

leads  me  to  prefer  Carleton  to  our  rural  Ketreat — from  only  this  belief 
that  My  Mother,  Sally  &  myself  cannot  be  of  the  least  advantage  in  culti- 
vating lands.  We  are  ignorant  &  unequal  to  the  undertaking,  &  my 
brother  now  seems  to  be  of  that  opinion  &  wishes  a  small  house  might  be 
put  upon  his  lot  at  Carleton.  But  will  not  building  be  too  expensive,  or 
can  it  be  done  without  involving  ourselves  and  friends? 

You  wish  to  know  how  we  have  spent  our  time  this  winter.  We 
really  have  enjoyed  many  Blessings;  our  House  is  the  most  comfortable 
of  any  one  I  know;  Edward's  office  has  generously  suppl/d  us  with  Fuel 
for  three  rooms — &  don't  think  I  have  secluded  myself  from  visiting  & 
receiving  my  friends  on  the  Parade.  I  assure  you  I  sometimes  give  din- 
ners to  a  charming  circle  of  Ladies  &  my  suppers  are  not  more  humble 
than  those  you  shared  with  us  in  Brewer  Lane. 

Mrs.  Haliburton's  family  &  ours  are  like  one,  seldom  separate.  Mrs. 
Halliburton's  is  the  most  delicate  mind  in  the  World,  sensible  &  lively. 


288  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

Mary  is  really  a  lovely  Girl  &  a  most  pleasing  companion — she  spent  the 
last  week  with  me.  Col.  Upham  still  continues  miser- 

able. The  Rheumatism  has  attacked  him  most  severely.  He  can  only  be 
removed  from  the  bed  to  the  fire  &  his  impatient  spirit  renders  him  an 
object  of  compassion.  I  hope  the  mild  air  of  May  will  have  an  happy 
effect  on  him.  He  thinks  if  he  could  be  conveyed  to  [New!  Brunswick 
he  would  be  a  new  man. 

Your  other  friends  are  well,  pursuing  pleasure  with  ardour.  Feasting, 
card  playing  &  dancing  is  the  great  business  of  Life  at  Halifax,  one  eternal 
round — the  votarys  of  pleasure  complain  of  being  fatigued  &  want  variety 
of  amusements.  The  new  Imported  Ladies  continue  to  be  the  Belles. 
The  Princes,  Taylors  &  Halliburtons  are  totally  eclipsed  and  the  Millers, 
Betsy  and  Matty  Matthews,  are  the  admiration  of  all  the  Beaus.  The 
High  Sheriff*  has  been  sighing  at  the  feet  of  Miss  Miller.  The  world  take 
the  liberty  to  condemn  her  as  romantic  for  rejecting  his  hand.  The  New- 
tonian race,  who  you  know  are  connected  with  Mr.  Green,  are  mortified  & 
have  advised  &  it  is  said  have  prevailed  with  him  to  transfer  his  affections 
to  Harriet  Matthews.  With  this  he  readily  complyed  &  found  her  not 
reluctant.  The  High  Sheriff  enjoys  all  the  pomp  of  this  pompous  Town 
and  you  would,  by  the  style  &  state  he  take  upon  himself,  swear  he  was 
born  a  Halifaxian — gives  dinners  two  or  three  times  a  week  &  tomorrow 
evening  all  the  Noblesse  are  to  be  entertained  at  his  house,  a  Ball  and 
supper  superb.  Charming  doings  is  it  not,  don't  you  envy  the  gay  circle? 
Everybody  here  has  independent  fortunes — at  least  of  this  I  am  sure  that 
there  is  not  a  family  in  this  place,  that  figures  at  all,  can  spend  less  than 
five  or  six  hundred  [pounds]  a  year.  The  Princes  I  am  really  distressed 
for — the  House,  the  Coach,  &c,  is  to  be  disposed  of — the  Ladies  are  going 
to  New  England,  the  Dr.  to  New  Brunswick;  what  a  cruel  reverse.  The 
Attorney  Genl  &  Lady  are  at  the  summit  of  this  world's  bliss;  they  dine 
with  his  Excellency  one  week  &  his  Excellency  &  Chief  Justice  with  them 
the  next.  Not  a  word  from  Great  Britain.  It  is 

expected  that  the  St.  Lawrence  will  arrive  in  a  few  days.  I  think  Sally 
Winslow  would  not  dare  to  cross  the  Atlantic  at  this  early  season.  I 
know  not  what  to  wish  or  expect;  some  important  intelligence  must  soon 
reach  us,  to  despair  is  impious.  I  will  cherish  the  fond  hope  that  some 
days  of  content  may  yet  be  alloted  to  her  who  is  with  esteem  and  affection, 

Your  friend 

Penelope. 

[P.  S.]     My  mother  is  well;  thanks  you  for  your  kind  remembrance. 
Your  lively  rattling  friend  Sally  says  she  longs  to  see  you  and  desires  her  love 
— I  beg  her  pardon,  she  would  not  for  the  world  send  love,  it  is  compli- 
*The  high  sheriff  was  Francis  Green. 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  289 

ments.  She  grows  very  tall  &  is  thought  handsome,  but  her  name  is 
Miller  &  it  is  the  rage  to  admire  all  of  that  name.  To  Hailes  offer  my 
best  wishes.  Mr.  Marston  I  hear  is  exploring  the  wilds  of  Brunswick. 
What  think  you  of  Dr.  Bayley  having  serious  thoughts  of  being  one  of 
your  Province? 


Sarah  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

[Halifax,  April,  1785.] 

Confused  as  my  head  and  this  house  is,  I  cannot  longer  omit,  writing 
a  line  to  a  Friend  so  highly  esteemed  by  me  as  Mr.  Chipman — but  it  must 
only  be  to  tell  you  that  I  have  so  much  to  say  to  you  upon  what  I  have 
seen  and  heard  that  I  must  leave  all  until  I  have  the  pleasure  of  a  month's 
conversation  with  you.  *  All  the  amusements  of  the 

Great  world  which  I  as  largely  partook  of  as  perhaps  any  other  being  ever 
did  in  so  short  a  time  [in  England],  does  not  alter  my  determination  of 
becoming  an  inhabitant  of  your  woody  country.  Am  told  the  probability 
is  we  shall  remove  soon,  which  I  am  perfectly  ready  and  willing  to  do, 
provided  we  can  have  a  house  to  put  out  heads  in.  *  *  For  my 
success  in  England  I  for  the  present  refer  you  to  Ned  and  a  few  lines  I 
have  just  now  wrote  my  Cousin  Marston.  They  and  my  good  Friend  Mur- 
ray can  inform  you  many  particulars  respecting  me  and  I  will  tell  you  the 
rest  ere  long.  My  obligations  to  our  valuable  Friend  Coffin  I  must  be 
silent  upon,  for  all  that  could  be  said  would  not  in  the  least  do  him  justice. 
It  was  in  his  power  and  inclination  to  do  more  for  me  than 
the  rest  of  my  friends  could.  From  the  first  hour  of  my  getting  to  Lon- 
don until  he  saw  me  on  board  ship  at  Gravesend  his  every  moment  was 
employed  in  my  business  and  pleasures;  how  he  got  time  to  write  you  so 
much  I  cannot  imagine.  We  talked  for  ever  about  you  and 

I  have  ten  million  things  to  say  to  you  about  him  and  a  thousand  others, 
cannot  now  even  mention  Mrs.  Siddons. 

My  friend  Murray  is  this  moment  unexpectedly  called  upon  to  go  on 
board.     I  can  write  no  more.     Eemember  me  affectionately  to  Mr.  Hailes 
and  all  the  rest  of  my  friends.     I  long  to  see  Col.  Ludlow. 
Adieu,  Blessings  attend  you  prays, 

S.  Winslow. 

Edward  Winslow  to  Ward  Chipman. 

Halifax,  4th  April,  1785. 

Mr.  Deblois  is  off  with  my  Letters  and  Mr.  James  has  this  instant 
presented  your's  for  which  I  offer  my  most  cordial  acknowledgements.  I 
am  vastly  gratify'd  at  the  success  of  your  application  respecting  the  land. 


290  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  [1785 

I  only  wish  that  .you  had  applied  for  your  own  proportion  at  the  same  time 
and  in  the  same  place.  In  laying  out  the  1,000  acres  Davidson  can,  and  I 
hope  will,  include  one  of  the  islands  which  lie  in  front  of  the  Gore.  Lest 
he  should  not  attend  to  this  circumstance  I  wish  you  would  write  him. 
I'll  relieve  you  at  once  from  all  your  anxiety  respecting  Eason.  I  never 
had  the  most  distant  idea  of  expending  or  risquing  another  farthing  of 
money  in  a  saw-mill  except  the  first  cost  of  the  irons.  My  intention  was 
that  he  should  take  'em  and  give  me  credit  as  a  Proprietor — that  he  should 
be  at  all  the  other  expense  and  trouble,  and  consider  me  as  an  owner  of 
such  part  as  that  sum  would  entitle  me  to.  If  he  has  other  apprehensions, 
I'm  off.  I  am  too  well  acquainted  with  saw-mills  to  anticipate  any  great 
profit  from  them,  but  I  have  experienced  so  many  conveniences  from  hav- 
ing one  in  the  vicinity  of  my  settlement,  that  I  would  not  relinquish  the 
project.  If  Eason  will  not  on  any  terms  undertake  the  business,  I  can 
find  others  that  will.  I  shall  write  him  particularly. 

The  plan  must  now  be  materially  altered.  In  our  first  conversation 
it  was  presumed  that  we  were  to  be  joint  proprietors  of  the  soil  and 
stream,  but  as  I  am  now  sole  proprietor,  I  shall  make  one  simple  proposal 
to  him  by  this  opportunity,  which  is  to  take  all  the  materials  at  Annapolis 
and  perform  all  the  operations  of  building  damming,  &c,  and  I  will  con- 
sent to  a] low  him  one  half  the  profits.  This  I  think  will  be  a  good  bargain 
for  him  and  cannot  be  any  detriment  to  me. 

It's  a  devilish  good  method  you  have  of  telling  me  that  you  have 
monstrous  serious  things  to  communicate  but  don't  chuse  to,  it  keeps 
one's  curiosity  alive.  Don't  be  tired  of  house-keeping.  I'll  soon  relieve 
you  if  God  in  his  wrath  does  not  punish  me  for  mv  original  sin  and  all  my 
actual  transgressions  together,  by  keeping  me  in  this  damnable  place. 
You'll  see  by  my  long  letter  what  my  present  situation  is,  I  need  not  re- 
peat my  grievances.  I  think,  Chippy,  if  I  can  get  my  family  across,  that 
(with  the  management  of  my  very  good  wife)  we  shall  be  able  to  live 
comfortably  and  without  great  expense.  The  instant  I  can  determine  on 
the  time  of  removal  I  shall  notify  all  parties  concerned  in  form,  and  (as 
some  people  are  dull  of  apprehension  and  not  apt  to  take  hints)  I  will 
write  plain  English.  I  shall  send  my  own  paper  closet  by  the  very  first 
conveyance,  which  you'll  take  possession  of  and  keep  till  I  call  for  it. 
When  I  come  to  New  Brunswick  I'll  bring  another.  A  sloop  sails  this 
day  with  provisions  for  St.  John's  and  I  have  just  returned  from  an 
enquiry  whether  I  could  get  a  berth  for  your  closet.  I  find  it's  imprac- 
ticable but  Fll  not  let  another  opportunity  pass.  The  vessel  is  chock  full, 
her  hatches  battened  and  the  blasted  little  hole  of  a  cabin  is  not  big  enough 
to  receive  the  thing  and  I  dare  not  trust  such  a  machine  on  deck.  Mr. 
Byles  has  also  returned  from  the  Secretary's  office  where  he  made  formal 


1785]  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  291 

application  for  a  copy  of  Mr.  Hauser's  memorial,  and  I  send  you  Byles' 
memorandum.  I  have  made  three  unsuccessful  attempts  to  see  Mr.  Bul- 
keley*  but  I  will  persevere.  If  I  fail  tomorrow  I'll  write  to  him.  I  have 
also  consulted  Blowers!  on  the  subject.  He  has  in  other  instances  ex- 
perienced the  same  reluctance  to  give  copies,  &c.,  and  he  thinks  Gov'r 
Carleton  should  represent  to  Gov'r  Parr  "the  inconveniences  which  indi- 
viduals labor  under  from  the  repeated  refusal  of  the  public  officers  to 
perform  what  everybody  supposes  their  duty.  I'll  begin  to  maneuvre 
tomorrow,  and  if  that  won't  do  HI  try  another  method  which  has  gener- 
ally succeeded  here — that's  bullying.  You  men  in  New  Brunswick  will 
ere  long  be  convinced  that  patriotism  is  not  the  characteristic  of  Nova 
Scotians,  and  that  instead  of  affording  you  information  and  assistance, 
their  envy  and  malignity  will  induce  'em  to  throw  every  obstacle  and 
impediment  in  your  way.  I  am  astonished  that  they  have  not  art  to  con- 
ceal the  principles  by  which  they  are  actuated.  Even  our  friend  Sampson* 
appears  ashamed  of  their  conduct. 

James's  sudden  departure  obliges  me  to  close  my  epistle.  I  hope  he'll 
overtake  Deblois.  I  give  you  Byles'  memo,  to  save  myself  the  trouble  of 
telling  the  story.  I  will  enlarge  on  the  subject  of  the  Grants  when  I  have 
opportunity  and  will  collect  any  information  in  my  power. 

I  natter  myself,  costive  and  cross-grained  as  they  axe,  HI  get  at  the 
truth,  in  spite  of  their  teeth.  How  can  you  desire  me  to  write  all  my  "dis- 
coveries, views,  prospects,  and  intentions"?  Why  damn  'em — 'tis 
impossible  to  describe  'em.  My  discoveries  are  innumerable — my  views 
extensive  as  eternity — my  prospects  black  as  H —  (sometimes),  and  my 
intentions  variable  as  the  wind. 

Penn  is  not  dead,  at  least  she  says  so.  She  wrote  you  by  Deblois 
I  have  not  another  moment,  I  therefore  cannot  write  to  Marston.  Tell 
him  by  all  means  to  obtain  a  lot  for  me  at  Frederick ||  He  shall  hear 
from  me  by  the  very  next  conveyance. 

Remember  me  affectionately  to  neighbor  Hazen  and  Family.  Mr. 
Alexander  has  undertaken  to  furnish  a  set  of  Piano  strings  for  Mrs.  Lud- 

*Hon.  Richard  Bulkeley  accompanied  Governor  Cornwallis  to  Nova  Scotia 
in  1749.  He  became  secretary  of  the  province  about  1759  and  continued  In  the 
office  under  thirteen  successive  governors,  or  until  1793,  when  he  retired  in  favor 
of  his  son.  On  the  death  of  Governor  Parr  in  1791,  he  was  for  a  short  time 
administrator  of  the  government  of  Nova  Scotia.  He  died  Dec.  7,  1800,  at  the 
age  of  83  years,  beloved  and  respected  by  all  classes  of  society  for  his  amiable 
qualities.  At  his  death  he  was  judge  of  the  admiralty,  grand  master  of  the 
Free  Masons,  and  brigadier  general  of  militia — a  rank  never  since  conferred 
on  any  militia  officer  in  Nova  Scotia. 

t  Attorney  general  of  Nova  Scotia.  See  biographical  note  under  date  Sept. 
25th.  1783. 

^Attorney  General   Sampson  Salter  Blowers. 

||Fredericton  evidently  is  meant. 


292  WINSLOW  PAPERS.  f!785 

low  and  Fll  send  'em  as  soon  as  I  can  get  'em.     Kemember  me  to  those 
families.     Adieu.     God  send  me  a  speedy  and  happ